Archives de catégorie : 2012

Rosa CANOSA, Il titolo comitale nella prima età normanna,

Rosa Canosa, Il titolo comitale nella prima età normanna: un esperimento di contestualizzazione, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. G. Sergi, Università degli studi di Torino)

 

Résumé/abstract :

This PhD thesis reconsiders the issue of the continuity elements in Southern Italy after the Norman conquest (eleventh–twelfth centuries), claiming that the changes in the Southern Italian political frameworks due to the strengthening of Norman powers were more noteworthy than generally recognised by scholars, as one can see by the exam of the count title (comes in Latin). Through the analysis of three main factors (i.e. the function and the social status of the counts; the nature of the wielded power and its territorial dimension) the author can prove the count title to be an important and very useful key to better understand how and how much the local élite could really continue to hold the power and to share it with the Normans (i.e. the new rulers).

***

La storiografia sui Normanni d’Italia si è da sempre confrontata con un problema identitario. La conquista normanna ha, infatti, introdotto nuovi protagonisti nel panorama politico dell’Italia del Sud, già molto vario. Si è reso necessario, dunque, da un lato indagare le permanenze e i fattori di discontinuità nei quadri istituzionali e politici; dall’altro lato, esaminare gli elementi di raccordo fra conquistatori ed élites locali. Questa tesi si inserisce all’interno di questi due filoni di indagine tradizionali, per riesaminare il problema degli elementi di continuità fra i ceti dominanti dopo la conquista (metà secolo XI-inizi XII) attraverso l’esame della titolatura e nello specifico del titolo comitale, scelto come filo conduttore perché si colloca alla convergenza di tre dimensioni diverse: la funzione e lo status sociale dei soggetti titolati, la natura del potere esercitato, e la dimensione territoriale della carica. Le indagini sono state svolte negli antichi principati longobardi, soprattutto quelli di Capua e di Benevento, e nell’antico Tema di Longobardia. Sono emersi alcuni mutamenti significativi. In primo luogo fra i detentori del titolo comitale, che dopo la conquista sono quasi unicamente normanni: i rari casi di conti longobardi (nel secolo X il titolo di conte aveva sostituito quello di gastaldo fra i Longobardi meridionali) che mantennero il titolo sotto il dominio normanno, mostrano un adeguamento sostanziale alle nuove forme di esercizio del potere diffuse dai Normanni. Anche sul piano dell’organizzazione territoriale sono stati individuati cambiamenti di rilievo, che hanno mostrato l’inadeguatezza della nozione di ‘contea normanna’ come rimando a modelli ben definiti: le tipologie di specificazione territoriale del titolo comitale ‘alternative’ all’uso del termine comitatus sono varie e rimandano alle diverse strutturazioni che i singoli conti diedero ai loro ambiti territoriali. È stato così possibile sfumare un’opposizione frequentemente proposta dagli storici fra la capacità di sopravvivenza e di integrazione dell’antica nobiltà longobarda dei principati con i nuovi dominatori, soprattutto attraverso i matrimoni misti, e la rottura provocata dalla conquista normanna nell’antico Tema di Longobardia, dove l’assenza di un preesistente ceto comitale di lingua latina e di religione cristiana rendeva più evidente il cambiamento. Nel corso del lavoro è stato possibile osservare che anche negli antichi principati longobardi, dove questo ceto era presente e dominante al momento dell’arrivo dei Normanni, emerge un mutamento molto più profondo di quanto si sia finora pensato. E che se è vero che i Normanni si ispirarono in vari modi alla tradizione di potere pubblico dei principi e dei re longobardi, è altrettanto evidente che essi costruirono empiricamente il loro potere usando materiale eterogeneo, ma soprattutto una superiorità politica che li rendeva di fatto i nuovi detentori del potere pubblico.

