Archives de catégorie : Religions, contacts religieux, conversion / Religion, religious contacts, conversion

Alban Gautier, Du danger des mots transparents : dire le phénomène anglo-scandinave dans quelques publications récentes en langue anglaise

Article publié dans le dossier thématique – actes de la journée d’étude du 20 novembre 2015, Les transferts culturels dans les mondes normands médiévaux I – Des mots pour le dire ?

Du danger des mots transparents : dire le phénomène anglo-scandinave dans quelques publications récentes en langue anglaise

Alban Gautier

Université du Littoral-Côte d’Opale ; HLLI – EA 4030


L’expression « phénomène anglo-scandinave » fait référence à la présence du IXe au XIe siècle en Angleterre d’individus et de populations que divers éléments, dans la documentation écrite ou dans l’analyse des données archéologiques, permettent de rattacher à la Scandinavie. Deux ouvrages récents (Kopár 2012 ; McLeod 2014), mais aussi un article de Lesley Abrams (Abrams 2012) reconsidèrent cette « question anglo-scandinave », en cherchant à comprendre comment les migrants et les sociétés qui les ont accueillis ont été concrètement amenés à voir évoluer leurs appartenances telles qu’elles existaient avant la rencontre entre ces populations d’origines différentes… ou au contraire à les conserver, voire à les durcir. Pour rendre compte de ces changements, les auteurs utilisent des termes que l’on peut dire « processuels » (en cela qu’ils cherchent à nommer des processus) : des mots en –ation, a priori transparents, comme integration, accommodation, acculturation, assimilation, hybridation ou Christianization. Or l’apparente transparence de ces termes fait en réalité courir au lecteur francophone le risque du contresens.

Continuer la lecture de Alban Gautier, Du danger des mots transparents : dire le phénomène anglo-scandinave dans quelques publications récentes en langue anglaise

Kathryn Hurlock, Paul Oldfield. ed. Crusading and Pilgrimage in the Norman World

Kathryn Hurlock, Paul Oldfield. ed. Crusading and Pilgrimage in the Norman World. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2015.

 

Résumé/abstract :

 

The reputation of the Normans is rooted in warfare, faith and mobility. They were simultaneously famed as warriors, noted for their religious devotion, and celebrated as fearless travellers. In the Middle Ages few activities offered a better conduit to combine warfare, religiosity, and movement than crusading and pilgrimage. However, while scholarship is abundant on many facets of the Norman world, it is a surprise that the Norman relationship with crusading and pilgrimage, so central in many ways to Norman identity, has hitherto not received extensive treatment.

The collection here seeks to fill this gap. It aims to identify what was unique or different about the Normans and their relationship with crusading and pilgrimage, as well as how and why crusade and pilgrimage were important to the Normans. Particular focus is given to Norman participation in the First Crusade, to Norman interaction in later crusading initiatives, to the significance of pilgrimage in diverse parts of the Norman world, and finally to the ways in which crusading and pilgrimage were recorded in Norman narrative. Ultimately, this volume aims to assess, in some cases to confirm, and in others to revise the established paradigm of the Normans as crusaders par excellence and as opportunists who used religion to serve other agendas.

 

Dr Kathryn Hurlock is Senior Lecturer in Medieval History at Manchester Metropolitan University; Dr Paul Oldfield is Lecturer in Medieval History at the University of Manchester.

 

Contributors: Andrew Abram, William M. Aird, Emily Albu, Joanna Drell, Leonie Hicks, Natasha Hodgson, Kathryn Hurlock, Alan V. Murray, Paul Oldfield, David S. Spear, Lucas Villegas-Aristizábal.

 

Lien/Link http://www.boydellandbrewer.com/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=14741

Nef Annliese, Conquérir et gouverner la Sicile islamique aux XIe et XIIe siècles

Nef Annliese, Conquérir et gouverner la Sicile islamique aux XIe et XIIe siècles (B.E.F.A.R.), Rome, 2011.

