Archives de catégorie : Population, environnement, vie et mort / Population, environment, life and death

Brewington Seth, Social-Ecological Resilience in the Viking-Age to Early-Medieval Faroe Islands

Brewington Seth, Social-Ecological Resilience in the Viking-Age to Early-Medieval Faroe Islands, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (City University of New York)

Continuer la lecture de Brewington Seth, Social-Ecological Resilience in the Viking-Age to Early-Medieval Faroe Islands

Ljung Cecilia, Under runristad häll : Tidigkristna gravmonument i 1000-talets Sverige

Ljung Cecilia, Under runristad häll : Tidigkristna gravmonument i 1000-talets Sverige, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (Stockholm University)

Continuer la lecture de Ljung Cecilia, Under runristad häll : Tidigkristna gravmonument i 1000-talets Sverige

Séminaire du Centre Michel de Bouärd-CRAHAM

Dans le cadre du séminaire du Centre Michel de Boüard-CRAHAM « Histoire, archéologie et civilisations des mondes anciens et médiévaux »

13 fév. 2015, 14-17h | Les transferts culturels vers le monde scandinave : traduction, transmission et réception vers la littérature norroise médiévale. MRSH, salle des Actes, SH 027

Hélène TÉTREL (Université de Bretagne occidentale, CRBC, EA 4451/UMS 3554), Peut-on parler d’une « réception tardive » de la matière arthurienne en Scandinavie médiévale ?

Hanna Steinunn THORLEIFSDOTTIR (UCBN, ERLIS, EA 4254), La fascination des chevaliers dans la littérature médiévale nordique

27 fév. 2015, 14-17h | Migrations, diasporas et populations du passé. Amphi Rouelle, bâtiment M, SA 111)

Richard JONES (Université de Leicester), The Impact of Diaspora and the Making of Britain : History, Archaeology and Genetics

Christina LEE (Université de Nottingham), Unhealthy Vikings ?

{source: http://www.unicaen.fr/crahm/spip.php?article791]

Leroux Nicolas, L’anthropisation médiévale des rives de la Seine entre Rouen et le Havre et ses conséquences économiques

Leroux Nicolas, L’anthropisation médiévale des rives de la Seine entre Rouen et le Havre et ses conséquences économiques, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012 (dir. A.-M. Flambard Héricher, Université de Rouen)

Résumé/abstract :

Étymologiquement, l’anthropisation est l’effet de l’action humaine sur les milieux naturels. On voit l’ambiguïté de cette définition : l’homme serait-il exclu d’un milieu qui ne serait naturel qu’en son absence ? Cependant, pour donner un sens opérationnel à la notion d’anthropisation, il faut remarquer que ce concept s’est imposé à partir du moment où un bilan s’est avéré nécessaire, l’aspect négatif des actions humaines apparaît en filigrane, puis en surimpression sur leur aspect positif, envisagé jusque-là exclusivement en toute bonne conscience civilisatrice. Alors, circonscrite, l’anthropisation est la conséquence des actions humaines conduisant à un appauvrissement, une dégradation, voire une destruction des écosystèmes parfois à la création d’autres plus ou moins artificiels. L’impact humain sur l’environnement conduit à quelques remarques économiques sur la basse vallée de la Seine du VIIe au XVIe siècle. Lutter contre les divagations du fleuve, exploiter les matières premières, les ressources souterraines de cette vallée, profiter des richesses de la Seine et essayer d’établir des passages permettant les échanges entre les deux rives opposées tentent de répondre à l’intérêt que l’Homme a porté au milieu naturel entre les invasions normandes et le début du XVIe siècle. Plusieurs groupes humains s’intéressèrent à cette artère séquanienne ; les grands seigneurs (barons, comtes et rois) et les ecclésiastiques voulaient laisser leur empreinte dans cette grande vallée fluviale entre Rouen et le Havre. L’Histoire, celle que l’on écrit avec un grand H, laisse des traces dans la terre, nous propulsant quelquefois plusieurs siècles en arrière. L’Histoire ne peut s’effacer, parce qu’elle appartient à notre héritage et conditionnant notre présent et tout le futur, insaisissable.

