Archives de catégorie : Hiérarchies et groupes sociaux / Hierarchies and social groups

Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork

Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (NUI Galway)

Continuer la lecture de Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork

Varley David Hugh, The whirling wheel : the male construction of empowered female identities in Old Norse myth and legend

Varley David Hugh, The whirling wheel : the male construction of empowered female identities in Old Norse myth and legend, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (Durham University)

Continuer la lecture de Varley David Hugh, The whirling wheel : the male construction of empowered female identities in Old Norse myth and legend

Sandro Carocci, Signorie di Mezzogiorno

Sandro Carocci, Signorie di Mezzogiorno. Società rurali, poteri aristocratici e monarchia (XII-XIII secolo), Roma (Viella) 2014.

 

Résumé/abstract :

 

Qual era il vero volto della signoria nel Mezzogiorno italiano? Cosa può apportare il Sud alle grandi discussioni sul feudalesimo e sui poteri aristocratici, sulla loro struttura e sulla loro evoluzione, sul loro impatto economico e sociale? Che contributo può venire dal Regno di Sicilia agli studi sulla dialettica che avveniva fra sovrani, nobiltà e società contadine? E poi, lo studio dei poteri signorili e delle società rurali può riconfigurare le classiche tematiche meridionali dell’arretratezza economica e della centralità monarchica?

 

Questo libro costituisce la prima analisi sistematica sulla signoria nel Mezzogiorno durante l’epoca normanno-sveva e primo-angioina. Offre nuove interpretazioni sul potere della nobiltà, sulle società rurali e sulla politica monarchica. Mostra come fra re, nobili e contadini si attuò un gioco complesso, condotto attraverso le leggi e la violenza, i rapporti feudali e gli investimenti economici, le discussioni sulla libertà e la servitù, lo sfruttamento di uomini e risorse naturali. I suoi protagonisti sono mondi contadini dal dinamismo finora insospettato, re determinati a limitare il potere aristocratico, e nobili costretti ad adattare la propria signoria alla forza delle società rurali e della politica monarchica. Ne esce un Mezzogiorno finora sconosciuto, vitale e articolato, la cui lettura permette di comprendere meglio non solo le vicende del meridione, ma quelle di molte altre regioni.

 

Lien/Link http://www.viella.it/libro/9788867283224

Paul Hill, The Norman Commanders

Paul Hill, The Norman Commanders: Masters of Warfare 911-1135, Pen and Sword 2015.

Résumé/abstract :

Robert Guiscard, William the Conqueror, Roger I of Sicily and Bohemond Prince of Antioch are just four of the exceptional Norman commanders who not only led their armies to victory in battle but also, through military force, created their own kingdoms in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Their single-minded and aggressive leadership, and the organization, discipline and fighting qualities of their armies, marked them out from their Viking forebears and from many of the armed forces that stood against them. Their brilliant careers, and those of Robert Curthose, William Rufus, Richard I of Capua and Henry I of England, are the subject of Paul Hill’s latest study of medieval warfare.

In a narrative packed with detail and insight, and with a wide-ranging understanding of the fighting methods and military ethos of the period, he traces the course of their conquests, focusing on them as individual commanders and on their achievements on the battlefield. The military context of their campaigns, and the conditions of warfare in France and England, in southern Italy and Sicily, and in the Near East, are vividly described, as are their decisive operations and sieges – among them Hastings, Brémule, Tinchebrai, Civitate, Misilmeri, Dyrrhachium and the Siege of Antioch.

There is no doubt that the Normans’ success in war depended upon the leadership qualities and military capabilities of the commanders as well as the special strengths of the armies they led. Paul Hill’s accessible and authoritative account offers a fascinating portrait of these masters of warfare.

 

Lien/Link http://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/The-Norman-Commanders-Hardback/p/10745

Hervin Fernandez ACEVES, Cohesion and conflict in the Kingdom of Sicily under the two Williams

Hervin Fernandez Aceves, Cohesion and conflict in the Kingdom of Sicily under the two Williams: In search of a prosopographical approach for the study of the regions networks of royal courtiers and nobles, Thèse de doctorat en cours (dir. G. Loud, University of Leeds)

 

[Source : http://www.leeds.ac.uk/arts/profile/20046/328/hervin_fernandez_aceves ]

Rosa CANOSA, Il titolo comitale nella prima età normanna,

Rosa Canosa, Il titolo comitale nella prima età normanna: un esperimento di contestualizzazione, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. G. Sergi, Università degli studi di Torino)

 

Résumé/abstract :

This PhD thesis reconsiders the issue of the continuity elements in Southern Italy after the Norman conquest (eleventh–twelfth centuries), claiming that the changes in the Southern Italian political frameworks due to the strengthening of Norman powers were more noteworthy than generally recognised by scholars, as one can see by the exam of the count title (comes in Latin). Through the analysis of three main factors (i.e. the function and the social status of the counts; the nature of the wielded power and its territorial dimension) the author can prove the count title to be an important and very useful key to better understand how and how much the local élite could really continue to hold the power and to share it with the Normans (i.e. the new rulers).

