Archives de catégorie : 2013

Isabella Laura BOLOGNESE, The Monastery of Montevergine,

Isabella Laura Bolognese, The Monastery of Montevergine Its Foundation and Early Development (1118-1210), Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013 (dir. G. Loud, The University of Leeds)


Résumé/abstract :


This thesis examines the institutional and socio-economic development of the monastery of Montevergine during the twelfth century in the Kingdom of Sicily.

Founded as a hermitage c. 1119 by the Italian hermit, William of Vercelli, Montevergine grew into a conventional Benedictine establishment by the end of the twelfth century. Over the course of the century, the religious community of

Montevergine built an extensive land patrimony that went hand in hand with the growth of its pool of donors, and consequently caused the institutional identity and structure to evolve, and the monastery to increase its network of dependencies across its landholdings. This thesis aims to disentangle the events surrounding the monastery’s foundation, to explore its economic activities, and its relationships with its donors and the local lay community.

The thesis is divided into two sections, the first taking a linear narrative approach to the study of Montevergine’s early development, and the second adopting a more thematic approach to the study of the economic, social, and institutional development of the monastery. Chapter 1 focusses on the foundation of Montevergine; Chapter 2 looks at its development during Norman rule of the Kingdom of Sicily; Chapter 3 follows its development during Hohenstaufen rule up to 1210; Chapter 4 surveys the geographical setting of Montevergine to provide a better understanding of its economic activities, which are the subject of Chapter 5.

Chapter 6 explores the monastery’s relationships with the laity and the networks it built among the local lay community; Chapter 7 looks at the internal administrative and institutional development of Montevergine, while Chapter 8 analyses the expansion of its monastic network, focussing on a number of the monastery’s dependencies as case studies.



Mirrington Alexander, Transformations of identity and society in Essex, c.AD 400-1066

Mirrington Alexander, Transformations of identity and society in Essex, c.AD 400-1066, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. C. P. Loveluck, N. J. Sykes, L. Laing, Université de Nottingham)

Résumé/abstract :

This study examines the archaeological reflections of group identity and socio-economic networks in the region of Essex and London in the Anglo-Saxon period, between c.400 and 1066. Given its location in the south-east of England, Essex was a key zone of socio-political interaction during the early medieval period. This doctoral research has brought together the stray and excavated archaeological material from the region for the first time. The thesis presented here is centred on diachronic, quantified distributional analyses of three key material culture classes: dress accessories, pottery, and coinage. The discussion synthesises the results of these analyses, examining the observed patterns within their broader archaeological context.

The thesis reveals the emergence of a hybrid dress style in the 5th and 6th centuries. This appears to have been actively created in Essex to reflect a diverse cultural inheritance, but not a specific ethnic identity. However, from the mid-7th century these styles were rejected in favour of dynamic fashions, reflecting the maritime focus of the region, and especially links with the Merovingian/Carolingian Continent. From the later 9th century, Scandinavian dress and cultural practice are also apparent, particularly in north Essex.

This Continental orientation reflects the emergence and transformation of the North Sea network. The engagement of Essex communities with this network is studied in detail in this thesis. The coinage and pottery analyses reveal the emergence of several exchange hubs along the North Sea coast, as well as a generalized engagement with long-distance exchange among coastal communities. This system was disrupted, but not destroyed, by the Vikings, who linked Essex with wider Scandinavian networks. However, the long-term pattern shows the decline of coastal sites in favour of urban centres from the later 9th century.

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Connors Owain James, The Effects of Anglo-Norman Lordship upon the Landscape of Post-Conquest Monmouthshire

Connors Owain James, The Effects of Anglo-Norman Lordship upon the Landscape of Post-Conquest Monmouthshire, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. S. Rippon, O. Creighton)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examines the effects the imposition of Anglo-Norman lordship, following the Anglo-Norman expansion into Wales in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, had upon the landscape of the Welsh border region. In order to achieve this aim this project makes extensive use of digital Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in order to produce a detailed county-wide study of the landscape of post-Conquest Monmouthshire as well as comprehensive case studies of individual Anglo-Norman lordships contained within the boundaries of the county. This thesis also aims to locate its findings within important current debates in historic archaeology about the effects of medieval lordship upon the landscape, on the roles of the physical environment and human agency in the forming of the historic landscape, on the wider role of castles as lordship centres, beyond simple military functionality.

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Kynan-Wilson William, Rome and romanitas in Anglo-Norman text and image (circa 1100 – circa 1250)

Kynan-Wilson William, Rome and romanitas in Anglo-Norman text and image (circa 1100 – circa 1250), Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (Université de Cambridge)

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available.

