Archives de catégorie : Population, environnement, vie et mort / Population, environment, life and death

Séminaire du Centre Michel de Bouärd-CRAHAM

Dans le cadre du séminaire du Centre Michel de Boüard-CRAHAM « Histoire, archéologie et civilisations des mondes anciens et médiévaux »

13 fév. 2015, 14-17h | Les transferts culturels vers le monde scandinave : traduction, transmission et réception vers la littérature norroise médiévale. MRSH, salle des Actes, SH 027

Hélène TÉTREL (Université de Bretagne occidentale, CRBC, EA 4451/UMS 3554), Peut-on parler d’une « réception tardive » de la matière arthurienne en Scandinavie médiévale ?

Hanna Steinunn THORLEIFSDOTTIR (UCBN, ERLIS, EA 4254), La fascination des chevaliers dans la littérature médiévale nordique

27 fév. 2015, 14-17h | Migrations, diasporas et populations du passé. Amphi Rouelle, bâtiment M, SA 111)

Richard JONES (Université de Leicester), The Impact of Diaspora and the Making of Britain : History, Archaeology and Genetics

Christina LEE (Université de Nottingham), Unhealthy Vikings ?

{source: http://www.unicaen.fr/crahm/spip.php?article791]

Leroux Nicolas, L’anthropisation médiévale des rives de la Seine entre Rouen et le Havre et ses conséquences économiques

Leroux Nicolas, L’anthropisation médiévale des rives de la Seine entre Rouen et le Havre et ses conséquences économiques, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012 (dir. A.-M. Flambard Héricher, Université de Rouen)

Résumé/abstract :

Étymologiquement, l’anthropisation est l’effet de l’action humaine sur les milieux naturels. On voit l’ambiguïté de cette définition : l’homme serait-il exclu d’un milieu qui ne serait naturel qu’en son absence ? Cependant, pour donner un sens opérationnel à la notion d’anthropisation, il faut remarquer que ce concept s’est imposé à partir du moment où un bilan s’est avéré nécessaire, l’aspect négatif des actions humaines apparaît en filigrane, puis en surimpression sur leur aspect positif, envisagé jusque-là exclusivement en toute bonne conscience civilisatrice. Alors, circonscrite, l’anthropisation est la conséquence des actions humaines conduisant à un appauvrissement, une dégradation, voire une destruction des écosystèmes parfois à la création d’autres plus ou moins artificiels. L’impact humain sur l’environnement conduit à quelques remarques économiques sur la basse vallée de la Seine du VIIe au XVIe siècle. Lutter contre les divagations du fleuve, exploiter les matières premières, les ressources souterraines de cette vallée, profiter des richesses de la Seine et essayer d’établir des passages permettant les échanges entre les deux rives opposées tentent de répondre à l’intérêt que l’Homme a porté au milieu naturel entre les invasions normandes et le début du XVIe siècle. Plusieurs groupes humains s’intéressèrent à cette artère séquanienne ; les grands seigneurs (barons, comtes et rois) et les ecclésiastiques voulaient laisser leur empreinte dans cette grande vallée fluviale entre Rouen et le Havre. L’Histoire, celle que l’on écrit avec un grand H, laisse des traces dans la terre, nous propulsant quelquefois plusieurs siècles en arrière. L’Histoire ne peut s’effacer, parce qu’elle appartient à notre héritage et conditionnant notre présent et tout le futur, insaisissable.

Source : http://grhis.univ-rouen.fr/grhis/?page_id=1325

The Isle of Man Viking Ancestry study

The Isle of Man Viking Ancestry study

Responsables du projet/Project leaders :

Mark Jobling (maj4@le.ac.uk), Simon James (stj3@le.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of Leicester

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

This University of Leicester-funded study is being carried out by Hayley Dunn under the joint supervision of Professor Mark Jobling (Department of Genetics) and Dr Simon James (School of Archaeology) as part of research leading to a PhD degree. The aim of project is to look at the proportion of Viking ancestry among the inhabitants of the Isle of Man.

In this project we will exploit the power of the link we have previously shown between surnames and Y-chromosomal DNA (both of which are passed from father to son). We will use historical lists of surnames present on the Isle of Man in medieval times to recruit modern donor samples to mimic the population of the past. We will analyse Y chromosomes because these are linked with surnames, and then estimate proportions of Norwegian ancestry in these samples.