***

La storiografia sui Normanni d’Italia si è da sempre confrontata con un problema identitario. La conquista normanna ha, infatti, introdotto nuovi protagonisti nel panorama politico dell’Italia del Sud, già molto vario. Si è reso necessario, dunque, da un lato indagare le permanenze e i fattori di discontinuità nei quadri istituzionali e politici; dall’altro lato, esaminare gli elementi di raccordo fra conquistatori ed élites locali. Questa tesi si inserisce all’interno di questi due filoni di indagine tradizionali, per riesaminare il problema degli elementi di continuità fra i ceti dominanti dopo la conquista (metà secolo XI-inizi XII) attraverso l’esame della titolatura e nello specifico del titolo comitale, scelto come filo conduttore perché si colloca alla convergenza di tre dimensioni diverse: la funzione e lo status sociale dei soggetti titolati, la natura del potere esercitato, e la dimensione territoriale della carica. Le indagini sono state svolte negli antichi principati longobardi, soprattutto quelli di Capua e di Benevento, e nell’antico Tema di Longobardia. Sono emersi alcuni mutamenti significativi. In primo luogo fra i detentori del titolo comitale, che dopo la conquista sono quasi unicamente normanni: i rari casi di conti longobardi (nel secolo X il titolo di conte aveva sostituito quello di gastaldo fra i Longobardi meridionali) che mantennero il titolo sotto il dominio normanno, mostrano un adeguamento sostanziale alle nuove forme di esercizio del potere diffuse dai Normanni. Anche sul piano dell’organizzazione territoriale sono stati individuati cambiamenti di rilievo, che hanno mostrato l’inadeguatezza della nozione di ‘contea normanna’ come rimando a modelli ben definiti: le tipologie di specificazione territoriale del titolo comitale ‘alternative’ all’uso del termine comitatus sono varie e rimandano alle diverse strutturazioni che i singoli conti diedero ai loro ambiti territoriali. È stato così possibile sfumare un’opposizione frequentemente proposta dagli storici fra la capacità di sopravvivenza e di integrazione dell’antica nobiltà longobarda dei principati con i nuovi dominatori, soprattutto attraverso i matrimoni misti, e la rottura provocata dalla conquista normanna nell’antico Tema di Longobardia, dove l’assenza di un preesistente ceto comitale di lingua latina e di religione cristiana rendeva più evidente il cambiamento. Nel corso del lavoro è stato possibile osservare che anche negli antichi principati longobardi, dove questo ceto era presente e dominante al momento dell’arrivo dei Normanni, emerge un mutamento molto più profondo di quanto si sia finora pensato. E che se è vero che i Normanni si ispirarono in vari modi alla tradizione di potere pubblico dei principi e dei re longobardi, è altrettanto evidente che essi costruirono empiricamente il loro potere usando materiale eterogeneo, ma soprattutto una superiorità politica che li rendeva di fatto i nuovi detentori del potere pubblico.

[Source : http://dott-sts.campusnet.unito.it/do/home.pl/ViewMobile?doc=Tesi_di_dottorato/tesi_discusse.html ]

 

 

Duncan Dale Roderick Thomas, Berserkir : a re-examination of the phenomenon in literature and life

Duncan Dale Roderick Thomas, Berserkir : a re-examination of the phenomenon in literature and life, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. J. Jesch, Université de Nottingham)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis discusses whether berserkir really went berserk. It proposes revised paradigms for berserkir as they existed in the Viking Age and as depicted in Old Norse literature. It clarifies the Viking Age berserkr as an elite warrior whose practices have a function in warfare and ritual life rather than as an example of aberrant behaviour, and considers how usage of PDE ‘berserk’ may affect the framing of research questions about berserkir through analysis of depictions in modern popular culture. The analysis shows how berserksgangr has received greater attention than it warrants with the emphasis being on how berserkir went berserk. A critical review of Old Norse literature shows that berserkir do not go berserk, and suggests that berserksgangr was a calculated form of posturing and a ritual activity designed to bolster the courage of the berserkr.

