Archives de catégorie : Pouvoirs et institutions politiques / Power and political institutions

Julia Becker, Documenti latini e greci del conte Ruggero I di Calabria e Sicilia

Julia Becker, Documenti latini e greci del conte Ruggero I di Calabria e Sicilia. Edizione critica, Ricerche dell’Istituto Storico Germanico di Roma 9, Roma 2013.

 

Résumé/abstract :

Dopo la conquista della Calabria meridionale e della Sicilia (fine dell’ XI secolo), il conte Ruggero I si concentrò sul consolidamento del potere all’interno dei propri domini. Attraverso la riorganizzazione dell’amministrazione e delle strutture ecclesiastiche Ruggero pose le basi per lo sviluppo della monarchia normanna nel Mezzogiorno.

 

Nonostante la sua importanza storica mancavano finora una raccolta e un’edizione critica dei documenti da lui prodotti: l’ultimo tentativo di pubblicare gran parte dei diplomi risale ai secoli XVIII-XIX. Tale situazione documentaria ha contribuito a far sí che la figura del primo conte di Sicilia sia stata oggetto di scarso interesse storiogra- fico. Il libro raccoglie per la prima volta tutti i documenti greci e latini di Ruggero, alcuni dei quali inediti. Attraverso un apparato critico e un dettagliato commento diplomatico e contenutistico di ogni documento il libro apre la strada a possibili nuovi studi sulla storia siculo-normanna.

 

Lien/Link http://www.viella.it/libro/9788883347474

 

Nef Annliese, Conquérir et gouverner la Sicile islamique aux XIe et XIIe siècles

Nef Annliese, Conquérir et gouverner la Sicile islamique aux XIe et XIIe siècles (B.E.F.A.R.), Rome, 2011.

 

Résumé/abstract :

Conquérant la Sicile à partir du milieu du XIe siècle, les Hauteville sont les premiers à mettre en place un gouvernement qui se définit comme chrétien et, au moins en partie, de langue latine, tout en exerçant ses prérogatives sur une population majoritairement musulmane et arabophone. Pour ce faire, ils élaborent progressivement des instruments de gouvernement, mais se font aussi les mécènes d’une production culturelle qui a suscité admiration et commentaires jusqu’à aujourd’hui.

Cet ouvrage se présente comme une enquête sur les différentes dimensions du pouvoir des Hauteville de la conquête de la Sicile à la fin du XIIe siècle (politique linguistique, construction d’un État, mécénat, mais aussi contrôle des populations et du territoire). Il vise à dé-mythifier les représentations que l’on a souvent de ce long siècle de « tolérance », mais aussi à déconstruire l’idée que l’échec de la dynastie était écrit d’avance. Il postule néanmoins que la construction « normande » en Sicile demeure originale et novatrice et qu’elle fournit des éléments de comparaison utiles à tous ceux qui analysent les situations de conquête et de gouvernement minoritaire en contexte multiculturel.

 

Lien/Link http://www.publications.efrome.it/opencms/opencms/conqu%C3%A8rir_et_gouverner_la_sicile_islamique_aux_xie_et_xiie_si%C3%A8cles_d9e77dd7-e8e0-11e0-bed9-000c291eeace.html

Rosa CANOSA, Il titolo comitale nella prima età normanna,

Rosa Canosa, Il titolo comitale nella prima età normanna: un esperimento di contestualizzazione, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. G. Sergi, Università degli studi di Torino)

 

Résumé/abstract :

This PhD thesis reconsiders the issue of the continuity elements in Southern Italy after the Norman conquest (eleventh–twelfth centuries), claiming that the changes in the Southern Italian political frameworks due to the strengthening of Norman powers were more noteworthy than generally recognised by scholars, as one can see by the exam of the count title (comes in Latin). Through the analysis of three main factors (i.e. the function and the social status of the counts; the nature of the wielded power and its territorial dimension) the author can prove the count title to be an important and very useful key to better understand how and how much the local élite could really continue to hold the power and to share it with the Normans (i.e. the new rulers).