 

Résumé/abstract :

Conquérant la Sicile à partir du milieu du XIe siècle, les Hauteville sont les premiers à mettre en place un gouvernement qui se définit comme chrétien et, au moins en partie, de langue latine, tout en exerçant ses prérogatives sur une population majoritairement musulmane et arabophone. Pour ce faire, ils élaborent progressivement des instruments de gouvernement, mais se font aussi les mécènes d’une production culturelle qui a suscité admiration et commentaires jusqu’à aujourd’hui.

Cet ouvrage se présente comme une enquête sur les différentes dimensions du pouvoir des Hauteville de la conquête de la Sicile à la fin du XIIe siècle (politique linguistique, construction d’un État, mécénat, mais aussi contrôle des populations et du territoire). Il vise à dé-mythifier les représentations que l’on a souvent de ce long siècle de « tolérance », mais aussi à déconstruire l’idée que l’échec de la dynastie était écrit d’avance. Il postule néanmoins que la construction « normande » en Sicile demeure originale et novatrice et qu’elle fournit des éléments de comparaison utiles à tous ceux qui analysent les situations de conquête et de gouvernement minoritaire en contexte multiculturel.

 

Lien/Link http://www.publications.efrome.it/opencms/opencms/conqu%C3%A8rir_et_gouverner_la_sicile_islamique_aux_xie_et_xiie_si%C3%A8cles_d9e77dd7-e8e0-11e0-bed9-000c291eeace.html

Oldfield, Paul. Sanctity and Pilgrimage in Medieval Southern Italy, 1000-1200

Oldfield, Paul. Sanctity and Pilgrimage in Medieval Southern Italy, 1000-1200. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. pp. xvi, 310. $99.00 (hardback). ISBN: 9781107000285 (hardback).
Reviewed by: Valerie Ramseyer, Wellesley College
In The Medieval Review

Paul Oldfield’s book provides a comprehensive overview of the hagiographical sources related to southern Italy and Sicily from 1000 to 1200, as well as a detailed outline of the main features of sanctity and pilgrimage in the region. Drawing on a large body of primary and secondary sources, the author traces some of the important changes that occurred in the region with the arrival of the Normans, the development of papal and local programs of church reform, and the establishment of the crusader states in the Holy Land. One of the author’s main theses is that newly emerging political powers in the region, including Norman rulers, reform bishops and abbots, and urban communities, used cults of saints as a means to promote and legitimize their power. Continuer la lecture de Oldfield, Paul. Sanctity and Pilgrimage in Medieval Southern Italy, 1000-1200

Conquest: 1016, 1066 – Call for paper

An Interdisciplinary Anniversary Conference

Ioannou Centre and TORCH, Oxford, 21-24 July 2016

PAPER PROPOSAL DEADLINE 31 OCTOBER 2015

Sessions will run in parallel for 90 minutes each. Paper proposals in the general call should be for 20 minute papers, which will be scheduled in sessions of 3 papers each; if groups of people wish to propose a session in a different format, they are welcome to submit linked proposals. Session and paper proposers are asked to nominate one or more of the thematic strands in which their session/paper would fit:

  1. The Church; monasticism, clerical reform, theology, religious experience
  2. Literature, authors, and patronage
  3. Language and multilingualism, language contact
  4. Institutions and governance; lordship; kingship
  5. Warfare, battles, conduct in war, fighting men
  6. Art and material culture; music; court life
  7. Society and peoples
  8. Trade and commerce
  9. Space, movement, contact, networks; England and Europe, England and Scandinavia
  10. Historiography

Download the CALL FOR PAPERS (PDF)

Download the Paper Proposal form (Word document)

Email paper proposals by 31 October 2015.

Reading Augustine’s Confessions in Normandy in the 11th and 12th Centuries

Lire Les Confessions de saint Augustin en Normandie aux XIe et XIIe siècles

Lauren MANCIA (Department of History, Brooklyn College, New York)

http://www.unicaen.fr/mrsh/craham/revue/tabularia/print.php?dossier=dossier12&file=03mancia.xml

Abstract:
Scholars such as Pierre Courcelle have observed an intensification in interest in Augustine’s Confessionsin medieval Europe after the 11th century. This intensification was manifested in Normandy in two ways: first, in the early 11th century, Abbot John of Fécamp drew extensively from Augustine’s Confessions in his own Confessio Theologica; and second, book lists and extant manuscripts from the Norman monastic world show a marked increase in the number of copies of Confessions in Normandy by end of the 12th century. This article offers, for the first time, both an analysis of how John of Fécamp used Augustine’s work in his own Confessio and an interpretation of the manuscript evidence for the diffusion ofConfessions in Normandy. This study hopes to demonstrate how an analysis of contemporary intellectual interpretations of texts in Normandy can be used alongside paleographical examination of surviving copies to uncover both the ways in which and the reasons for which books circulated among the monastic houses.