[Source : http://dott-sts.campusnet.unito.it/do/home.pl/ViewMobile?doc=Tesi_di_dottorato/tesi_discusse.html ]

 

 

Leroux Nicolas, L’anthropisation médiévale des rives de la Seine entre Rouen et le Havre et ses conséquences économiques

Leroux Nicolas, L’anthropisation médiévale des rives de la Seine entre Rouen et le Havre et ses conséquences économiques, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012 (dir. A.-M. Flambard Héricher, Université de Rouen)

Résumé/abstract :

Étymologiquement, l’anthropisation est l’effet de l’action humaine sur les milieux naturels. On voit l’ambiguïté de cette définition : l’homme serait-il exclu d’un milieu qui ne serait naturel qu’en son absence ? Cependant, pour donner un sens opérationnel à la notion d’anthropisation, il faut remarquer que ce concept s’est imposé à partir du moment où un bilan s’est avéré nécessaire, l’aspect négatif des actions humaines apparaît en filigrane, puis en surimpression sur leur aspect positif, envisagé jusque-là exclusivement en toute bonne conscience civilisatrice. Alors, circonscrite, l’anthropisation est la conséquence des actions humaines conduisant à un appauvrissement, une dégradation, voire une destruction des écosystèmes parfois à la création d’autres plus ou moins artificiels. L’impact humain sur l’environnement conduit à quelques remarques économiques sur la basse vallée de la Seine du VIIe au XVIe siècle. Lutter contre les divagations du fleuve, exploiter les matières premières, les ressources souterraines de cette vallée, profiter des richesses de la Seine et essayer d’établir des passages permettant les échanges entre les deux rives opposées tentent de répondre à l’intérêt que l’Homme a porté au milieu naturel entre les invasions normandes et le début du XVIe siècle. Plusieurs groupes humains s’intéressèrent à cette artère séquanienne ; les grands seigneurs (barons, comtes et rois) et les ecclésiastiques voulaient laisser leur empreinte dans cette grande vallée fluviale entre Rouen et le Havre. L’Histoire, celle que l’on écrit avec un grand H, laisse des traces dans la terre, nous propulsant quelquefois plusieurs siècles en arrière. L’Histoire ne peut s’effacer, parce qu’elle appartient à notre héritage et conditionnant notre présent et tout le futur, insaisissable.

Source : http://grhis.univ-rouen.fr/grhis/?page_id=1325

Jenkins James, King John and the Cistercians in Wales

Jenkins James, King John and the Cistercians in Wales, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. H.J. Nicholson, University of Cardiff)

Although the primary aim of this thesis was originally to explore the dynamic between King John and the Cistercians in Wales, it has been necessary to go beyond the bounds of this remit, namely to explore his relations with the Order in Ireland and England and also as a whole, to put his relations with the Cistercians in Wales into greater context. Primarily from an analysis of the charters John issued to individual abbeys, this thesis demonstrates that the interactions between John and individual Cistercian houses was not determined by where they were, rather their dynamic was more complex. John’s grants to individual houses were often an extension of his relationship with the abbey’s patron, when they were favoured their houses would prosper, when they fell from grace or defied John, their abbeys would suffer. Only however, by placing the charters John granted to individual houses into their wider political context can this correlation be appreciated, namely whether they were issued when John was trying to woo or punish the patron or at a time of hostility with the wider Order and as such clear demonstrations of royal favour. This was not the only dynamic that influenced the relationships between John and individual houses, those abbots who supported and opposed John were shown royal favour and anger respectively, and often this factor overrode all other concerns.

[Source : http://orca.cf.ac.uk/43581/]

Brown Daniel, Fortune’s wheel: the rise, fall and restoration of Hugh II de Lacy, earl of Ulster, 1190-1242

Brown Daniel, Fortune’s wheel: the rise, fall and restoration of Hugh II de Lacy, earl of Ulster, 1190-1242, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. M.T. Flanagan, Queen’s University Belfast)

Résumé/abstract:

This thesis focuses on one of the most fascinating, and neglected, figures in Angevin Ireland. Forged in the crucible of a frontier society, the career of Hugh II de Lacy was in some ways comparable to those of other second-generation Anglo-Norman colonists grappling for power in a contested land. It is the singular aspects of de Lacy’s story which are of most value to the historian. Hugh’s earldom of Ulster was the first comital creation in Ireland, an honour made all the more intriguing by de Lacy’s relatively modest beginnings. Ulster itself was unique among Ireland’s great feudatories, connected to other constituent polities of the Irish Sea world by trade routes, political alliances and kinship. De Lacy was twice a rebel against the king of England, and spent a decade crusading against dualist heretics in southern France. A study of the earl of Ulster, utilising a wide range of source material, is also a touchstone through which wider themes and questions pertinent to thirteenth-century Ireland can be explored. In examination of Hugh’s written acta, we come to know more about how magnates in Ireland viewed themselves; how others perceived them; and how identity might be consciously shaped. The cohesiveness of the settler community in Ireland is also discussed, along with the factors that could make or break aristocratic relationships. Some assumptions about the development of royal power in Ireland are challenged, and de Lacy’s interactions with the English crown shed light on how nobles won, lost and regained favour with the Angevin Lords of Ireland.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.600125]

Zeiser Sarah, Latinity, manuscripts, and the rhetoric of conquest in late-eleventh-century Wales

Zeiser Sarah, Latinity, manuscripts, and the rhetoric of conquest in late-eleventh-century Wales, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. C. McKenna, Harvard University)

Résumé/abstract :

This dissertation explores the complex interactions among written text, language choice, and political context in Wales in the late-eleventh and early-twelfth centuries. I argue that writers in medieval Wales created in both their literary compositions and their manuscripts intricate layers of protest and subversion in direct opposition to the authority of the Anglo-Norman political hegemony and the aggrandizing spread of the Canterbury-led church. These medieval literati exploited language and script as tools of definition. They privileged Welsh or Latin when their audience shifted, and they employed the change from early Insular script to the Caroline script of the Normans as not just a natural evolution in script development, but as a selective representation of mimicked authority. The family of Bishop Sulien at Llanbadarn Fawr has been the focal point of this study, as they were active during a time of Anglo-Norman intervention in their community that is reflected in the shifting script of their manuscripts and the apprehensive though proud tone of their compositions, which include the vitae of saints David and Padarn and the poetry of Ieuan and Rhygyfarch ap Sulien. My work provides a much-needed cohesive portrait of the multilingual medieval Welsh literary culture at the turn of the twelfth century. Questions of audience and authority come into play, particularly when considering the growing hybridity of learned communities during the Anglo-Norman infiltration of Wales. Manuscripts themselves are viewed as vehicles of identity, for the evolution of script and design offers clues as to the methods of compromise practiced by Welsh intellectuals. This compromise in the written word can be viewed as an embodiment of the Welsh desire and need to mediate fraught political boundaries, as they did using both the ‘nation’-defining Welsh language and the vehicular prestige language of Latin, resulting in an intertextual exploration of identity through the act of writing itself. Writing is a critical demonstration of Welsh authorship and agency in medieval Britain, and one that can be used to reflect upon notions of Welsh identity.

[Source : http://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/10288377]

Lincoln George, Settlements in pre-Norman and Norman Sicily

Lincoln George, Settlements in pre-Norman and Norman Sicily, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. A. Jotischky, A. Metcalfe, Lancaster University)

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available.

Hunter Linsey, Charter diplomatics and norms of landholding and lordship between the Humber and Forth, c.1066-c.1250

Hunter Linsey, Charter diplomatics and norms of landholding and lordship between the Humber and Forth, c.1066-c.1250, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. J. Hudson, University of St Andrews)