***

La storiografia sui Normanni d’Italia si è da sempre confrontata con un problema identitario. La conquista normanna ha, infatti, introdotto nuovi protagonisti nel panorama politico dell’Italia del Sud, già molto vario. Si è reso necessario, dunque, da un lato indagare le permanenze e i fattori di discontinuità nei quadri istituzionali e politici; dall’altro lato, esaminare gli elementi di raccordo fra conquistatori ed élites locali. Questa tesi si inserisce all’interno di questi due filoni di indagine tradizionali, per riesaminare il problema degli elementi di continuità fra i ceti dominanti dopo la conquista (metà secolo XI-inizi XII) attraverso l’esame della titolatura e nello specifico del titolo comitale, scelto come filo conduttore perché si colloca alla convergenza di tre dimensioni diverse: la funzione e lo status sociale dei soggetti titolati, la natura del potere esercitato, e la dimensione territoriale della carica. Le indagini sono state svolte negli antichi principati longobardi, soprattutto quelli di Capua e di Benevento, e nell’antico Tema di Longobardia. Sono emersi alcuni mutamenti significativi. In primo luogo fra i detentori del titolo comitale, che dopo la conquista sono quasi unicamente normanni: i rari casi di conti longobardi (nel secolo X il titolo di conte aveva sostituito quello di gastaldo fra i Longobardi meridionali) che mantennero il titolo sotto il dominio normanno, mostrano un adeguamento sostanziale alle nuove forme di esercizio del potere diffuse dai Normanni. Anche sul piano dell’organizzazione territoriale sono stati individuati cambiamenti di rilievo, che hanno mostrato l’inadeguatezza della nozione di ‘contea normanna’ come rimando a modelli ben definiti: le tipologie di specificazione territoriale del titolo comitale ‘alternative’ all’uso del termine comitatus sono varie e rimandano alle diverse strutturazioni che i singoli conti diedero ai loro ambiti territoriali. È stato così possibile sfumare un’opposizione frequentemente proposta dagli storici fra la capacità di sopravvivenza e di integrazione dell’antica nobiltà longobarda dei principati con i nuovi dominatori, soprattutto attraverso i matrimoni misti, e la rottura provocata dalla conquista normanna nell’antico Tema di Longobardia, dove l’assenza di un preesistente ceto comitale di lingua latina e di religione cristiana rendeva più evidente il cambiamento. Nel corso del lavoro è stato possibile osservare che anche negli antichi principati longobardi, dove questo ceto era presente e dominante al momento dell’arrivo dei Normanni, emerge un mutamento molto più profondo di quanto si sia finora pensato. E che se è vero che i Normanni si ispirarono in vari modi alla tradizione di potere pubblico dei principi e dei re longobardi, è altrettanto evidente che essi costruirono empiricamente il loro potere usando materiale eterogeneo, ma soprattutto una superiorità politica che li rendeva di fatto i nuovi detentori del potere pubblico.

[Source : http://dott-sts.campusnet.unito.it/do/home.pl/ViewMobile?doc=Tesi_di_dottorato/tesi_discusse.html ]

 

 

Paquet Fabien, Abbés et pouvoirs en Normandie (début du XIIIème siècle – milieu du XVème siècle)

Paquet Fabien, Abbés et pouvoirs en Normandie (début du XIIIème siècle – milieu du XVème siècle), (dir. V. Gazeau, université de Caen Normandie)

En cours depuis 2015/In preparation since 2015

Résumé/Abstract :