Source : http://grhis.univ-rouen.fr/grhis/?page_id=1325

The Isle of Man Viking Ancestry study

The Isle of Man Viking Ancestry study

Responsables du projet/Project leaders :

Mark Jobling (maj4@le.ac.uk), Simon James (stj3@le.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of Leicester

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

This University of Leicester-funded study is being carried out by Hayley Dunn under the joint supervision of Professor Mark Jobling (Department of Genetics) and Dr Simon James (School of Archaeology) as part of research leading to a PhD degree. The aim of project is to look at the proportion of Viking ancestry among the inhabitants of the Isle of Man.

In this project we will exploit the power of the link we have previously shown between surnames and Y-chromosomal DNA (both of which are passed from father to son). We will use historical lists of surnames present on the Isle of Man in medieval times to recruit modern donor samples to mimic the population of the past. We will analyse Y chromosomes because these are linked with surnames, and then estimate proportions of Norwegian ancestry in these samples.

[Lien/Link : http://www2.le.ac.uk/projects/impact-of-diasporas/projects-1/IsleofMan]

McCooey Bernadette, Farming practices in medieval Iceland

McCooey Bernadette, Farming practices in medieval Iceland, (University of Birmingham)

En cours depuis 2011/In preparation since 2011

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/cesma/members/graduate-research-students.aspx]

Hogg Lara, Humans and animals in the Norse North Atlantic

Hogg Lara, Humans and animals in the Norse North Atlantic, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (Cardiff University)

Résumé/abstract :

It is a well-established fact that all human societies have coexisted with and are dependent upon animals and it is increasingly recognized that the study of human-animal relationships provides vital insights into past human societies. Still this is yet to be widely embraced in archaeology. This thesis has examined human-animal interdependencies to explore the social identities and structure of society in the Norse North Atlantic. Benefitting from recent research advances in animal studies and the ever increasing volume of archaeological reports from Norse period archaeological excavations the North Atlantic this thesis was able to develop previous scholarship and define directions for future research. The thesis explored the role of animals in human society in the North Atlantic to reveal the complex Norse societies that existed. It revealed through human interdependencies with animals that these societies were far from homogeneous and had their own distinct identities with the individual islands as well as across the North Atlantic. The thesis achieved this by examining several important discrete but interlinked themes. These themes were divided into four chapters that focused on the individual aspects. This included an examination of previous North Atlantic Viking Age scholarship, consideration of human construction and perception of landscape through archaeological excavations, investigation of the role of domestic animals in human social activities, and an exploration of the role of domesticated animals in beliefs. Although these are all connected the structure of the thesis was deliberately chosen to restrict repetition, although given the interconnected nature of human social identities, society and worldview this was not entirely possible. This thesis addressed some of the most fundamental questions in Norse archaeology. Notably, through examination of human-animal interdependencies, it provided a detailed insight into how Norse society understood and perceived the world, and consequently the structure of Norse society and social identities.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=1&uin=uk.bl.ethos.683662]

Devenney Amy, Miracles and medicine in the Norman kingdom of Sicily

Devenney Amy, Miracles and medicine in the Norman kingdom of Sicily, (dir. G. Loud, P. Oldfield, I. McCleery, University of Leeds)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

My PhD research focuses on the issues of health and healthcare in the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Using predominantly hagiographical sources it aims to understand the relationship between religion and medicine within this region; to explore the attitudes and experiences of medieval people towards health; to investigate the healthcare available to the sick in medieval Southern Italy; and to explore the medieval mentalities towards those cases that we would now term ‘mental’ illness.

[Source : http://www.leeds.ac.uk/arts/profile/20046/994/amy_devenney]

Bankier Anne, Norse settlements and contacts in north Argyll

Bankier Anne, Norse settlements and contacts in north Argyll, (dir. C. Batey, University of Glasgow)

En cours depuis 2007/In preparation since 2007

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/norse-settlements-and-contacts-north-argyll]

The Conqueror’s Commissioners: Unlocking the Domesday Survey of South-Western England

The Conqueror’s Commissioners: Unlocking the Domesday Survey of South-Western England

Responsables du projet/Project leaders :

Julia Crick (julia.crick@kcl.ac.uk), Stephen Baxter (stephen.baxter@spc.ox.ac.uk), Peter Stokes (peter.stokes@kcl.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

King’s College London

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The Exon Domesday is the earliest manuscript of William the Conqueror’s Domesday survey. Written in the South West nearly 1000 years ago, and housed at Exeter for most or all of its lifetime, it is the most complete and extensive record of the data collected by commissioners working across England at the end of the Conqueror’s reign. It records data for Devon, Cornwall, Dorset, Somerset and Wiltshire before the process of editing and simplification which produced Great Domesday Book, the version of Domesday Book known to all and preserved at the National Archives at Kew. Exon Domesday provides unique information about the landscape and population of these counties in the generation before and after the Norman conquest of 1066. Researchers also hope that Exon Domesday will contain the key to understanding the Domesday survey itself, one of the most remarkable demonstrations of the effectiveness of royal government in the Middle Ages.

