Archives de catégorie : Normes et discours normatif / Norms and normative discourse

Peacemaking and the Restraint of Violence in Medieval Europe (1100-1300): Practices, Actors and Behaviour

Centre for Advanced Study (Oslo) – Department of Archaeology, Conservation and History (University of Oslo)

Conference – 22-23 February 2018

Call for papers – Deadline: 15 September 2017

In high medieval Europe, conflict took a number of different forms, from large-scale battles, such as disputes over crowns, power and lands, to more local disputes over inheritance and property. In the absence of well-developed administrative structures which could limit conflict, cultural conventions, rituals and behavioural norms evolved to moderate violence within the elite community. The exchange of hostages, ransom of defeated opponents, oath-taking and creation of new bonds of friendship, all helped to re-establish stable relations between former opponents. With peace came a change in the balance of power within a region. Relationships between adversaries were restructured and redefined as treaties were concluded and new agreements made. Peace rituals allowed the new status quo to be publicly proclaimed and understood. By studying the restraint of violence and the imposition of peace, we can examine both the long and short term implications of conflict, and improve our understanding of how violence shaped the elite community in medieval Europe.

Continuer la lecture de Peacemaking and the Restraint of Violence in Medieval Europe (1100-1300): Practices, Actors and Behaviour

Mattison Alyxandra, The Execution and Burial of Criminals in Early Medieval England, c. 850-1150: an examination of changes in judicial punishment across the Norman Conquest

Mattison Alyxandra, The Execution and Burial of Criminals in Early Medieval England, c. 850-1150: an examination of changes in judicial punishment across the Norman Conquest, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (University of Sheffield)

Continuer la lecture de Mattison Alyxandra, The Execution and Burial of Criminals in Early Medieval England, c. 850-1150: an examination of changes in judicial punishment across the Norman Conquest

Anderson Katherine, The influence of Scots and Norse law on law and governance in Orkney and Shetland 1450-1650

Anderson Katherine, The influence of Scots and Norse law on law and governance in Orkney and Shetland 1450-1650, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (University of Aberdeen)

Continuer la lecture de Anderson Katherine, The influence of Scots and Norse law on law and governance in Orkney and Shetland 1450-1650

Julia Becker, Documenti latini e greci del conte Ruggero I di Calabria e Sicilia

Julia Becker, Documenti latini e greci del conte Ruggero I di Calabria e Sicilia. Edizione critica, Ricerche dell’Istituto Storico Germanico di Roma 9, Roma 2013.

 

Résumé/abstract :

Dopo la conquista della Calabria meridionale e della Sicilia (fine dell’ XI secolo), il conte Ruggero I si concentrò sul consolidamento del potere all’interno dei propri domini. Attraverso la riorganizzazione dell’amministrazione e delle strutture ecclesiastiche Ruggero pose le basi per lo sviluppo della monarchia normanna nel Mezzogiorno.

 

Nonostante la sua importanza storica mancavano finora una raccolta e un’edizione critica dei documenti da lui prodotti: l’ultimo tentativo di pubblicare gran parte dei diplomi risale ai secoli XVIII-XIX. Tale situazione documentaria ha contribuito a far sí che la figura del primo conte di Sicilia sia stata oggetto di scarso interesse storiogra- fico. Il libro raccoglie per la prima volta tutti i documenti greci e latini di Ruggero, alcuni dei quali inediti. Attraverso un apparato critico e un dettagliato commento diplomatico e contenutistico di ogni documento il libro apre la strada a possibili nuovi studi sulla storia siculo-normanna.

 

Lien/Link http://www.viella.it/libro/9788883347474

 

Charpentier Ljungqvist Fredrik, Kungamakten och lagen : En jämförelse mellan Danmark, Norge och Sverige under högmedeltiden

Charpentier Ljungqvist Fredrik, Kungamakten och lagen : En jämförelse mellan Danmark, Norge och Sverige under högmedeltiden [Kingship and Law : A Comparison between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the High Middle Ages], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. O. Ferm, Université de Stockholm)

Résumé/abstract :

The dissertation is a comparative study of the expansion of law-regulated royal power in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden c. 1150–1350. The aim is to examine how the king’s judicial and military authority and functions, and their effect on the power position of the regional legal assembly and the church, is expressed and how it changed over time in the extant law material. The starting point is the pan-European consolidation of royal power in the High Middle Ages, and the dissertation considers international research on the medieval state formation process and its driving forces. The processual concepts of centralization, institutionalization, hierarchization, and territorialization occupy a central place in the analysis.

Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish laws all reflect a significant increase in royal power. A growing number of societal functions were vested in the increasingly institutionalized kingship, and there was a growth in its power resources. At the same time, it is possible to identify crucial inter-Scandinavian differences. A main finding is that the law-regulated royal power, in most respects, was strongest in Norway and weakest in Sweden. Another important conclusion is that executive royal power first emerged after the judicial and also legislative power had already to a large extent come under royal control.

It is demonstrated that Scandinavian kingship in the High Middle Ages was characterized by increasingly centralized and institutionalized territorially based power, with a greater monopoly on the use of legitimate force, and thereby strengthened the ongoing state formation process. The expansion of law-regulated royal power primarily concerned the judicial sphere and only secondarily the military and fiscal spheres. That state formation was driven by judicial development rather than militarization is also shown by the fact that Norway, despite having the least professionalized and resource-demanding armed forces, was the Scandinavian country with the most centralized and institutionalized royal power.

[Source : http://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A737397&dswid=3935]

Kilpi Hanna, The role of lesser aristocratic women in 12th-century England

Kilpi Hanna, The role of lesser aristocratic women in 12th-century England, (dir. S. Marritt, J. Smith, University of Glasgow)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

My thesis examines the place of lesser aristocratic women in twelfth-century England. Lesser aristocratic women have often been overlooked in modern historiography because it has often been assumed that there is very little evidence of them. Instead, the experiences of all women have been seen as represented in the more substantial evidence of elite secular and religious women. My thesis questions this by focusing on lesser aristocratic women in England, particularly Oxfordshire, Suffolk, and Yorkshire, for which charters provided the main material.

[Source : http://www.gla.ac.uk/schools/humanities/research/students/hannakilpi/index.html]

Har Katherine, The legacy of the Anglo-Norman legal treatise in the Leges Anglorum Londoniis collectae

Har Katherine, The legacy of the Anglo-Norman legal treatise in the Leges Anglorum Londoniis collectae, (dir. G. Garnett, University of Oxford)

En cours depuis 2012/In preparation since 2012

My thesis work looks at legal writing in twelfth- and early thirteenth-century England by examining the earliest extant recension of the Leges Anglorum Londoniis collectae, an early thirteenth-century legal compilation from London. This study situates private legal writing from this period within the framework of contemporaneous developments in legal ideology, education, and culture to consider its role in the overall development of the English legal system. It explores how London-specific concerns are reflected in the compilation to assess the extent to which such concerns mirror those of English urban centres generally and those across the whole kingdom. The thesis also examinse concepts of law depicted in the manuscript in relation to other legal texts written during this period and to depictions in narrative and diplomatic sources.

[Source : http://www.ohgn.org/profile/katherine-har/378]

Eves William, The assize of mort d’ancestor in the late 12th and early 13th centuries

Eves William, The assize of mort d’ancestor in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, (dir. J. Hudson, University of St Andrews)

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Résumé/abstract :

My research focusses on the assize of mort d’ancestor, a legal procedure created during the reign of Henry II. The action was designed for use by the nearest heir of a recently deceased tenant to claim seisin of their predecessor’s land (if held in demesne and as of fee) when faced with a lord reluctant to allow this succession. My project aims to investigate the manner in which the assize was used and how it evolved during the early years of its operation. This involves research into the substantive legal issues arising from the assize and also the socio-legal aspects of the action. The latter include questions as to the status of the litigants, the types of cases subject to litigation and the tactical (or otherwise) use of the assize. As the successful litigant would be granted possession (seisin) of their ancestor’s land, but not the ultimate ‘right’ to it, the way mort d’ancestor was used within the context of broader disputes over right to land is also a consideration of my research.