En 1204, la Normandie est rattachée par Philippe Auguste (1190-1223) au domaine royal capétien, c’est-à-dire aux espaces du royaume de France dont le roi est le souverain direct, car, depuis 911, la Normandie était bien dans les frontières du royaume. Pendant trois siècles, la Normandie a joui d’une autonomie qui touchait, il est vrai, à l’indépendance car elle était une pièce centrale dans l’empire anglo-normand. Cette situation a attiré l’œil des historiens depuis longtemps : il peut sembler plus glorieux de faire l’histoire d’une principauté indépendante ! Or, la Normandie d’après 1204 mérite au moins autant notre attention car elle pose deux questions centrales qui n’ont que peu été traitées par les historiens sur le long terme : comment intégrer au domaine royal une principauté aussi puissante en 1204 ? Comment les Normands gèrent-ils le changement de maître et ses conséquences ? C’est que la Normandie des XIIIe-XVe siècles offre la possibilité d’une étude d’histoire à la fois nationale et régionale : une étude de la place que les Normands se construisent, ou que l’on construit pour eux, dans le cadre d’un État capétien qui s’affirme de plus en plus jusqu’à la fin de la guerre de Cent Ans. Le clergé normand du Moyen Âge, pour sa part, a toujours attiré l’œil des historiens : c’est que la région a vu se développer quelques (très) grandes abbayes médiévales (Le Mont Saint-Michel, Le Bec, Jumièges, Savigny, Fécamp, etc.) qui sont devenues de véritables lieux de pouvoir. Mais les études concernant les abbayes prennent trop rarement en charge l’ensemble du clergé et, souvent, elles s’arrêtent en 1204. Entre 1204 et la guerre de Cent Ans, alors que les abbayes bénédictines et cisterciennes conservent un rôle central dans la vie de la principauté, monastères et abbés tombent dans un trou noir historiographique ; et la guerre de Cent Ans n’a permis de ne les en sortir que sous l’angle des dommages subis ou presque, sans s’intéresser au vécu de la guerre et aux conséquences dans les monastères, alors que les sources trahissent bien des évolutions. Une prosopographie fomera le corps de la thèse et permettra notamment d’étudier la politique royale de Philippe Auguste et ses successeurs jusqu’au XVe siècle ; la politiques des abbés lors des changements de pouvoir ; les conséquences de l’annexion sur l’organisation des abbayes ; les structures de l’Église normande ; les différences en fonction des espaces ; la question des identités normandes, françaises et anglaises dans le cadre de la naissance d’une province.

[Source : http://www.unicaen.fr/crahm/spip.php?article1004]

Svensson Ola, Nämnda ting men glömda. Ortnamn, landskap och rättsutövning

Svensson Ola, Nämnda ting men glömda. Ortnamn, landskap och rättsutövning  [Named but forgotten things: Place-names, landscape and justice], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. G. Byrman, S. Nyström, Linnéuniversitetet)

Résumé/abstract :

The dissertation describes the names related to justice and places in the landscape where justice was administered, applying an interdisciplinary perspective with place names as the chief source material. One aim is to collect and describe place names in Skåne designating or indirectly associated with meeting places and districts of the court, and to study the named places. The study covers many different periods, but especially the Middle Ages and the transition from the Late Iron Age to the Middle Ages. The analysis raises questions such as: Was there continuity in judicial sites between prehistoric and historic times? How old are the hundreds (härader)? Is there a spatial link between judicial sites and other central functions such as cult, markets, or rulers’ estates? The work is permeated by material-based onomastic research in combination with current perspectives in text research, historical geography, and archaeology. Nine case studies are conducted to describe the interaction between place, linguistic expression, and meaning. The study demonstrates the existence of a large corpus of names reflecting the early administration of justice. Most of the many field names which contain ting ‘court’ and galge ‘gallows’ can be related to the actual administration of justice. The medieval sites where courts assembled and people were executed stand out in particular, but in many cases these have prehistoric roots. Both unbroken continuity and the reuse of earlier places of assembly may be assumed. Close to sites with names indicating the administration of justice there are also landscape features with names that grant epic and mythical status to the locale. The special quality of these places was handed down, incorporated in larger narratives, based on changing ideas and circumstances in different periods. The landscape of the hundred courts (häradsting) is archaic, magnificent and mythical, and shared, qualities that contributed to the maintenance and legitimation of judicial practice. A division into a general, public judicial sphere and a more limited and exclusive sphere can be seen. In the medieval exercise of justice this division is manifested in two different judicial districts – härad and birk – but the phenomenon can be traced back to the Late Iron Age. The study also problematizes a traditional image of the names of the hundreds.