The interdisciplinary team, led by Professor Julia Crick (King’s College London), Dr Stephen Baxter (University of Oxford) and Dr Peter Stokes (King’s College London) and supported by a panel of international experts, will subject the manuscript and its contents to intensive scrutiny in an effort to reconstruct how the survey worked and how its results were recorded. Their project will create a freely available digital resource for the use of schools, local historians, and academic researchers across the world. High resolution photography will produce a digital surrogate of Exon Domesday; an accompanying Latin text and English translation will make the text available for the first time; a database will record the detailed findings of the research and a printed companion will also be published to provide a permanent record of the project. The project, designed in association with the Cathedral Library and Archives will be accompanied by public events at the cathedral, a series of talks in other cathedrals and across the South West.

[Lien/Link : http://www.exeter-cathedral.org.uk/content/news/exon-domesday-book-unlocked-for-future-generations.ashx]

The Mosfell Archaeological Project (MAP)

The Mosfell Archaeological Project (MAP)

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Jesse Byock (byock@humnet.ucla.edu)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of California Los Angeles

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The Mosfell Archaeological Project is an interdisciplinary research project employing the tools of history, archaeology, anthropology, forensics, environmental sciences, and saga studies. The work will construct a picture of human habitation and environmental change in the region of Mosfell in southwestern Iceland. The Mosfell Valley (Mosfellsdalur), the surrounding highlands, and the lowland coastal areas are a Avalley system, that is, as an interlocking series of natural and man-made pieces, that beginning in the ninth-century settlement or landnám period developed into a functioning Viking Age, Icelandic community. Focusing on this valley system, our task is to unearth the prehistory and early history of the Mosfell region. We seek the data to provide an in-depth understanding of how this countryside or sveit evolved from its earliest origins.

The Mosfell Archaeological Project has implications for the larger study of Viking Age and later medieval Iceland, as well as perhaps for the north Atlantic world. Mosfellssveit encapsulates the major ecologies of Iceland: coastal, riverine, and highland. Culturally, the region is equally representative. In some ways it was a self-contained social and economic unit. In other ways, it was connected to the rest of Iceland, not least, through a network of roads, including an east-west route to the nearby meeting of the yearly Althing. With its coastal port at Leiruvogur, the region was in commercial and cultural contact with the larger Scandinavian and European worlds, possibly as far east as Constantinople.

The research, in reconstructing the early social history of the Mosfell Valley region, will integrate information on the changing periods of occupation. We will excavate individual sites, both secular and religious, and consider their placement in relationship to one another. We will examine the apportionment of open spaces and the utilization of common lands in the highlands and on the coast. Written, archaeological, and other scientific information will be integrated into this study as we construct a picture of early life.

The different specialists on our team will explore among other subjects the development of roads and paths, the importance of the ships landings at Leiruvogur, the changes over time in subsistence strategies, the state of health and disease in the Viking Age and later population, developments in building technics, and the usage of smaller activity areas, such as the sel, or summer dairy stations. Crucial tasks are finding the locations of early farm sites, the remains of turf buildings, roads, burials, agricultural enclosures, and port facilities before they are destroyed by modern construction or lost to human memory.

[Lien/Link : http://www.viking.ucla.edu/mosfell_project/]

Dockrill Stephen James, Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles : a multidisciplinary approach

Dockrill Stephen James,  Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles : a multidisciplinary approach, archaeological research into long term settlements and their associated arable fields from the Neolithic to the Norse periods, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. C. P. Heron, L. D. Brown, Université de Bradford)

Résumé/abstract :
The research contained in these papers embodies both results from direct archaeological investigation and also the development of techniques (geophysical, chronological and geoarchaeological) in order to understand long-term settlements and their associated landscapes in Orkney and Shetland. Central to this research has been the study of soil management strategies of arable plots surrounding settlements from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. It is argued that this arable system provides higher yields in marginal locations. The ability to enhance yield in good years and to store surplus can mitigate against shortage. Control and storage of this surplus is seen as one catalyst for the economic power of elite groups over their underlying or ‘client’ population. The emergence of a social elite in the Iron Age, building brochs and other substantial roundhouses of near broch proportions, is seen as being linked to the control of resources. Evidence at the site of Old Scatness indicated that there was a continuity of wealth and power from the Middle Iron Age through the Pictish period, before the appearance of the Vikings produced a break in the archaeological record. The Viking period saw a break in building traditions, the introduction of new artefacts and changes in farming and fishing strategies. Each of the papers represents a contribution that builds on these themes.