Keywords: John of Fécamp, Confessions, St. Augustine of Hippo, monastic manuscript culture, monastic contemplation, 11th-century, 12th-century, Confessio Theologica, monasticism, Paris, BnF, ms lat. 1916

Continuer la lecture de Reading Augustine’s Confessions in Normandy in the 11th and 12th Centuries

Matveeva Elizaveta, Reconsidering the tradition: the Odinic hero as saga-protagonist

Matveeva Elizaveta, Reconsidering the tradition: the Odinic hero as saga-protagonist, (dir. J. Jesch, University of Nottingham)

En cours depuis ?/In preparation since ?

Résumé/abstract :

My project centres upon the representation of late Icelandic saga characters that are connected with Odinic motifs, and are usually based upon an earlier tradition of depicting a mortal hero consecrated to Óðinn. The major examples of such characters include Sigmundr, Sinfjötli and Sigurðr of Völsunga saga that goes back to Eddic poetry, and the eponymous kings and their champions in Hrólfs saga kraka and Halfs saga ok Halfsrekka. The aim of my thesis is to look at the perception and interpretation of these traditional storylines and their pagan theme in saga narrative of the Christian era, from both literary-critical and historical points of view.

[Source : http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/research/groups/csva/research/doctoral-research.aspx]

Dutton Douglas, Entering Óðinn’s Hall: ritual and remembrance

Dutton Douglas, Entering Óðinn’s Hall: ritual and remembrance, (dir. T. Wills, S. Brink, University of Aberdeen)

En cours depuis 2012/In preparation since 2012

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.abdn.ac.uk/sdhp/research-students-533.php]

McCullough Jess, Belief and practice in early Norse Greenland

McCullough Jess, Belief and practice in early Norse Greenland, (dir. D. O’Sullivan, N. Christie, University of Leicester)

En cours depuis 2012/In preparation since 2012

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/belief-and-practice-early-norse-greenland]

Barnwell Timothy, Missionaries and changing views of ‘the Other’ from the 9th to 12th centuries

Barnwell Timothy, Missionaries and changing views of ‘the Other’ from the 9th to 12th centuries, thèse soutenue en 2014, (dir. I. Wood, University of Leeds)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis explores the varying ways in which otherness was imagined and constructed in two clusters of medieval missionary texts: Rimbert’s Vita Anskarii and Adam of Bremen’s Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, from the archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen; and Bruno of Querfurt’s Passio Sancti Adalberti episcopi et martyris, Vita vel passio Benedicti et Iohannis sociorumque suorum and Epistola ad Heinricum Regem. Missionaries and the authors who described their work were uniquely concerned with those who lay beyond the geographical, political and spiritual boundaries of Christendom. Accordingly, they provide our principal sources for understanding how such groups were represented. In the first instance, this thesis is concerned with descriptions of groups physically located outside the Carolingian, Ottonian, and Salian Empires, particularly in the Scandinavian and Slavic worlds. But given the fluidity and interconnectedness of early medieval identities, it also encompasses representations of marginalised groups within Christendom such as slaves, women, heretics, Jews and political enemies. Following a brief introduction, the thesis begins by setting out the theoretical foundations of an understanding of otherness based on the expectation of variety. This forms a response to the totalising claims of many recent discussions of otherness. This is followed by a close analysis of each text, beginning with the Hamburg-Bremen material, before moving on to Bruno of Querfurt’s works. The aim is to reflect the peculiar dynamics of each work and, consequently, discussions of these authors’ literary and exegetical concerns form a substantial part of this study. Their presentation of groups within Christendom has also been emphasised; sometimes the other was closer to home. The thesis concludes by emphasising the conceptual variety revealed in each work. Key themes can be identified, but the presentation of otherness in all of these texts is far more diverse and conceptually fragmented than is usually appreciated in existing scholarship.