[Source : http://lnu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A858241&dswid=-3585]

Connors Owain James, The Effects of Anglo-Norman Lordship upon the Landscape of Post-Conquest Monmouthshire

Connors Owain James, The Effects of Anglo-Norman Lordship upon the Landscape of Post-Conquest Monmouthshire, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. S. Rippon, O. Creighton)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examines the effects the imposition of Anglo-Norman lordship, following the Anglo-Norman expansion into Wales in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, had upon the landscape of the Welsh border region. In order to achieve this aim this project makes extensive use of digital Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in order to produce a detailed county-wide study of the landscape of post-Conquest Monmouthshire as well as comprehensive case studies of individual Anglo-Norman lordships contained within the boundaries of the county. This thesis also aims to locate its findings within important current debates in historic archaeology about the effects of medieval lordship upon the landscape, on the roles of the physical environment and human agency in the forming of the historic landscape, on the wider role of castles as lordship centres, beyond simple military functionality.

[Source : https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/handle/10871/14641]

Charpentier Ljungqvist Fredrik, Kungamakten och lagen : En jämförelse mellan Danmark, Norge och Sverige under högmedeltiden

Charpentier Ljungqvist Fredrik, Kungamakten och lagen : En jämförelse mellan Danmark, Norge och Sverige under högmedeltiden [Kingship and Law : A Comparison between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the High Middle Ages], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. O. Ferm, Université de Stockholm)

Résumé/abstract :

The dissertation is a comparative study of the expansion of law-regulated royal power in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden c. 1150–1350. The aim is to examine how the king’s judicial and military authority and functions, and their effect on the power position of the regional legal assembly and the church, is expressed and how it changed over time in the extant law material. The starting point is the pan-European consolidation of royal power in the High Middle Ages, and the dissertation considers international research on the medieval state formation process and its driving forces. The processual concepts of centralization, institutionalization, hierarchization, and territorialization occupy a central place in the analysis.

Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish laws all reflect a significant increase in royal power. A growing number of societal functions were vested in the increasingly institutionalized kingship, and there was a growth in its power resources. At the same time, it is possible to identify crucial inter-Scandinavian differences. A main finding is that the law-regulated royal power, in most respects, was strongest in Norway and weakest in Sweden. Another important conclusion is that executive royal power first emerged after the judicial and also legislative power had already to a large extent come under royal control.

It is demonstrated that Scandinavian kingship in the High Middle Ages was characterized by increasingly centralized and institutionalized territorially based power, with a greater monopoly on the use of legitimate force, and thereby strengthened the ongoing state formation process. The expansion of law-regulated royal power primarily concerned the judicial sphere and only secondarily the military and fiscal spheres. That state formation was driven by judicial development rather than militarization is also shown by the fact that Norway, despite having the least professionalized and resource-demanding armed forces, was the Scandinavian country with the most centralized and institutionalized royal power.

[Source : http://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A737397&dswid=3935]

Les Vikings en Grande-Bretagne et en Irlande : travaux et recherches en cours

23 oct. 2015 | Université de Caen (France) | MRSH, salle des Actes, SH027, 14H-18H

Les Vikings en Grande-Bretagne et en Irlande : travaux et recherches en cours

Jón Viðar SIGURÐSSON (Université d’Oslo), The Scandinavia power game and the Viking raids
Stephen HARRISON (Université de Glasgow), Early Viking Fortifications in Britain and Ireland
Clare DOWNHAM (Université de Liverpool), Coastal Communities and Diaspora Identities in Viking Age Ireland

