Archives de catégorie : Califat/monde islamique / The Caliphate/Islamic World

Luc Bourgeois, Recevoir et réinventer la culture matérielle de l’autre : le jeu d’échecs entre espace islamique et mondes normands

Article publié dans le dossier thématique – actes de la journée d’étude du 20 novembre 2015, Les transferts culturels dans les mondes normands médiévaux I – Des mots pour le dire ?

Recevoir et réinventer la culture matérielle de l’autre : le jeu d’échecs entre espace islamique et mondes normands

 Luc Bourgeois

Université de Caen, Craham

La diffusion du jeu d’échecs en Occident

En l’état des connaissances, le jeu d’échecs aurait pris naissance autour du vie siècle dans le sous-continent indien. Il oppose deux armées qui se déplacent dans un espace de soixante-quatre cases. Sa composition reproduit celle des armées indiennes : des éléphants, des cavaliers, des chars et des fantassins ; ces troupes étant dirigées par un roi associé à un conseiller. Le jeu est transmis à la Perse dès le viie siècle et sa progression vers l’ouest suit la foudroyante expansion arabe entre 632 et 732. La proscription des représentations humaines par certains courants de l’Islam va entraîner le développement parallèle de deux types de pièces : des objets figuratifs, relativement faciles à interpréter lors de leur réception en Occident, et des pièces schématisées, qui vont donner lieu aux lectures les plus baroques.

Continuer la lecture de Luc Bourgeois, Recevoir et réinventer la culture matérielle de l’autre : le jeu d’échecs entre espace islamique et mondes normands

Les croisades en Orient. Histoire, mémoires / Crusades in the East. History, memories

Les croisades en Orient. Histoire, mémoires
Crusades in the East. History, memories
Le Crociate in Oriente. Storia, memorie

Abbès Zouache

CNRS, CIHAM-UMR 5648, université de Lyon

ab1zouache@yahoo.fr

Article dans Tabularia :
http://www.unicaen.fr/mrsh/craham/revue/tabularia/print.php?dossier=dossier13&file=04zouache.xml

Résumé :
Cet article se penche sur la façon dont le phénomène croisade fut perçu, en Orient, et sur les traces qu’il y laissa dans la conscience collective. Au cours du XIIe siècle, la croisade fut progressivement comprise dans sa singularité. Mais elle fut aussi interprétée comme un épisode de l’affrontement séculaire entre l’islam et la chrétienté. Une mémoire de la croisade se diffusa, qui mêlait sentiment d’agression et fierté d’y avoir résisté grâce à un recentrage sur la piété et le djihad, et au respect du pouvoir établi. Après la fin des États latins d’Orient, cette mémoire s’enrichit d’autres épisodes de la lutte entre les chrétiens et les musulmans. À l’époque ottomane, elle resurgit avec force chaque fois que les tensions entre des musulmans et des Européens furent vives.

Mots-clés : croisades, Proche-Orient, histoire, mémoires, djihad

Abstract:
This paper aims at studying how the Crusade phenomenon was seen in the East, and its mark on the collective memory. During the twelfth century, the Crusades were gradually understood in its singular way. But it was also considered as an episode of an old confrontation between Islam and Christendom. A memory of the Crusades spread. This memory was mixed with a feeling of aggression and the pride of having resisted through a refocusing on piety and djihad, and through the respect for the established power. After the end of the Crusader states, this memory was enriched with other episodes of the struggle between the Christians and the Muslims. During the Ottoman period, this memory was revived each time the tensions between the Muslims and the Europeans were strong.

Keywords: crusades, Near East, history, memory, djihad

Riassunto :
Questo articolo prende in esame il modo in cui in Oriente il fenomeno crociato fu percepito, e le tracce che ha lasciato nella coscienza collettiva. Durante il sec. XII, la Crociata fu progressivamente compresa nella sua singolarità. Ma essa fu interpretata anche come un episodio dello scontro secolare tra l’Islam e la Cristianità. Si diffuse così una memoria della Crociata che mescolava sentimenti di ostilità e la fierezza di avervi rinunziato grazie a un ritorno alla pietà e alla jihad, e al rispetto del potere stabilito. Dopo la fine degli Stati latini d’Oriente, questa memoria si arricchisce di ulteriori episodi della lotta tra musulmani e cristiani. In epoca poi ottomana, essa torna con forza tutte le volte che si inasprivano le tensioni tra musulmani ed Europei.