[Source : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/8741/]

Corsi Maria, Elite networks and courtly culture in medieval Denmark

Corsi Maria, Elite networks and courtly culture in medieval Denmark: Denmark in Europe, 1st to 14th centuries, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. Sally N. Vaughn, University of Houston)

Résumé/abstract :

This dissertation advances the study of the cultural integration of Denmark with continental Europe in the Middle Ages. By approaching the question with a view to the longue durée, it argues that Danish aristocratic culture had been heavily influenced by trends on the Continent since at least the Roman Iron Age, so that when Denmark adopted European courtly culture, it did so simultaneously to its development in the rest of Europe. Because elite culture as it manifested itself in the Middle Ages was an amalgamation of that of Ancient Rome and the Geiuianic tribes, its origins in Denmark is sought in the interactions between the Danish territory and the Roman Empire. Elites in Denmark sought to emulate Roman culture as a marker of status, with pan-European elite networks facilitating the incorporation of Roman material items and social norms in Denmark, thus setting the pattern for later periods. These types of networks continued to play an important role in the interactions between Denmark and the successor kingdoms to the Roman Empire in the Early Middle Ages, leading to the development of an increasingly homogenized elite culture in Denmark and on the Continent. Danish elites drew on the material and ideological cultural models of their southern neighbors, using Frankish imports to signify status and power, much as Roman imports had been used earlier. The economic, diplomatic, and military ties that developed in the Early Middle Ages remained important conduits for the adoption of European aristocratic culture into the High Middle Ages, while the conversion to Christianity by the Danes enabled Danish elites to take part in the new educational networks associated with the rise of universities across Europe. All of these long-standing ties meant that the Danish aristocracy actively participated in the development of medieval courtly culture, including cavalry warfare and knighthood, courtly food consumption and feasting, and courtly dress and ornamentation, resulting in increased social differentiation between those who could take part in the new courtly culture and those who could not. Thus, Denmark was never outside of Europe, and when Danish elites adopted medieval chivalric and courtly culture, they did so contemporaneously with their counterparts in other parts of Europe.

[Source : https://repositories.tdl.org/uh-ir/handle/10657/726]

Kapitaikin Lev, The twelfth-century paintings of the ceilings of the Cappella Palatina, Palermo

Kapitaikin, Lev, The twelfth-century paintings of the ceilings of the Cappella Palatina, Palermo, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. J. Johns, University of Oxford)

Résumé/abstract :

The three ‘Islamic’ ceilings of the Cappella Palatina in Palermo, the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Sicily, were commissioned by king Roger II around 1143. The grandiose muqarnas (stalactite) ceiling of the nave and the two smaller ceilings of the two aisles were just one part of the opulent, multifaceted decoration of the royal chapel, that included also Byzantine mosaics with Christian scenes and Southern-Italian marble pavements and revetments. As with other medieval chapels of palaces, the Cappella Palatina served concomitantly as a royal audience hall, a thing evidenced by the great throne platform at its west end. The paintings of the three ceilings present ‘Islamic’ figural and ornamental decoration and Arabic inscriptions, the salient subject-matter of which is the Islamic royal banquet, the majlis, centered upon the king. The study presents new stylistic and iconographic evidence to show that the painters of the ceilings came mainly from Fatimid Egypt, and that the paintings could reflect also some impact of the Christian arts of that country, if not the actual participation of Coptic artists in their production. Despite the predominantly Islamic subject-matter of the paintings, their imagery was simultaneously enriched with Christian themes, the models for which were likely provided by Romanesque, Middle-Byzantine, and – to a lesser extent – Coptic artwork. Far from being an alien ‘Oriental’ element incorporated into the otherwise Christian chapel, the designer/s of the chapel actually sought to manipulate the Islamic princely imagery of the ceilings through the insertion of Christian ‘triumphal’ themes and a few crosses in the paintings. The Christian scenes were, moreover, placed in focal programmatic points at the ceilings, and associated spatially with ceremonial and-liturgical features of the chapel, namely: the royal throne platform at the west end, and the entrance to the sanctuary at the east. The ‘Islamicate’ – rather than Islamic – ceilings and their imagery were thus adapted to the Christian setting within the palatine chapel of the Norman monarchs.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=1&uin=uk.bl.ethos.550801]