This thesis closely analyses the linguistic forms of aspects of non-royal charters produced c.1066-c.1250 in the north-east of England and the south-east of Scotland, namely, consent, joint grants, separate confirmations, inheritance language, leaseholds and warranty. This study identifies the preferred forms of each studied aspect as well as variants, developments and alternatives and analyses them according to a clear chronological framework and other potential causal factors such as the status and gender of participants, location and grant type. Additionally, the spread of linguistic patterns throughout the studied region, Stringer’s “diplomatic transplant”, is examined. Firstly, the charter underwent tremendous development across this period of study becoming trusted evidence of landholding transactions routine at most levels of society and subjected to sophisticated scrutiny by legal professionals in landholding disputes. Secondly, charter language was introduced, modified or abandoned according to many influences, e.g. the emergence of early Common Law systems in both Scotland and England, the rise of the legal profession and the growth in written culture evidenced partly through the spread of monastic houses and increasing trust in the written word. Indeed, the introduction of significant legal reforms – in England from the 1160s and in Scotland during the second quarter of the thirteenth century – are repeatedly revealed to be the point at which linguistic patterns became noticeably more settled and variants became much rarer. Notably, the fact that the language patterns of the Northumberland houses better mirror the patterns seen in south-east Scotland demonstrates the contrast in the level of bureaucratic organisation against the neighbouring shires of Durham and Yorkshire. Thirdly, this thesis highlights the existence of preferred linguistic forms by individual religious houses, religious orders, families or groups of people within localities or larger geographical regions. In particular, religious houses were especially influential in the widespread adoption of some forms of language. Overall, developments and changes to charter language were streamlined, revised or modified with the dual aims of providing greater clarity and thus maximum legal protection; before legal reform the latter was much more dependent upon familial and seignorial ties, a factor reflected in the greater variety of linguistic forms.

[Source : http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3096]

Dunthorne Judith, Anselm of Canterbury and the development of theological thought, c. 1070-1141

Dunthorne Judith, Anselm of Canterbury and the development of theological thought, c. 1070-1141, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. G. Gasper, R. Gameson, University of Durham)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis explores the role of Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109) in the development of theological thought in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries. It aims to demonstrate that Anselm’s thought had a greater impact on the early development of scholastic theology than is often recognized, particularly in the areas of the doctrine of the incarnation and redemption, but also in his discussion of freedom and sin. Through his explanation of the economy of salvation in terms of making satisfaction for sin, and his rejection of modes of discussion that focussed on the rights and role of the devil, Anselm’s writing on the theology of the redemption provided a framework for the discussion of later authors such as Hugh of St Victor, Peter Abelard, Bernard of Clairvaux and authors associated with the School of Laon, among others. Such discussion often utilized Anselm as an explicator of difficult passages in patristic theology, notably Augustine, and his work was most controversial when he was thought to have contradicted earlier authority. Anselm was involved in contemporary polemics with both Jews and Christian theologians, as well as producing works that explored profound theological and metaphysical ideas. In his emphasis on the place and role of reason in divine questions, he crossed the boundaries between ‘monastic’ and ‘scholastic’ thought. Through an exploration of Anselmian elements in the thought of a variety of authors from the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, this thesis aims to contribute to a broadening understanding of the legacy of this great thinker.

[Source : http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/6360/]

Cartwright Charlotte, Matilda of Flanders in Normandy: a study of eleventh century female power

Cartwright Charlotte, Matilda of Flanders in Normandy: a study of eleventh century female power, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. P. Stafford, University of Liverpool)

Résumé/abstract :

Matilda of Flanders was the wife of William II, count/duke of Normandy and, from 1066, king of the English. This thesis is a study of her, and specifically of her power and authority, with a focus on her activity in Normandy rather than in England. This work builds on the existing historiography to examine Matilda in Normandy as a countess, and in comparison as a queen after 1066. The focus throughout is on contemporary sources, especially the writings of Dudo of Saint Quentin, William of Jumièges, William of Poitiers, and the more than five hundred surviving Norman and Anglo-Norman charters from the period 996-1086. The issue of legitimate marriage, which made a woman a wife and gave her access to power and authority through her family role, was critical, and Matilda’s marriage can be established as legitimate and secure. The bulk of this thesis considers the activity of the comital/ducal women recorded within the Norman charters, focusing on the actions which reveal power, and the descriptions which suggest the way in which they, and their authority, were perceived. Throughout, Matilda is compared with her predecessors, but also with contemporary men, especially the male members of the family. Close study of the source material reveals a Norman court in the tenth and eleventh century where family women, especially the legitimate wives of the count/dukes, were important actors. Matilda, however, was distinct from her predecessors: her power and authority greater than theirs. During her lifetime, there are hints at the development of an office of countess, and she appears to have acted as both a regent and a deputy in Normandy after the Conquest of England. Her activity as a queen, and the comparison with her as a countess, sheds light on both roles, suggesting that countesses could exercise a quasi queenly power, but also that coronation and inauguration set queens apart. However, even after Matilda’s coronation, the role of ‘wife’ was still important, as was family power.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.569147]