[Lien/Link : http://www2.le.ac.uk/projects/impact-of-diasporas/projects-1/IsleofMan]

McCooey Bernadette, Farming practices in medieval Iceland

McCooey Bernadette, Farming practices in medieval Iceland, (University of Birmingham)

En cours depuis 2011/In preparation since 2011

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/cesma/members/graduate-research-students.aspx]

Devenney Amy, Miracles and medicine in the Norman kingdom of Sicily

Devenney Amy, Miracles and medicine in the Norman kingdom of Sicily, (dir. G. Loud, P. Oldfield, I. McCleery, University of Leeds)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

My PhD research focuses on the issues of health and healthcare in the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Using predominantly hagiographical sources it aims to understand the relationship between religion and medicine within this region; to explore the attitudes and experiences of medieval people towards health; to investigate the healthcare available to the sick in medieval Southern Italy; and to explore the medieval mentalities towards those cases that we would now term ‘mental’ illness.

[Source : http://www.leeds.ac.uk/arts/profile/20046/994/amy_devenney]

Bankier Anne, Norse settlements and contacts in north Argyll

Bankier Anne, Norse settlements and contacts in north Argyll, (dir. C. Batey, University of Glasgow)

En cours depuis 2007/In preparation since 2007

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/norse-settlements-and-contacts-north-argyll]

The Conqueror’s Commissioners: Unlocking the Domesday Survey of South-Western England

The Conqueror’s Commissioners: Unlocking the Domesday Survey of South-Western England

Responsables du projet/Project leaders :

Julia Crick (julia.crick@kcl.ac.uk), Stephen Baxter (stephen.baxter@spc.ox.ac.uk), Peter Stokes (peter.stokes@kcl.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

King’s College London

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The Exon Domesday is the earliest manuscript of William the Conqueror’s Domesday survey. Written in the South West nearly 1000 years ago, and housed at Exeter for most or all of its lifetime, it is the most complete and extensive record of the data collected by commissioners working across England at the end of the Conqueror’s reign. It records data for Devon, Cornwall, Dorset, Somerset and Wiltshire before the process of editing and simplification which produced Great Domesday Book, the version of Domesday Book known to all and preserved at the National Archives at Kew. Exon Domesday provides unique information about the landscape and population of these counties in the generation before and after the Norman conquest of 1066. Researchers also hope that Exon Domesday will contain the key to understanding the Domesday survey itself, one of the most remarkable demonstrations of the effectiveness of royal government in the Middle Ages.

The interdisciplinary team, led by Professor Julia Crick (King’s College London), Dr Stephen Baxter (University of Oxford) and Dr Peter Stokes (King’s College London) and supported by a panel of international experts, will subject the manuscript and its contents to intensive scrutiny in an effort to reconstruct how the survey worked and how its results were recorded. Their project will create a freely available digital resource for the use of schools, local historians, and academic researchers across the world. High resolution photography will produce a digital surrogate of Exon Domesday; an accompanying Latin text and English translation will make the text available for the first time; a database will record the detailed findings of the research and a printed companion will also be published to provide a permanent record of the project. The project, designed in association with the Cathedral Library and Archives will be accompanied by public events at the cathedral, a series of talks in other cathedrals and across the South West.

[Lien/Link : http://www.exeter-cathedral.org.uk/content/news/exon-domesday-book-unlocked-for-future-generations.ashx]

The Mosfell Archaeological Project (MAP)

The Mosfell Archaeological Project (MAP)

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Jesse Byock (byock@humnet.ucla.edu)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of California Los Angeles

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The Mosfell Archaeological Project is an interdisciplinary research project employing the tools of history, archaeology, anthropology, forensics, environmental sciences, and saga studies. The work will construct a picture of human habitation and environmental change in the region of Mosfell in southwestern Iceland. The Mosfell Valley (Mosfellsdalur), the surrounding highlands, and the lowland coastal areas are a Avalley system, that is, as an interlocking series of natural and man-made pieces, that beginning in the ninth-century settlement or landnám period developed into a functioning Viking Age, Icelandic community. Focusing on this valley system, our task is to unearth the prehistory and early history of the Mosfell region. We seek the data to provide an in-depth understanding of how this countryside or sveit evolved from its earliest origins.

The Mosfell Archaeological Project has implications for the larger study of Viking Age and later medieval Iceland, as well as perhaps for the north Atlantic world. Mosfellssveit encapsulates the major ecologies of Iceland: coastal, riverine, and highland. Culturally, the region is equally representative. In some ways it was a self-contained social and economic unit. In other ways, it was connected to the rest of Iceland, not least, through a network of roads, including an east-west route to the nearby meeting of the yearly Althing. With its coastal port at Leiruvogur, the region was in commercial and cultural contact with the larger Scandinavian and European worlds, possibly as far east as Constantinople.