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Middlemass Rachel, Bodies of men: manhood and masculinity in England and northern France, c.1100-c.1250

Middlemass Rachel, Bodies of men: manhood and masculinity in England and northern France, c.1100-c.1250, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. R. Balzaretti, J. Barrow, University of Nottingham)

Résumé/abstract :

This study responds to a gap in the existing historiography of medieval men and masculinities around the relationships between corporeality, gender identity, group membership. and social inequality. It aims primarily to elucidate the significance of the physical body to medieval masculine ideals and its role in processes of social categorisation which privileged most men over most women, and some men over others. In particular. I focus here on the ways in which culturally specific – but surprisingly coherent – discourses about and narrative representations of the body were used to construct prototypical models of manhood. principally via claims of polarisation from and superiority to corporeally distinct « others’. The analysis presented here is undertaken within a framework which borrows from anthropological and sociological methodologies, incorporating a dual focus on the ‘natural’ or essential, as well as the socially-constructed and discursive facets of the body. The body is viewed throughout as playing a simultaneously representational and instrumental role in the construction of both individual and collective identities. It is understood here both as a vehicle for the expression of those identities and as an active agent in their production; both a product of the behavioural codes prescribed for men and a site for and resource in men’s alignment with or resistance to these codes. It is likewise accorded agency in the unequal attribution of social status to both individual male bodies and collectives thereof. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of multiple ‘capitals’, the body is treated as a cultural asset whose unequal distribution, like any other form of capital, is hypothesised here to have played a role in the institution and maintenance of deep social divisions between medieval men.

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Dockrill Stephen James, Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles : a multidisciplinary approach

Dockrill Stephen James,  Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles : a multidisciplinary approach, archaeological research into long term settlements and their associated arable fields from the Neolithic to the Norse periods, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. C. P. Heron, L. D. Brown, Université de Bradford)

Résumé/abstract :
The research contained in these papers embodies both results from direct archaeological investigation and also the development of techniques (geophysical, chronological and geoarchaeological) in order to understand long-term settlements and their associated landscapes in Orkney and Shetland. Central to this research has been the study of soil management strategies of arable plots surrounding settlements from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. It is argued that this arable system provides higher yields in marginal locations. The ability to enhance yield in good years and to store surplus can mitigate against shortage. Control and storage of this surplus is seen as one catalyst for the economic power of elite groups over their underlying or ‘client’ population. The emergence of a social elite in the Iron Age, building brochs and other substantial roundhouses of near broch proportions, is seen as being linked to the control of resources. Evidence at the site of Old Scatness indicated that there was a continuity of wealth and power from the Middle Iron Age through the Pictish period, before the appearance of the Vikings produced a break in the archaeological record. The Viking period saw a break in building traditions, the introduction of new artefacts and changes in farming and fishing strategies. Each of the papers represents a contribution that builds on these themes.

Brunning Susan, The ‘living’ sword in early medieval northern Europe

Brunning Susan, The ‘living’ sword in early medieval northern Europe : an interdisciplinary study, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. A. Reynolds, J. Tanner, C. Abram, University College London)

Résumé/abstract :
This thesis explores perceptions of two-edged swords as ‘living’ artefacts in Anglo-Saxon England and Scandinavia between c. 500 and 1100. Taking inspiration from recent anthropological and archaeological research into ‘artefact biography’, it considers two interlinked avenues of ‘life’: (1) the notion that swords could acquire life-histories, personalities and other person-like qualities; and (2) the nature of their relationship with warriors (as opposed to other members of society). The thesis compares Anglo-Saxon England and Scandinavia across a broad chronological period in order to identify how attitudes towards swords developed over time. The almost unique proximity to bloodshed which swords, by contrast with other weapons, provided for their wielders is considered key in fuelling perceptions of swords as ‘living’ artefacts, and strengthening the bond between warrior and weapon. This special connection between swords and violence is interpreted as contributing to the symbolic potency of swords in early medieval Northern Europe. This thesis adopts an interdisciplinary approach, discussing archaeological, pictorial and written evidence within a carefully-constructed methodological framework. The different sources are integrated in a discussion chapter which attempts to arrive at a holistic understanding of perceptions of ‘living’ swords in early medieval Northern Europe. Finally, the interdisciplinary method deployed in the thesis is assessed, and suggestions for future interdisciplinary research frameworks are made.

Roberts Euryn, Hunaniaeth ranbarthol yng Nghymru, c.1100-1283

Roberts Euryn, Hunaniaeth ranbarthol yng Nghymru, c.1100-1283 [Regional identity in Wales, c.1100-1283], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. H. Pryce, N. Powell, Bangor University)

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available.