Dennis Christopher, The career of Geoffrey de Montbray, bishop of Coutances (1048-1093)

Dennis Christopher, The career of Geoffrey de Montbray, bishop of Coutances (1048-1093) and unus de primatibus Anglorum (‘one of the chief men of the English’), Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. W. Aird, Cardiff University)

Résumé/abstract :

Geoffrey de Montbray was one of the most important men in Normandy and England during the second half of the eleventh century. As bishop of Coutances, Geoffrey made a significant contribution to the restoration of ecclesiastical life in western Normandy. In post-Conquest England, where Geoffrey became a great landholder, he played a pivotal role in the consolidation of the Conqueror’s victory. Geoffrey’s role in the conquest and settlement of England, and in particular his association with warfare, has overshadowed his achievements as a diocesan bishop. In modern historiography he has been presented as an example of an old-fashioned type of bishop that was gradually being superseded in Normandy by more reform-minded prelates. This thesis will assess the validity of this interpretation by providing a detailed examination of his career. But it will also consider his activities as a diocesan bishop and his participation in the settlement of England in the context of the development of his personal relationship with the Conqueror. In particular, it will examine the significance of charismatic elements of lordship and the importance of acquiring ‘closeness’ to a ruler as a means of self-advancement. By approaching Geoffrey’s career from his perspective, the intention of this thesis is to gain a better understanding of the mindset of an eleventh-century Norman bishop. This thesis uses a range of sources that includes charters and narrative sources, architectural evidence, the evidence of Domesday Book, and manuscript sources.

[Source : http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/26998]

Buchanan Courtney, Viking artefacts from southern Scotland and northern England

Buchanan Courtney, Viking artefacts from southern Scotland and northern England: cultural contacts, interactions, and identities in peripheral areas of Viking settlement, (dir. C. Batey, University of Glasgow)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis explores the portable, non-indigenous material culture strongly related, but not exclusive, to one specific ethnic group in the medieval period. It is based on the idea that people from different cultural backgrounds cannot come into contact with each other without their identities being altered in some significant way, and these altered identities will be expressed in their material culture. During the period c.800-1100, the Vikings initiated contact with the inhabitants of Britain, first by raiding and attacking, then by trading and settling amongst the local populations. Whereas most research of Viking and local interaction has focused on Viking settlements in the Northern and Western Isles or the Anglo-Scandinavian town of York, this thesis focuses on the peripheral areas of Viking political control: northern England and southern Scotland. It is in these regions where there are increasing amounts of evidence of Viking activities and interactions with the local peoples.

Three key research questions are asked of the materials found within the study area: 1) how and why did items of ‘Viking’ material culture enter regions outside of the centres of traditional Viking settlements? 2) How and why were these items used to conduct meaningful contacts and interactions with those people already inhabiting this land? 3) How and why were identities constructed in these regions where multiple cultural traditions came into contact with one another? A multifaceted approach is adopted to answer these questions. First, the historical sources are analysed for different contexts of contact and interaction between Vikings and non- Vikings in the study area. Second, a postcolonial approach to studying the interactions between groups was adopted in order to move away from simplistic assimilation or acculturation narratives where one group subsumes the other. Rather, this approach argues for the creation of a new social dimension in which people’s actions, routines, and identities are altered in order to negotiate and thrive within the new cultural landscape. It is argued that the hybridization seen in many of the artefacts, as well as other sources utilised throughout the thesis, is the material articulation of this new space. Finally, this thesis includes data recovered through the Portable Antiquities Scheme and Treasure Trove Scotland in addition to excavated finds. In the study region, 499 items are identified and catalogued as Viking or hybrid-Viking, many of which have no archaeological context as they are stray or metal-detected finds. Through the course of searching, three major concentrations were identified along major maritime inlets: the Solway Firth, the River Clyde, and the Forth and Tay Basins. These concentrations were turned into three case-study areas based upon concentrations of finds as well as the contextual aids of historical sources, place-names, and stone sculpture. The first case study examines the Solway Firth and determines that the Vikings were a very important part of the population, and a hybridized society is seen there. The second case study of Strathclyde also determines that the Vikings were active there; the evidence indicates smaller, more concentrated communities of Vikings that integrated into the British population of the region. The final case study of the Forth and Tay basins establishes the Vikings as important actors there, although not only in the traditional view of their attacks opening up the Pictish throne for Cinaed mac Alpin. The Vikings settled in this region and aided the formation of the new kingdom of Alba. Overall, it is shown that Vikings were much more active on the peripheries of their political establishments than has previously been realised. It is also demonstrated that people in contact with others from different cultural backgrounds will alter their routines, practices, materials, and identities in order to negotiate the new social sphere that is created by such interaction. The key to understanding this negotiation is recognising the multiple contexts in which people interact and that each situation will result in different hybridized routines, materials, and identities that are unique to that specific context.