Conquest: 1016, 1066 – Call for paper

An Interdisciplinary Anniversary Conference

Ioannou Centre and TORCH, Oxford, 21-24 July 2016

PAPER PROPOSAL DEADLINE 31 OCTOBER 2015

Sessions will run in parallel for 90 minutes each. Paper proposals in the general call should be for 20 minute papers, which will be scheduled in sessions of 3 papers each; if groups of people wish to propose a session in a different format, they are welcome to submit linked proposals. Session and paper proposers are asked to nominate one or more of the thematic strands in which their session/paper would fit:

  1. The Church; monasticism, clerical reform, theology, religious experience
  2. Literature, authors, and patronage
  3. Language and multilingualism, language contact
  4. Institutions and governance; lordship; kingship
  5. Warfare, battles, conduct in war, fighting men
  6. Art and material culture; music; court life
  7. Society and peoples
  8. Trade and commerce
  9. Space, movement, contact, networks; England and Europe, England and Scandinavia
  10. Historiography

Download the CALL FOR PAPERS (PDF)

Download the Paper Proposal form (Word document)

Email paper proposals by 31 October 2015.

Harvey, Sally. Domesday: Book of Judgement

Harvey, Sally. Domesday: Book of Judgement. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. pp. 335. $55.00 (hardback). ISBN: 9780199669783 (hardback).
Reviewed by: Craig M. Nakashian, Texas A&M University-Texarkana
In The Medieval Review :
http://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/tmr/article/view/19270/25398

Sally Harvey–noted scholar of the Domesday Book and the Norman Conquest–synthesizes a wide array of thematic approaches to the Domesday survey and produces a volume of singular value and scope. Known to legions of scholars and students of the Middle Ages, the Domesday Book would not seem to be on the surface a topic in need of a new treatment. However, Harvey’s book both complements and corrects existing historiography in such a way as to be at once familiarly accessible to scholars as well as refreshing and innovative.

Continuer la lecture de Harvey, Sally. Domesday: Book of Judgement

Premiers résultats de la fouille programmée d’un nouvel édifice de prestige au château de Caen

Bénédicte Guillot (Centre Michel de Boüard – Craham ; Inrap)

En 1998, la ville de Caen a lancé un programme de conservation et de mise en valeur du château de Caen. Une opération d’archéologie préventive a eu lieu en 2005 à l’emplacement des actuelles « salles du rempart ». Une fouille programmée a été lancée en 2011 afin d’étudier un grand bâtiment mis en évidence en 2005 et se développant au sud des limites de fouille. Elle s’est poursuivie en 2012 et 2013 et s’est terminée en 2014 (fig. 1). La réalisation du rapport final de cette opération est en cours mais une première synthèse peut déjà être proposée.

Continuer la lecture de Premiers résultats de la fouille programmée d’un nouvel édifice de prestige au château de Caen

Voytovitch Leontiy, Knyaz’ Riurik,Bila Tserkva, Janina, 2014

Войотович Л. В. Князь Рюрик Біла Церква: Янина (Славетні постаті середньовіччя. Вип. 4), 2014 / Voytovitch Leontiy, Knyaz’ Riurik, Bila Tserkva, Janina (Slavetni postati seredn’ovitchtchya, 4), 2014 (en ukrainien)

Le professeur Leontiy Voytovitch vient de sortir son nouveau livre intitulé Le prince Riurik  publié par les éditions Janina dans la série « Les Hommes illustres du Moyen Age ».

L’origine du prince Riurik et le rôle des Varègues dans l’histoire de l’Europe de l’Est sont l’objet de débats passionnés depuis près de trois siècles. Par contraste, l’historiographie ukrainienne manifeste plus de sérénité sur ces sujets brûlants.