Ihnat Kati, Mary and the Jews in Anglo-Norman monastic culture

Ihnat Kati, Mary and the Jews in Anglo-Norman monastic culture, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. M. Rubin, Queen Mary University)

Résumé/abstract :

Anglo-Norman England saw the development of two parallel and related phenomena: the growth of the cult of the Virgin Mary and increasing engagement with ideas about Jews and Judaism. This thesis looks at the ways in which Benedictine monks contributed to the fashioning of images of Jews in sources related to the Marian cult in the post-Conquest period, 1066-1154. Approaching monastic culture from an interdisciplinary perspective, it examines materials as diverse as sermons, liturgy, theological treatises, and art and architecture for the evolution of the Marian cult after the arrival of the Normans, tracing the reform of liturgical practices that spurred considerable innovation in the cult’s development. It explores these same sources for images of Jews, and finds that Jews were at the centre of reflection on Mary in theological and apocryphal traditions dating back to early Christianity, with Jews acting as prototypical doubters of Mary’s sanctity and virginity. Taken up with renewed interest in Anglo-Norman England, theological consideration of Mary’s place in the Christian narrative was complemented by the first compilation of collections of her miracles, part of an impulse to record the lives and miracles of saints in post-Conquest England. As a fundamental yet little explored element of the Marian cult, the miracles showcase liturgical practices worthy of reward, and contrast her devotees with Jews, portrayed as sacrilegious, blaspheming and violent. Through miracle, sermon, liturgy and theology, English monasteries at the turn of the twelfth century helped to construct images of Jews connected with the burgeoning cult of the Virgin that had a lasting and pervasive legacy.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.545955]

Jessen Mads, The sacred space in a time of religious change

Jessen Mads, The sacred space in a time of religious change: Material and conceptual interaction in ritual environments during the Christianization of South Scandinavia, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (Université d’Aarhus)

Sheldon Gwendolyn, The Conversion of the Vikings in Ireland from a Comparative Perspective

Sheldon Gwendolyn, The Conversion of the Vikings in Ireland from a Comparative Perspective, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. A. Orchard, Université de Toronto)

Résumé/abstract :

The history of the Viking invasions in England and what is now France in the ninth and tenth centuries is fairly well documented by medieval chroniclers. The process by which these people adopted Christianity, however, is not. The written and archaeological evidence that we can cobble together indicates that the Scandinavians who settled in England and Normandy converted very quickly. Their conversion was clearly closely associated with settlement on the land. Though Scandinavians in both countries expressed no interest in Christianity as long as they engaged in a Viking lifestyle, characterized by rootless plundering, they almost always accepted Christianity within one or two generations of becoming peasants, even when they lived in heavily Scandinavian, Norse-speaking communities. While the early history of the Vikings in Ireland was similar to that of the Vikings elsewhere, it soon took a different course. While English and French leaders were able to set aside land on which they encouraged the Scandinavians to settle, none of the many petty Irish kings had the wealth or power to do this. The Vikings in Ireland were therefore forced to maintain a lifestyle based on plunder and trade. Over time, they became concentrated into a few port towns from which they travelled inland to conduct raids and then exported what they had stolen from other parts of the Scandinavian diaspora. Having congregated at a few small sites, most prominently Dublin, they remained distinct from the rest of Ireland for centuries. The evidence suggests that they took about four generations to convert. Their conversion differed from that of Scandinavians elsewhere not only in that it was so delayed, but also in that, unlike in England and Normandy, it was not associated with the re-establishment of an ecclesiastical hierarchy. Rather, when the Scandinavians in Ireland did convert, they did so because they were evangelized by monastic communities, in particular the familia of Colum Cille, who had not fled from foundations close to the Viking ports. These communities were probably driven by political concerns to take an interest in the rising Scandinavian towns.