[Source : http://theses.gla.ac.uk/3391/]

Boyd Rebecca, Viking houses in Ireland and western Britain, AD 850-1100

Boyd, Rebecca, Viking houses in Ireland and western Britain, AD 850-1100: a social archaeology of dwellings, households and cultural identities, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. A. O’Sullivan Boyd, University College, Dublin)

Résumé/abstract :

Viking settlers arriving in Ireland and western Britain in the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries built houses which incorporated native and Viking characteristics: rectangular form, three-aisled divisions, and central hearths. That much has already been established by previous studies of this architecture.

This thesis moves beyond this simplistic reading of shape and construction and explores how these houses were used to express the emerging hybrid identities of their inhabitants. The Viking longhouse was a primordial statement of Viking origin which is conspicuously missing here; instead, the Vikings and natives created a new architecture. This new architecture was more subtle and more in tune with the fluidities of the instrumental identities of their inhabitants, which included elements from across the study area.

554 houses were identified as expressing this hybrid style of architecture. An ‘analytical tool-box’, consisting of traditional building analyses, artefact distribution studies and access analysis, was applied from the perspective of social archaeology to explore this exceptional dataset. Individually, these analyses identified trends in and across building association and layouts, active zones and movement routes within buildings and identified household occupations and lifestyles.

On the wider scale, they identified that there were differences between the internal and external appearance of the buildings. From the outside, all the properties looked the same, but inside, each household expressed its own cultural and ethnic identities. The ninth to twelfth centuries were a period of intense change, with expansions in trade networks, outside influences, and the emergence of urbanism. Throughout all this, the house remained a constant for the household allowing them to become part of this new urban way of life. Its constancy in appearance within defined properties established a stability and provided with the households with a vital sense of place and connection to the towns.

[Source : https://library.ucd.ie/iii/encore/record/C__Rb1962922]

Alexander Alison, Annalistic writing in Normandy, c. 1050-c. 1225

Alexander Alison, Annalistic writing in Normandy, c. 1050-c. 1225, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. E. van Houts, University of Cambridge)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis provides an analysis of annalistic writing in Normandy between c. 1050 and c. 1225. It examines three principal groups of texts which were written and copied in religious institutions throughout the duchy from the mid-eleventh century, before being transmitted beyond its borders into France and England. Its purpose is to address a significant gap in modern scholarship by establishing the origin, development and purpose of annalistic writing in Normandy and to consider the contribution of the texts to our understanding of Norman history in this period.