Parole chiave : crociate, Medio Oriente, storia, memorie, jihad

Kapitaikin Lev, The twelfth-century paintings of the ceilings of the Cappella Palatina, Palermo

Kapitaikin, Lev, The twelfth-century paintings of the ceilings of the Cappella Palatina, Palermo, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. J. Johns, University of Oxford)

Résumé/abstract :

The three ‘Islamic’ ceilings of the Cappella Palatina in Palermo, the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Sicily, were commissioned by king Roger II around 1143. The grandiose muqarnas (stalactite) ceiling of the nave and the two smaller ceilings of the two aisles were just one part of the opulent, multifaceted decoration of the royal chapel, that included also Byzantine mosaics with Christian scenes and Southern-Italian marble pavements and revetments. As with other medieval chapels of palaces, the Cappella Palatina served concomitantly as a royal audience hall, a thing evidenced by the great throne platform at its west end. The paintings of the three ceilings present ‘Islamic’ figural and ornamental decoration and Arabic inscriptions, the salient subject-matter of which is the Islamic royal banquet, the majlis, centered upon the king. The study presents new stylistic and iconographic evidence to show that the painters of the ceilings came mainly from Fatimid Egypt, and that the paintings could reflect also some impact of the Christian arts of that country, if not the actual participation of Coptic artists in their production. Despite the predominantly Islamic subject-matter of the paintings, their imagery was simultaneously enriched with Christian themes, the models for which were likely provided by Romanesque, Middle-Byzantine, and – to a lesser extent – Coptic artwork. Far from being an alien ‘Oriental’ element incorporated into the otherwise Christian chapel, the designer/s of the chapel actually sought to manipulate the Islamic princely imagery of the ceilings through the insertion of Christian ‘triumphal’ themes and a few crosses in the paintings. The Christian scenes were, moreover, placed in focal programmatic points at the ceilings, and associated spatially with ceremonial and-liturgical features of the chapel, namely: the royal throne platform at the west end, and the entrance to the sanctuary at the east. The ‘Islamicate’ – rather than Islamic – ceilings and their imagery were thus adapted to the Christian setting within the palatine chapel of the Norman monarchs.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=1&uin=uk.bl.ethos.550801]

I Normanni del Mezzogiorno e il movimento crociato

Luigi Russo

Uno degli equivoci storiografici ancora oggi meglio radicati è quello di una sostanziale differenza nella partecipazione normanna al movimento crociato, improntata ad istanze di natura prettamente terrena, al contrario di quanto avvenuto per gli altri pellegrini reclutati al seguito dell’appello di Clermont lanciato da papa Urbano II nel novembre del 1095. In una serie di saggi scritti nell’ultimo decennio e presentati in numerose sedi internazionali, l’autore intende fornire una completa rivisitazione del movimento di espansione con cui i Normanni del Mezzogiorno si rivolsero, tra la fine del secolo XI ed i primi tre decenni del secolo successivo, in direzione dell’impero bizantino e della Terrasanta latina, meglio conosciuta sotto il nome diOutremer. Facendo il punto sugli esiti più aggiornati delle ricerche storiografiche a livello internazionale, l’intento di questo volume è collocare l’apporto dei Normanni nel più ampio contesto storico dei secoli XI-XII, e comprenderne ragioni e motivi che li spinsero a dispiegare una politica di espansione così ampia ed impegnativa.

  • Pagine 192
  • Formato 17×24, brossura
  • Collana Quaderni del Centro di Studi Normanno-Svevi, 4
  • Anno di pubblicazione 2014

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