It shows how the medieval concept of berserkir was more nuanced and less negative than is usually believed, as demonstrated by the contemporaneous existence in narratives of berserkir as king’s men, hall challengers, hólmgöngumenn, Viking raiders and Christian champions, and by the presence of men with the byname berserkr in fourteenth-century documents. Old Norse literature is related to pre-Viking Age evidence to show that warriors wearing wolfskins existed and can be related to berserkir, thus making it possible to produce models for Viking Age and medieval concepts of berserkir.

The modern view of berserkir is analysed and shows that frenzy is the dominant attribute, despite going berserk not being a useful attribute in Viking Age warfare which relied upon men holding a line steady rather than charging individually.

The thesis concludes that ON berserkr may be best translated as PDE ‘champion’, while PDE ‘berserker’ describes the type of uncontrollable warrior most commonly envisaged when discussing berserkir.

[Source : http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/28819/]

Groud-Cordray Claude, L’aristocratie aux frontières occidentales du duché de Normandie, face à la Bretagne et au Maine (Xe-XIIIe siècles)

Groud-Cordray Claude, L’aristocratie aux frontières occidentales du duché de Normandie, face à la Bretagne et au Maine (Xe-XIIIe siècles), (dir. V. Gazeau, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie)

En cours depuis 2011/In preparation since 2011

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[source :
http://w3.unicaen.fr/ufr/histoire/craham/spip.php?article587]

Mauduit Christophe, Princes et réseaux de pouvoir dans l’Ouest de la Normandie (XIe -XIIIe siècle)

Mauduit Christophe, Princes et réseaux de pouvoir dans l’Ouest de la Normandie (XIe -XIIIe siècle), (dir. Veronique Gazeau, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie).

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

L’ouest de la Normandie fait souvent figure de parent pauvre dans l’historiographie de la Normandie médiévale. Les seigneurs, laïcs et ecclésiastiques, influents de l’ouest de la Normandie sont mal connus. Leurs installations, souvent initiées par le pouvoir royal, et leurs motivations politiques, personnelles ou religieuses, ainsi que leurs relations n’ont pas été étudiés. Commencer l’étude dans les années 1040 permet d’étudier les transformations politiques engagées par le duc de Normandie, Guillaume, dans l’ouest de la Normandie, tant du point de vue religieux (évêques et fondations d’abbaye) que du point de vue féodal (réorganisation de la hiérarchie seigneuriale). Les rois d’Angleterre, duc de Normandie continuent jusque 1204 d’influer sur cette zone, certes avec des développements et des fluctuations selon les rois : Henri Ier, ancien comte du Cotentin reste toujours proche de cette région, alors que Jean sans terre, pourtant ancien comte de Mortain, n’a pas entretenu de lien particulier. À partir de 1137-1138, les seigneurs s’affirment et mènent des stratégies personnelles aux dépens des princes. Un second tournant débute dans les années 1193-1195. A partir de 1204, la conquête capétienne marque une nouvelle évolution dans les rapports entre le souverain et les détenteurs de pouvoirs locaux. Mais éloignée de la frontière anglo-française, c’est surtout à partir des années 1248-1254, que l’influence royale se fait sentir, notamment avec l’affirmation du pouvoir des représentants du roi, les baillis, qui encadrent progressivement les privilèges des seigneurs laïcs comme ecclésiastiques. Le règne de Philippe III (1270-1285) finit d’intégrer complètement l’ouest de la Normandie dans le domaine royal français, même si dans les textes la différence entre Normannia et Francia est toujours présente. L’ouest de la Normandie, expression volontairement imprécise, correspond toutefois à un espace cohérent. L’aristocratie qui domine cet espace met en place des stratégies matrimoniales au cœur de cette zone, on parle parfois d’aristocratie « bajocasso-cotentinaise ». Le comte de Mortain, comme d’autres seigneurs, est le bienfaiteur d’abbayes tant dans le Cotentin, dans le Bessin que dans l’Avranchin. Au XIIIe siècle, cette cohérence est renforcée par la création du bailliage du Cotentin qui englobe le diocèse de Coutances, d’Avranches, et d’une partie de celui de Bayeux. Les îles anglo-normandes sont comprises dans cette étude, puisque l’archidiaconé des îles dépend de l’évêché de Coutances, et les abbayes normandes y sont fortement implantées. L’historiographie normande a peu traité ces espaces, surtout dans une réflexion sur la volonté des princes d’y affirmer leur présence et leur pouvoir, et sur celles des aristocrates de s’affranchir de l’autorité de ces derniers. Pourtant pour répondre à ces interrogations les sources sont nombreuses, les 21 abbayes couvrant notre espace, ont presque toutes laissées de nombreux actes de la pratique, pour la plupart inédit, qui éclairent les réseaux de pouvoirs. A côté de ces milliers de chartes, les autres sources diplomatiques (actes des ducs de Normandie, des rois de France), les sources littéraires, mais aussi la sigillographie et l’archéologie permettent de discuter ce que l’on sait aujourd’hui de l’intégration d’un territoire à un royaume, et aussi de mieux appréhender la vision que les seigneurs avaient de leur pouvoir, et que les princes avaient de ces territoires.