Osborne Emily, Thinking outside the hall: the conceptual boundaries of Skaldic verse

Osborne, Emily, Thinking outside the hall: the conceptual boundaries of Skaldic verse, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. J. Quinn, University of Cambridge)

Royal courts, ships, battle-fields, farms, forests, churches, prisons – in the Icelandic and Norwegian sagas, a myriad of locations provide the backdrop in which skalds perform complex poetry for diverse audiences. Skaldic verses are generally framed as verbal responses to actual events: events which not only medieval sagas, but also modern scholars, have attempted to re-construct. This dissertation considers the discourse of performance employed in skaldic verses, yet looks beyond the familiar relationship between skald and royal patron, exploring instead the ways in which skalds engage various performance contexts both real and imagined, as well as multiple audiences who are present and absent, male and female, past and future, human and divine. Many non-encomiastic verses from the tenth to twelfth centuries communicate beyond the literal occasion to which they ostensibly respond by invoking absent, female and future audiences. Chapters One and Two consider ways in which lausavísur: associate audiences with specific locations by means of verb tense, apostrophe, deixis and periphrasis; reveal the skald’s concern for the preservation and dissemination of his verse within an oral poetic community; and are incorporated into retrospective, and often discrepant, narrative re-performances. Analysis of this dynamic discourse of performance and re-performance is informed by theoretical discussion, both medieval and modern, of deixis, apostrophe, oratorical solecism and narratology. After the twelfth century, the increasing influence of Christian devotional culture significantly altered the relationship between skald and audience. Religious poems were used for meditative reading and spiritual instruction in addition to (or in lieu of) public performance. Christian hermeneutics reframed medieval understandings of the relationships among the spoken, written and performative word. Chapters Three and Four consider ways in which traditional skaldic rhetoric, including deixis and periphrasis, was adapted to the ethnographic discourse of prayer, which negotiates among audiences human, divine, absent, prospective and immanent. Analysis in these chapters of the evolving discourse of performance and re-performance focuses on another female audience who is simultaneously present, absent and prospective – the Virgin Mary.

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Mendez Gonzalez Olga, Anglo-Iberian relations 1150-1280: a diplomatic history

Mendez Gonzalez Olga, Anglo-Iberian relations 1150-1280: a diplomatic history, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. N. Vincent, University of East Anglia)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examines the political relations between England and the Iberian Peninsula, from the accession of Henry II of England to the death of Alfonso X of León-Castile, an episode in diplomatic history that remains largely unexplored. This period, spanning over a century and a half, was punctuated by a series of key political events. The study of these sheds light upon the diplomatic complexities of the period. Chapter One explores the historiography and the particularities of Spanish documentary sources. Chapter Two analyses the use of the word Hispania in thirteenth-century chronicles and charters, in an attempt to discover how the term was used and to whom it referred. Chapters Three examines the close relations between the crown of Aragón and the vicomté of Béarn in the twelfth century, while the following chapter looks at the unification of Catalonia and Aragón and the implications of the marriage between Eleanor of England and Alfonso VIII of Castile. Chapter Five explores the impact of Richard I and John’s alliances with Navarre. As León-Castile consolidated its power in the Peninsula, there was a shift of alliances, reflected on Anglo-Iberian relations. Chapter Six explores the particular circumstances that brought about the treaty of 1254 between Henry III of England and Alfonso X of Castile. No study of the political relations of the period would be complete without examination of the impact of the imperial controversy and interregnum upon relations between Henry III of England (the brother of a claimant) and Alfonso X of Castile (a claimant in his own right). Finally, Chapter Eight studies the failed marriage of the infante Sancho of Castile and Gilhelme (Willemina), the younger daughter of the vicomte of Béarn, Gaston VII. This involved negotiations between Edward I of England, Philip III of France and Alfonso X of Castile.


Marchlewski Ann-Katrin, St. Cnut of Denmark, king and martyr

Marchlewski Ann-Katrin, St. Cnut of Denmark, king and martyr: his Lives, their authors and the politics of his cult (c.1086-1200), Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. P. Hayward, Lancaster University)

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available.

Mancia Lauren, Affective devotion and emotional reform at the eleventh-century monastery of John of Fécamp

Mancia Lauren, Affective devotion and emotional reform at the eleventh-century monastery of John of Fécamp, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (Yale University)

Résumé/abstract :

In the early Middle Ages, the crucifixion was interpreted as the moment when Christ’s divinity was finally unmasked, a moment when a seeming mortal showed himself as God, triumphing over death. By the Late Middle Ages, however, a change had occurred: the crucifixion no longer revealed God’s glory, but instead represented Christ as suffering and dying on the cross. This dissertation centers on some of the earliest medieval writings designed to address Christ in this more affective, humanized way: the eleventh-century contemplative writings of the Norman abbot John of Fécamp (ca. 990-1078), particularly those contained in his work posthumously entitled the Confessio Theologica (written between 1016 and 1028).