[Source : http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/postgrad/postgraduates/willeves.html]

Esser Maxine, John of Salisbury and law

Esser Maxine, John of Salisbury and law, (dir. J. Hudson, University of St Andrews)

En cours depuis 2011/In preparation since 2011

Résumé/abstract :

Looking at all the works of John of Salisbury, the aim of my thesis is to concentrate on legal aspects contained therein, specifically how much law John knew; where he gained knowledge of law, in terms of sources used; how his thinking differs from his contemporaries, or otherwise. My research shall also consider specific aspects of legal discussion covered by John in his Policraticus, e.g. the legality of soldiers; how a prince should behave within the law; and the role of judges. Additionally, to what extent John appeared as a legal advisor to the Archbishop of Canterbury will be addressed.

[Source : http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/postgrad/postgraduates/maxineesser.html]

The Charters of William II and Henry I

The Charters of William II and Henry I

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Richard Sharpe (richard.sharpe@history.ox.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of Oxford

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The overall aim is to collect, edit, and interpret the royal acts issued in the names of two English kings, William II (reigned 1087 to 1100), and his brother Henry I (reigned 1100 to 1135), who was also duke of Normandy from 1106 until 1135. Royal acts, mainly charters but also writs and other letters, are the prime documentary source for the period, providing the means to understand the workings of the realm in a way not possible from chronicles and other narrative sources.

This edition differs from previous work on documents of this period by treating beneficiary archives as a unit. Although the king issued documents for his own reasons in many circumstances, for example royal proclamations, treaties, royal letters, and writs concerning fiscal administration, these rarely survive. What remains, therefore, is very largely the material in whose preservation someone had a direct interest. Most documents, even those representing the exercise of the king’s power such as the appointment of bishops or abbots, survive through the archive of the beneficiary who received and retained the documents. Different beneficiary archives tell different stories. The organization of the edition presents, for the most part, beneficiary archives with a headnote to explain the background, including the motivations behind seeking the king’s seal and the reasons for preservation.

When complete, the edition will include several hundred beneficiary archives. The acts are not distributed evenly between them: almost half are contained in just thirty archives. The files currently available on this site represent about an eighth of the material to be included in the final edition, which will be published as a multi-volume book.

[Lien/Link : https://actswilliam2henry1.wordpress.com/]

Thomas Elizabeth, ‘We have nothing more valuable in our treasury’ : royal marriage in England, 1154-1272

Thomas, Elizabeth, ‘We have nothing more valuable in our treasury’ : royal marriage in England, 1154-1272, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. J. Hudson, University of St Andrews)

Résumé/abstract :

That kings throughout the entire Middle Ages used the marriages of themselves and their children to further their political agendas has never been in question. What this thesis examines is the significance these marriage alliances truly had to domestic and foreign politics in England from the accession of Henry II in 1154 until the death of his grandson Henry III in 1272. Chronicle and record sources shed valuable light upon the various aspects of royal marriage at this time: firstly, they show that the marriages of the royal family at this time were geographically diverse, ranging from Scotland and England to as far abroad as the Empire, Spain, and Sicily. Most of these marriages were based around one primary principle, that being control over Angevin land-holdings on the continent. Further examination of the ages at which children were married demonstrates a practicality to the policy, in that often at least the bride was young, certainly young enough to bear children and assimilate into whatever land she may travel to. Sons were also married to secure their future, either as heir to the throne or the husband of a wealthy heiress. Henry II and his sons were almost always closely involved in the negotiations for the marriages, and were often the initiators of marriage alliances, showing a strong interest in the promotion of marriage as a political tool. Dowries were often the centre of alliances, demonstrating how much the bride, or the alliance, was worth, in land, money, or a combination of the two. One of the most important aspects for consideration though, was the outcome of the alliances. Though a number were never confirmed, and most royal children had at least one broken proposal or betrothal before their marriage, many of the marriages made were indeed successful in terms of gaining from the alliance what had originally been desired.

[Source : http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2001]

Nordic Medieval Laws (NML)

Nordic Medieval Laws (NML)

Responsable du projet/Project leader : Stefan Brink (s.brink@abdn.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution : Centre for Scandinavian Studies, University of Aberdeen

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

Aim of the project

The aim of the project is to analyse, edit, translate and comment upon all the Nordic provincial laws from the Middle Ages, for the first time. The output will be a series of 15 volumes with a translation of, and commentary upon, each law in English, and an online database consisting of facsimiles of the previously-published laws in Old Danish, Old Norwegian and Old Swedish.

Continuer la lecture de Nordic Medieval Laws (NML)