[source : http://www.theses.fr/s116672]

Berardi Riccardo, Féodalité laïque et seigneurie ecclésiastique en Italie du Sud au Moyen Age : la Calabre des Normands à la guerre des Vêpres (1282)

Berardi Riccardo, Féodalité laïque et seigneurie ecclésiastique en Italie du Sud au Moyen Age : la Calabre des Normands à la guerre des Vêpres (1282), (dir. Annick Peters Custot – Université de Saint-Etienne).

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[source : http://www.theses.fr/s105690]

Papin Elodie, L’aristocratie laïque du Glamorgan et l’abbaye de Margam (1147-1283)

Papin Elodie, L’aristocratie laïque du Glamorgan et l’abbaye de Margam (1147-1283), Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (Université d’Angers)

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Profile of a Doomed Elite: The Structure of English Landed Society in 1066

Profile of a Doomed Elite: The Structure of English Landed Society in 1066

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Christopher Lewis (christopher.p.lewis@kcl.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

King’s College London

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The project will use innovative methods for interpreting Domesday Book to survey the whole of English landed society on the eve of the Norman Conquest in 1066, identifying landowners at all levels of society from the king and earls down to the parish gentry and even some prosperous peasants.

It may seem astonishing that this has never been done before, since the evidence has existed for more than 900 years. Domesday Book is the most complete survey of any medieval landed society, and provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct the distribution of landed wealth in eleventh-century England. It has been intensively studied, but until now progress has been blocked: the way pre-Conquest landholders are recorded creates major difficulties in identifying and distinguishing individuals of the same name; gathering, comparing, and mapping the evidence by hand has been prohibitively time-consuming; and evidence about landholders in other sources (such as chronicles and charters) has not been systematically pulled together.

Recent research on two fronts has transformed this situation. Publications by Stephen Baxter, Chris Lewis, and others (including in particular Dr Ann Williams, whose research constitutes one of the keystones of the project) have shown that Domesday Book can be used to make many more secure identifications of landowners than had ever been thought possible; and the imminent publication of ‘The Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England’ (PASE) will allow the evidence to be assembled, mapped, and compared with other sources much more efficiently. PASE will provide a prosopography – that is, a list of everything known – for every person recorded throughout the entire Anglo-Saxon period from the sixth century to the eleventh. It has been based at King’s and the University of Cambridge, and has been funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council over eight years in two phases. The second phase, which was published on 18 August 2010, extended PASE’s coverage of the eleventh century, and made a comprehensive database of Domesday landholders linked to mapping facilities freely available online.

‘Profile of a Doomed Elite’ will build on and refine PASE’s coverage of the late Anglo-Saxon nobility on the eve of its demise. It opens up the prospect of a major breakthrough in our knowledge of the Norman Conquest, one of the defining moments in English and European history.

The project will be implemented and published online by the King’s Department of Digital Humanities.

[Lien/Link : http://www.kcl.ac.uk/artshums/depts/history/research/proj/profile.aspx]

Walsh Rachel, The family network of the earls of Chester

Walsh Rachel, The family network of the earls of Chester, (dir. N. Tringham, P. Morgan, Keele University)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/family-network-earls-chester]

Moore James, The impact of the Norman Conquest on the conquerors

Moore James, The impact of the Norman Conquest on the conquerors: social networks and experiences of the cross-channel empire after 1066, (dir. S. Baxter, King’s College London)

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/impact-norman-conquest-conquerors-social-networks-and-experiences-cross]

Moore Gavin, Earls Ranulf III and John le Scot of Chester, a case study, c. 1181-1237

Moore Gavin, Lordly power and lordship: earls Ranulf III and John le Scot of Chester, a case study, c. 1181-1237 (dir. K Hurlock, J. Roche, T. Adams, Manchester Metropolitan University)

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.hssr.mmu.ac.uk/research-student-information/current-research-student-profiles/history/]