The thesis consists of three main parts, followed by two appendices. Part I addresses the annals of Rouen, which were first written in Rouen cathedral chapter c. 1054/5 and which subsequently became the base text for one family of Norman annals. It presents a model of composition, outlining stages of redaction, sources used in its production and textual development down to c. 1225. The text is also examined within the context of institutional and historiographical developments in the cathedral chapter of Rouen in the same period. Part II addresses the monastic annals of Normandy, outlining patterns of dissemination around the duchy and analysing each text in turn. Part II A considers the Rouen family of annals, Part II B the Bec family and Part II C the ‘Fécamp’ family. Finally, Part III considers the contribution of this analysis to modern scholarship. It examines what the annals can tell us about the nature and purpose of historical writing in Norman religious communities; and discusses how the texts can be used to enhance our knowledge of Norman history at both the institutional and the duchy-wide level. The thesis also includes a general introduction and conclusion, a bibliography, several diagrams and two technical appendices which provide an overview of the manuscripts in which the Norman annals are now preserved.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.610060]

Gusakova Olga V., The cult of Anglo-Saxon saints during the Scandinavian conquest of England (9th-11th centuries)

Gusakova Olga V., Культ англо-саксонских святых в условиях скандинавских завоеваний Англии IX–XI вв. [The cult of  Anglo-Saxon saints during the Scandinavian conquest of England (9th-11th centuries)], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (Université d’État des sciences humaines de Russie)

Résumé/abstract :

Диссертационное исследование посвящено проблеме функционирования культов англо-саксонской святых в Англии в условиях викингских нашествий (IX – первая половина XI в.). Актуальность поставленной проблемы определяется как ее недостаточной изученностью (см. ниже), так и тем значением, которое исследование культов святых – активно развивающееся направление в современной медиевистике – имеет для понимания средневековой ментальности и культуры, а нередко – и политической истории. Святость составляет одно из ключевых понятий христианского мировоззрения, являвшегося основой западноевропейской цивилизации Средневековья. В то же время конкретные проявления почитания святых складывались и развивались исторически и могли принимать разнообразные формы в тех или иных условиях. Исследования последних десятилетий позволили взглянуть на культ святых как на социокультурный феномен, отражающий идеалы и представления различных социальных групп и играющий важную роль в формировании и сохранении идентичности религиозных общин, поддержании престижа и распространении власти королевских династий. Культы святых в определенной мере отражают коллективные представления о прошлом и одновременно участвуют в их конструировании. Таким образом, изучение культов святых чрезвычайно важно для более глубокого понимания процессов, происходивших в развитии Церкви и общества.

Missuno Filip, « Shadow » and paradoxes of darkness in Old English and Old Norse poetic language

Missuno Filip, « Shadow » and paradoxes of darkness in Old English and Old Norse poetic language, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. M. Townend, E. Tyler, Université d’York)

Résumé/abstract :
This thesis confronts, explores, and attempts to meaningfully interpret a surprising nexus of stimulating cruces and paradoxes in Old English poetry and prose and Old Norse skaldic and Eddic poetry. The study focuses on the complex linguistic and literary manifestations of darkness, a complex and long-underestimated phenomenon for which the most appropriate term is ‘shadow’. Rather than operating with modern categories and traditional dichotomies (light/darkness), I attempt to approach the evidence on its own terms, working from the words, their collocations, and narrow contexts up to larger literary assessments. Furthermore, the comparative Old English/Old Norse approach can provide both contextualisation for the findings and control over what we can and cannot infer from them. Reflecting these methodologies (presented in Chapter 1), the core part of the thesis (Chapters 2-5) unfolds from semantics and style to texts and literary traditions, alternating at both stages between Old English and Old Norse. Chapters 2-3 provide an in-depth examination of the formal and stylistic features and the immediate textual environments of ‘shadow’, enabling the reconstruction of semantic values and associations. In Chapters 4-5, I conduct close readings of the most relevant and revealing Old English and Old Norse texts. My case studies are further contextualised by enlarging the focus of enquiry and correlating the deployment of ‘shadow’ with questions of manuscript context, medium (prose/verse), form (skaldic/Eddic), genre (mythological/heroic/religious), and wider literary-historical links. Chapter 6 brings together the evidence for the existence, nature, and function of a ‘shadow’ theme, or themes, in Old English and Old Norse poetic language. Evaluating the significance of the parallels between the two traditions as well as within them, I recontextualise ‘shadow’ in relation to chronology, history, inheritance, contact and influence, and society and culture. The findings also afford new perspectives that can reshape our understanding of the underlying poetics.