The research, in reconstructing the early social history of the Mosfell Valley region, will integrate information on the changing periods of occupation. We will excavate individual sites, both secular and religious, and consider their placement in relationship to one another. We will examine the apportionment of open spaces and the utilization of common lands in the highlands and on the coast. Written, archaeological, and other scientific information will be integrated into this study as we construct a picture of early life.

The different specialists on our team will explore among other subjects the development of roads and paths, the importance of the ships landings at Leiruvogur, the changes over time in subsistence strategies, the state of health and disease in the Viking Age and later population, developments in building technics, and the usage of smaller activity areas, such as the sel, or summer dairy stations. Crucial tasks are finding the locations of early farm sites, the remains of turf buildings, roads, burials, agricultural enclosures, and port facilities before they are destroyed by modern construction or lost to human memory.

[Lien/Link : http://www.viking.ucla.edu/mosfell_project/]

Dockrill Stephen James, Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles : a multidisciplinary approach

Dockrill Stephen James,  Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles : a multidisciplinary approach, archaeological research into long term settlements and their associated arable fields from the Neolithic to the Norse periods, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. C. P. Heron, L. D. Brown, Université de Bradford)

Résumé/abstract :
The research contained in these papers embodies both results from direct archaeological investigation and also the development of techniques (geophysical, chronological and geoarchaeological) in order to understand long-term settlements and their associated landscapes in Orkney and Shetland. Central to this research has been the study of soil management strategies of arable plots surrounding settlements from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. It is argued that this arable system provides higher yields in marginal locations. The ability to enhance yield in good years and to store surplus can mitigate against shortage. Control and storage of this surplus is seen as one catalyst for the economic power of elite groups over their underlying or ‘client’ population. The emergence of a social elite in the Iron Age, building brochs and other substantial roundhouses of near broch proportions, is seen as being linked to the control of resources. Evidence at the site of Old Scatness indicated that there was a continuity of wealth and power from the Middle Iron Age through the Pictish period, before the appearance of the Vikings produced a break in the archaeological record. The Viking period saw a break in building traditions, the introduction of new artefacts and changes in farming and fishing strategies. Each of the papers represents a contribution that builds on these themes.

Kupiec Patrycja, Transhumance and Norse colonization in the North Atlantic

Kupiec Patrycja, Transhumance and Norse colonization in the North Atlantic: a micromorphological approach, (dir. K. Milek, University of Aberdeen)

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Résumé/abstract :

The seasonal movement of grazing livestock to upland pastures (shielings) is believed to have played an important role in the subsistence economics of small farms in Scandinavia and the North Atlantic region during the Viking Age, Medieval and post-Medieval periods. Although, historical sources, saga literature, place-name evidence and oral tradition strongly suggest that transhumance was practised shortly after the Norse began to settle in the North Atlantic region in the ninth century, the archaeological evidence to support this is scarce. In the past, shielings have proven difficult to identify archaeologically on account of shared spatial characteristics with small farms. My doctoral research examines the potential of geoarchaeological approaches to identify transhumance activities in two contrasting regions of Viking colonization: Iceland and Scotland. By comparing data from Scottish and Icelandic shielings this project explores the process of land-taking in the Viking Age, the degree to which Norse settlers were influenced by pre-Norse settlement patterns and land-use practices, and the creation and perception of landscapes in these new colonies. A detailed study of occupation sequences excavated on shieling sites will improve our knowledge of subsistence practices and everyday life of Viking and Pictish farmers. By placing shielings with other features of Viking and Medieval landscape in the North Atlantic region a fuller picture of the Norse society will emerge, in which all aspects of the land use are considered together as a part of an integrated whole. The results of landscape studies and high-resolution sedimentary histories of shielings selected as case-studies will be contextualised against a review of medieval saga literature, medieval laws, and later folk stories and ethnographic accounts to elucidate not only the economic role of shielings, but also their cultural and social significance. Through combining archaeology, historical and literary sources this project aims to enrich our grasp of the concepts of identity mediated through shielings, as well as yearly cycles and agricultural cosmologies of Norse societies.