Kupiec Patrycja, Transhumance in the North Atlantic

Kupiec Patrycja, Transhumance in the North Atlantic : an interdisciplinary approach to the identification and interpretation of Viking-Age and Medieval shieling sites, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (University of Aberdeen)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis contributes new archaeological evidence to the debate on transhumance in the Viking and Medieval Periods in Iceland and the Outer Hebrides. It examines shielings in these two regions at new levels of detail, and with new techniques, to improve previous methodologies for the identification of periodically occupied settlements. It presents detailed geoarchaeological studies of the floor deposits at both known and putative shieling sites in Iceland and the Western Isles, which demonstrate that micromorphological analysis is a method capable of distinguishing between periods of punctuated and permanent occupation. The results of these analyses form the basis of a new analytical and interpretive framework suited to identify and study periodic occupation at shieling sites in the North Atlantic region. The micromorphological studies, contextualized by a review of ethnographic sources, provide new insights into the potential flexibility of the type and duration of occupation at Icelandic and Hebridean shielings, and demonstrate that high-resolution geoarchaeological techniques might be essential to disentangle these changes. By integrating archaeological, historical, and ethnographic sources for the first time, this work also provides new insights into Norse shieling economies in Iceland and the Western Isles of Scotland. This analysis reveals a picture of multi-faceted shieling activities, with the use of shielings adapted to fit unique local conditions in different Norse colonies, proving that rigid models cannot be used to study past transhumant practices. The study of the archaeology of Viking-age and medieval shielings, and the medieval saga literature and later folklore that relate to shielings, demonstrates that shielings were conceptualized as different to farms, and that they played an important role in shaping the social relationships and identities of those engaged in summer transhumance. Through this holistic approach to the study of Viking-age and medieval shielings, a fuller picture of Norse society emerges, in which seasonal pastoral settlements are given a more prominent place alongside other features of the Viking and medieval landscape in the North Atlantic region.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.698843]

Jessen Mads, The sacred space in a time of religious change

Jessen Mads, The sacred space in a time of religious change: Material and conceptual interaction in ritual environments during the Christianization of South Scandinavia, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (Université d’Aarhus)

Mooney Dawn Elise, The use and control of wood resources in Viking Age and medieval Iceland

Mooney Dawn Elise, The use and control of wood resources in Viking Age and medieval Iceland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. K. Milek, A. Cameron, Université d’Aberdeen)

Résumé/abstract :
This project investigates the use of wood in Iceland during the Viking and Early Medieval Periods, and discusses the control and management of wood resources and their variation over space and time. Previous palaeoenvironmental studies and historical sources had suggested that after the colonisation of Iceland around AD 870, the Norse settlers cleared the native Icelandic birch woodland to make way for hay fields, and used the timber for fuel and construction, rapidly reducing the woodland cover from its original 18-40% to the 1% present today. This investigation, which compares archaeological evidence to information about wood resources given in historical sources, reassesses these traditional models and interprets the decline of Icelandic woodland in relation to the utilisation and control of wood resources on the island, to understand the relationships between sites in terms of wood procurement, control and sharing. Wood anatomical analysis is used to assign taxonomic identifications to wooden artefacts and charred and mineralised wood remains from ten study sites across Iceland, allowing the origin of these assemblages to be identified as native wood, driftwood or imported wood. Understanding the distribution of non-native woods is essential to the understanding of how wood resources were shared and controlled on the island. The results show that despite the decline of the native woodlands, wood continued to be used as fuel and in artefact production and the construction of buildings and boats throughout the Medieval Period, and that the control of access to these resources was key to their continued availability. This project integrates for the first time archaeological, environmental and historical evidence, resulting in a holistic view of wood use during Viking Age and Medieval Iceland, and provides an important contribution to the understanding of natural resource use and human-environment interactions in the North Atlantic region.