Le livre est un essai qui tente de résoudre l’énigme de l’origine du prince Riurik sur la base des sources, y compris les sagas, en rejetant les partis-pris antinormannistes et en replaçant la recherche ukrainienne dans le contexte européen. L’analyse des sources à la lumière de l’histoire dynastique ancienne du Danemark, de la Norvège et de la Suède, permet d’aborder le problème d’origine de Riurik et sa biographie hypothétique. Les études de sources, dans de nombreux cas, démontrent un manque de compréhension de cette période historique par les chercheurs. L’auteur présente ces réflexions dans un large contexte historique et archéologique en utilisant des découverts d’origine scandinave faites en territoire slave qui nous aident à comprendre la situation, avec la formation d’une nouvelle dynastie européenne et le destin probable de son fondateur. Il aborde aussi les différences entre l’existence des fondations scandinaves au Nord (Ladoga) et au Sud (Plesnesk) de l’Europe de l’Est.

L’auteur est le directeur du departemeent de l’histoire médiévale et des études byzantine, l’Université Natioanale de Lviv, Ukraine, et le directeur de recherches, l’Intitut des études ukrainiennes, Académie Nationale des Sciences de l’Ukraine, Lviv.

Continuer la lecture de Voytovitch Leontiy, Knyaz’ Riurik,Bila Tserkva, Janina, 2014

Nardeux Bruno, Un exemple de domaine public en Normandie. Le pays de Lyons Xe-XVe siècle

Nardeux Bruno, Un exemple de domaine public en Normandie. Le pays de Lyons Xe-XVe siècle, (dir. E. Lalou, Université de Rouen).

En cours depuis 2009/In preparation since 2009

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[source : http://www.theses.fr/s51765]

Berardi Riccardo, Féodalité laïque et seigneurie ecclésiastique en Italie du Sud au Moyen Age : la Calabre des Normands à la guerre des Vêpres (1282)

Berardi Riccardo, Féodalité laïque et seigneurie ecclésiastique en Italie du Sud au Moyen Age : la Calabre des Normands à la guerre des Vêpres (1282), (dir. Annick Peters Custot – Université de Saint-Etienne).

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[source : http://www.theses.fr/s105690]

Profile of a Doomed Elite: The Structure of English Landed Society in 1066

Profile of a Doomed Elite: The Structure of English Landed Society in 1066

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Christopher Lewis (christopher.p.lewis@kcl.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

King’s College London

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The project will use innovative methods for interpreting Domesday Book to survey the whole of English landed society on the eve of the Norman Conquest in 1066, identifying landowners at all levels of society from the king and earls down to the parish gentry and even some prosperous peasants.

It may seem astonishing that this has never been done before, since the evidence has existed for more than 900 years. Domesday Book is the most complete survey of any medieval landed society, and provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct the distribution of landed wealth in eleventh-century England. It has been intensively studied, but until now progress has been blocked: the way pre-Conquest landholders are recorded creates major difficulties in identifying and distinguishing individuals of the same name; gathering, comparing, and mapping the evidence by hand has been prohibitively time-consuming; and evidence about landholders in other sources (such as chronicles and charters) has not been systematically pulled together.

Recent research on two fronts has transformed this situation. Publications by Stephen Baxter, Chris Lewis, and others (including in particular Dr Ann Williams, whose research constitutes one of the keystones of the project) have shown that Domesday Book can be used to make many more secure identifications of landowners than had ever been thought possible; and the imminent publication of ‘The Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England’ (PASE) will allow the evidence to be assembled, mapped, and compared with other sources much more efficiently. PASE will provide a prosopography – that is, a list of everything known – for every person recorded throughout the entire Anglo-Saxon period from the sixth century to the eleventh. It has been based at King’s and the University of Cambridge, and has been funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council over eight years in two phases. The second phase, which was published on 18 August 2010, extended PASE’s coverage of the eleventh century, and made a comprehensive database of Domesday landholders linked to mapping facilities freely available online.

‘Profile of a Doomed Elite’ will build on and refine PASE’s coverage of the late Anglo-Saxon nobility on the eve of its demise. It opens up the prospect of a major breakthrough in our knowledge of the Norman Conquest, one of the defining moments in English and European history.

The project will be implemented and published online by the King’s Department of Digital Humanities.

[Lien/Link : http://www.kcl.ac.uk/artshums/depts/history/research/proj/profile.aspx]