[Source : http://www.abdn.ac.uk/geosciences/departments/archaeology/profiles/p.m.kupiec]

Jessen Mads, The sacred space in a time of religious change

Jessen Mads, The sacred space in a time of religious change: Material and conceptual interaction in ritual environments during the Christianization of South Scandinavia, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (Université d’Aarhus)

Mooney Dawn Elise, The use and control of wood resources in Viking Age and medieval Iceland

Mooney Dawn Elise, The use and control of wood resources in Viking Age and medieval Iceland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. K. Milek, A. Cameron, Université d’Aberdeen)

Résumé/abstract :
This project investigates the use of wood in Iceland during the Viking and Early Medieval Periods, and discusses the control and management of wood resources and their variation over space and time. Previous palaeoenvironmental studies and historical sources had suggested that after the colonisation of Iceland around AD 870, the Norse settlers cleared the native Icelandic birch woodland to make way for hay fields, and used the timber for fuel and construction, rapidly reducing the woodland cover from its original 18-40% to the 1% present today. This investigation, which compares archaeological evidence to information about wood resources given in historical sources, reassesses these traditional models and interprets the decline of Icelandic woodland in relation to the utilisation and control of wood resources on the island, to understand the relationships between sites in terms of wood procurement, control and sharing. Wood anatomical analysis is used to assign taxonomic identifications to wooden artefacts and charred and mineralised wood remains from ten study sites across Iceland, allowing the origin of these assemblages to be identified as native wood, driftwood or imported wood. Understanding the distribution of non-native woods is essential to the understanding of how wood resources were shared and controlled on the island. The results show that despite the decline of the native woodlands, wood continued to be used as fuel and in artefact production and the construction of buildings and boats throughout the Medieval Period, and that the control of access to these resources was key to their continued availability. This project integrates for the first time archaeological, environmental and historical evidence, resulting in a holistic view of wood use during Viking Age and Medieval Iceland, and provides an important contribution to the understanding of natural resource use and human-environment interactions in the North Atlantic region.

Naumann Elise, Diet, mobility and social identity in Norway AD 400-1050.

Naumann Elise, Diet, mobility and social identity in Norway AD 400-1050. An investigation based on δ13C, δ15N and 87Sr/86Sr analyses of human remains, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. L. Hedeager,  T. D. Price, M. P. Richards, Université d’Oslo)

Résumé/abstract :

Gjennom isotopanalyser av skjelettmateriale har Elise Naumann vist hvordan mat og kosthold har vært en viktig strukturerende faktor i Norges hierarkiske jernaldersamfunn. «I et land som Norge er det ikke uventet at folk har hatt svært ulikt kosthold. Mer overraskende er det at mennesker som er gravlagt samme sted, og til og med i samme grav, vanligvis ikke har levd av den samme kosten», sier Naumann.

Prosjektet har tatt for seg individer fra perioden 400–1050 e. Kr, og omfatter både enkelt- og dobbeltgraver. I følge Naumann tyder resultatene på at mennesker gravlagt sammen sjelden tilhørte den samme sosiale sfæren: «I noen tilfeller er det mye som tyder på at treller ble gitt som gravgaver, noe vi også kjenner fra skriftlige kilder. Det er imidlertid sterke indikasjoner på at også andre sosiale relasjoner kommer til uttrykk i gravene – noe som viser at både sosial status, kjønn, alder, arbeidsfordeling og andre faktorer kan ha hatt betydning for hva folk fikk å spise».

Til tross for komplekse forhold mellom kosthold og sosial tilhørighet, tyder resultatene på at eliten har hatt mer tilgang på kjøtt og melkeprodukter, mens enkelte individer gravlagt i svært funnfattige graver har spist mye sjømat i den siste tiden før de døde. «Samtidig ser vi at svært mange spiser annerledes som voksne enn de gjorde som barn», sier Naumann. «Dette kan tyde på at jernalder-mennesket ikke nødvendigvis forble i samme sosiale rolle hele livet gjennom. Mange har endret både tilholdssted og levesett betydelig i løpet av livet – kanskje har de også endret sin sosiale posisjon».

Adolf Friðriksson, La place du mort. Les tombes vikings dans le paysage culturel islandais

Adolf Friðriksson, La place du mort. Les tombes vikings dans le paysage culturel islandais, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. J.-M. Maillefer, Université Paris IV-Sorbonne)

Résumé/abstract :