This study examines both John’s writings and his surrounding monastic context, demonstrating how the liturgical, devotional, visual, homeletic, and intellectual culture of the Norman monastery of La Trinité de Fécamp worked with John of Fécamp’s writings to promote this more affective approach to the divine. Through a cross-disciplinary investigation, this dissertation expands our understanding of John’s theological inheritances and practical motivations for writing such ‘newly’ emotional prayers. It revises our identification of John’s intended audience, arguing that John wrote his Confessio for and sent his Confessio to male Benedictines in and around Fécamp’s monastic network. Through his writings, John intended to provide an interior facet to the exterior monastic reforms going on at the monastery of Fécamp. This study details how John’s writings inspired an emotional, affective devotional culture among the monks of his own monastery through an investigation of manuscripts of John’s Confessio Theologica, and through the monastery of Fécamp’s manuscripts, liturgy, intellectual culture, and devotional writings. An examination of the writings of and devotional practices set up by some of John’s acolytes also demonstrates how John’s legacy of affective, emotional devotion was continued and elaborated in subsequent generations at Fécamp and in the Norman monastic world.

Ultimately, Affective Devotion and Emotional Reform in the Eleventh-Century Monastery of John of Fécamp clarifies the internal lives of eleventh-century Benedictine monks and the emotional nature of their devotional practices. It articulates the emotional, interior, prayerful dimensions to pre-Gregorian monastic reform practices. And it challenges existing theories for the impulses of later medieval « affective » devotion by examining the application of such piety in one of its earliest and original contexts: the Benedictine monastery.

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Kaye Henrietta, Serving the man that ruled: aspects of the domestic arrangements of the household of King John, 1199-1216

Kaye Henrietta, Serving the man that ruled: aspects of the domestic arrangements of the household of King John, 1199-1216, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. S. Church, University of East Anglia)

King John played a direct role in the domestic arrangements of his household. He shifted the function of officials, moulded the structure of household offices and took personal control over the purveyance of food, wine and luxuries. During his reign, John adapted his household to suit his circumstances and personal method of ruling. These findings reveal that a medieval king could be directly involved in the minutiae of his domestic establishment; this is an aspect of kingship not previously noticed by historians. It is upon these findings that this thesis makes its greatest original contribution to our understanding of the period. To reach these conclusions, this thesis examines the officials at court and in the localities who enabled the domestic side of the household to function effectively. Hitherto, the medieval royal household of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries has been studied as part of the wider system of Angevin government. The political, administrative and financial elements of court are, however, entirely outside my remit. This thesis interrogates the evidence of the household ordinances from the twelfth to fourteenth centuries, by using a corpus of record sources extant from 1199 onwards, which break through the façade of departmentalism to reveal the complexity of the royal household. The king’s chamber and his stewards are the focus of the first two chapters. These chapters show the changing nature of the household; they reveal the expansion of the chamber’s sphere of function and the decline of the stewards’ domestic role. The purveyance of household victuals is the focus of the final three chapters. These chapters demonstrate how the peripatetic nature of John’s household was enabled through a network of local and court officials. By serving King John in his domestic needs, these officials were a vital tool in the facilitation of his rule.

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Hammond Catherine, Family conflict in ducal Normandy, c.1025-1135

Hammond, Catherine, Family conflict in ducal Normandy, c.1025-1135, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. J. Hudson, University of St Andrews)

This thesis focuses on conflict within families in Normandy, c. 1025 to 1135. Despite the occurrence of several acute struggles within the ducal house during this period, and a number of lesser known but significant disputes within aristocratic families, this topic has attracted little attention from historians. Kin conflict was cast by medieval commentators as a paradox, and indeed, it is often still regarded in these terms today: the family was a bastion of solidarity, and its members the very individuals to whom one turned for support in the face of an external threat, so for a family group to turn against itself was aberrant and abhorrent. In this thesis, I draw on significant narrative and documentary evidence to consider the practice and perception of family discord. When considered in its broader setting, it emerges that kin disputes were an expected and accepted part of Norman society at this time. I begin by introducing the topic, justifying my approach, considering the relevant historiography, and providing an overview of the sources. In chapter one, I examine the representations of family and conflict in a range of primary sources to glean contemporary views. In chapters two and three, I focus on the practice of conflict within the ducal family, considering the causes of disputes, and then the place of internal ducal dissension in the Norman world. Chapter four analyses the same issues in relation to discord within aristocratic families, before chapter five explores family disputes which arose from patronage of the Church. In the conclusion, I consider the Norman example within its comparative contemporary milieu and ponder the broader themes of family conflict.

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Cook William, Scandinavian identity in Cumbria, c. 900-1250

Cook William, Scandinavian identity in Cumbria, c. 900-1250, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. A. Winchester, Lancaster University)

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available.