La place du mort est une étude topographique des sépultures païennes de l’âge de fer en Islande. Le but de ce travail est d’étudier la localisation des tombes et d’en déterminer le sens. Les résultats se fondent sur une révision critique de toutes les données disponibles en matière de site funéraire en Islande, et sur la fouille de chaque sépulture répertoriée. Les données obtenues permettent l’élaboration d’un modèle de localisation des tombes qui les situe a) loin des fermes, mais près des frontières et des routes, b) à proximité des fermes et à une courte distance de leur zone d’activité principale et c) au carrefour entre la route principale et l’allée menant au corps de ferme. Ces résultats ont été testés et confirmés par d’autres explorations de terrain et des fouilles récentes. La comparaison des tombes situées en a) et en b) met en évidence une différence intéressante : près des fermes, les tombes sont souvent orientées nord-sud, les sépultures sont en petit nombre et d’une variété limitée, et la population des défunts est majoritairement constituée d’hommes adultes ou âgés. Les tombes éloignées des fermes quant à elles sont le plus souvent orientées est-ouest, présentent une variété plus importante de biens funéraires, et contiennent des hommes et des femmes de tous âges. Les spécificités topographiques sont interprétées comme reflétant les différentes étapes du processus de la colonisation humaine de l’Islande, qui a eu lieu à la fin du IXe siècle : au stade initial, les sépultures sont placées près de l‘unique endroit important aux yeux des premiers colons : leur habitation. Puis la croissance de l’immigration entraîne de nouvelles règles, dont l’élaboration de frontières entre les propriétés agricoles, frontières signifiées entre autres par les cimetières qui y sont établis. Vers la fin de la colonisation, les démarcations sont nettes et convenues. Les frontières sont désinvesties et les lieux d’importance sont alors déplacés aux carrefours entre route principale et allée conduisant au nouveaux corps de ferme construits au sein d’établissements prééxistants.

La place du mort is a topographical study of pagan burials from the late Iron Age in Iceland. The aim of this work is to investigate where burials are located, and explain the reason behind the choice of place. The results are based on a critical revision of all available data on known burial sites in Iceland, and a survey of each site in the field. The main results are presented as a model of burial location, which shows that graves were placed either a) away from farmhouses, on boundaries and by roads, or b) close to farms, and a short distance outside the main activity area of the farm, or c) at the crossroads between the main road and the home lane leading to the farm. These results were tested – and confirmed – by further field survey and excavation. When the details of each grave at the two extreme locations were compared, and interesting difference became apparent: At locations near farms, the graves are frequently orientated N-S, the grave-goods are in small numbers and of a limited variety, and the population are predominantly adult or old men. The graves far away from the farm, are most often oriented E-W, there is a greater number and a greater variety of gravegoods, and there are male and female graves of people of all ages.The differences between locations are explained as different stages of the process of the human colonisation of Iceland which occurred in the late 9th century : at the initial stage, burials were located near to the only significant place of the first settlers, the habitation. With growing immigration, people establish boundaries between farms by placing cemeteries there. Towards the end of the colonisation, where boundaries have been agreed upon, the most significant location shifts again, from boundaries, to the junction between the main road and the home track, leading to the farm which has been located between two already established settlements.

Gardeła Leszek, Entangled worlds : archaeologies of ambivalence in the Viking Age

Gardeła Leszek, Entangled worlds : archaeologies of ambivalence in the Viking Age, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. N. Price, P. Jordan,  Université d’Aberdeen)

Résumé/abstract :
When all available sources on the Viking world are combined, there is a strong sense that the Scandinavians of the late Iron Age (8th-11th centuries AD) recognised no clear distinctions between the profane and the sacred. The latter could manifest itself in different ways, in places, beings or objects, and it often aroused ambivalent feelings of both fear and awe. This thesis explores these entanglements and the notion of ambivalence in relation to a particular group of Viking-Age individuals involved in the practice of magic (e.g. seiðr). Chapters 1-3 form the background for the considerations on ritual specialists’ lives, tools of trade and ways of burial. After a detailed review of Viking-Age funerary practices, focus shifts towards the corpus of so-called ‘deviant burials’, which in recent years have often been interpreted as belonging to ritual specialists. Chapter 4 compares the written and archaeological evidence for the funerary treatment of ritual specialists. Particular attention is devoted to graves where the deceased are covered with stones, since in the written sources execution by stoning is often employed as a punishment for malevolent magic. Nonetheless, caution is suggested in labeling all of them as belonging to ritual specialists and the necessity of a more individual, contextual approach is proposed. Chapter 5 examines a specific group of Viking-Age artefacts that usually take the form of iron rods, which have recently been interpreted as magic staffs. These items are discussed in the light of Old Norse texts and comparative materials from other areas of the world. Ultimately, the thesis embraces the notion of ambiguity in Viking attitudes to the supernatural, viewing this not as an obstructive problem but as an active component of interpretation. This combines an appropriate caution in approaching a difficult aspect of past societies, with a sensible refusal to introduce more rigid definitions than those used by the Vikings themselves.