Archives de catégorie : Monde anglo-normand et Plantagenêt (XIe-XIIIe siècle) / The Anglo-Norman and Plantagenet world (11th-13th c.)

Bowie Colette Marie, The daughters of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

Bowie, Colette Marie, The daughters of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine: a comparative study of twelfth-century royal women, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. M. Strickland, University of Glasgow)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis compares and contrasts the experiences of the three daughters of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Matilda, Leonor and Joanna all undertook exogamous marriages which cemented dynastic alliances and furthered the political and diplomatic ambitions of their parents. Their later choices with regards religious patronage, as well as the way they and their immediate families were buried, seem to have been influenced by their natal family, suggesting a coherent sense of family consciousness. To discern why this might be the case, an examination of the childhoods of these women has been undertaken, to establish what emotional ties to their natal family may have been formed at this time. The political motivations for their marriages have been analysed, demonstrating the importance of these dynastic alliances, as well as highlighting cultural differences and similarities between the courts of Saxony, Castile, Sicily and the Angevin realm. Dowry and dower portions are important indicators of the power and strength of both their natal and marital families, and give an idea of their access to economic resources which could provide financial means for patronage. The thesis then examines the patronage and dynastic commemorations of Matilda, Leonor and Joanna, in order to discern patterns or parallels. Their possible involvement in the burgeoning cult of Thomas Becket, their patronage of Fontevrault Abbey, the names they gave to their children, and finally where and how they and their immediate families were buried, suggests that all three women were, to varying degrees, able to transplant Angevin family customs to their marital lands. The resulting study, the first of its kind to consider these women in an intergenerational context, advances the hypothesis that there may have been stronger emotional ties within the Angevin family than has previously been allowed for.

[Source : http://theses.gla.ac.uk/3177/]

Theotokis Georgios, The campaigns of the Norman dukes of southern Italy against Byzantium

Theotokis Georgios, The campaigns of the Norman dukes of southern Italy against Byzantium, in the years between 1071 and 1108 AD, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. M. Strickland, University of Glasgow)

Résumé/abstract :

The topic of my thesis is The campaigns of the Norman dukes of southern Italy to Byzantium, in the years between 1071 and 1108 A.D. As the title suggests, I am examining all the main campaigns conducted by the Normans against Byzantine provinces, in the period from the fall of Bari, the Byzantine capital of Apulia and the seat of the Byzantine governor (catepano) of Italy in 1071, to the Treaty of Devol that marked the end of Bohemond of Taranto’s Illyrian campaign in 1108. My thesis, however, aims to focus specifically on the military aspects of these confrontations, an area which for this period has been surprisingly neglected in the existing secondary literature. My intention is to give answers to a series of questions, of which only some of them are presented here: what was the Norman method of raising their armies and what was the connection of this particular system to that in Normandy and France in the same period (similarities, differences, if any)? Have the Normans been willing to adapt to the Mediterranean reality of warfare, meaning the adaptation of siege engines and the creation of a transport and fighting fleet? What was the composition of their armies, not only in numbers but also in the analogy of cavalry, infantry and supplementary units? While in the field of battle, what were the fighting tactics used by the Normans against the Byzantines and were they superior to their eastern opponents? However, as my study is in essence comparative, I will further compare the Norman and Byzantine military institutions, analyse the clash of these two different military cultures and distinguish any signs of adaptations in their practice of warfare. Also, I will attempt to set this enquiry in the light of new approaches to medieval military history visible in recent historiography by asking if any side had been familiar to the ideas of Vegetian strategy, and if so, whether we characterise any of these strategies as Vegetian?

[Source : http://theses.gla.ac.uk/1884/]

Smith Nicholas J.C., Servicium debitum and scutage in twelfth-century England

Smith, Nicholas J.C., Servicium debitum and scutage in twelfth-century England, with comparisons to the Regno of southern Italy, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (University of Durham)

Résumé/abstract :

The purpose of this study is to re-assess the system of military obligation in England at the earliest time sufficient documents survive to provide an in-depth explanation. It is both an examination of the twelfth-century feudal structure and lordship arrangements as described by these documents, and how they came to be in their twelfth-century forms. This is supplemented by a similar, but briefer, evaluation of the Regno of southern Italy and of the occasional relevant documents from Normandy. An examination of the place of military obligation in the kingdom of England covers three major areas: the assessment of this obligation, the cost of service both to the king and the individual knight, and how the men actually served. These three areas offer insight into how the Normans established the servicium debitum, how knights exempted themselves from their obligation or were compensated for extra service, and various aspects of what their service entailed, such as castle guard.

A study of the returns made by tenants-in-chief in 1166 suggests that these have been misinterpreted in the past; their inspiration lay in the desire of the barons to protect themselves from excessive royal demands, rather than in the crown’s desire to update the servicium debitum. The survey conducted in the Regno earlier is unlikely to have served as a prototype for the 1166 inquiry; it was different in purpose and in form. Scutages are examined, to show the complex patterns of payment, and to suggest that under Henry II a significant number of tenants-in-chief performed their service, rather than commuted it. The Pipe Rolls are used to analyse military expenditure at a local level in two counties, Kent and Shropshire; in particular pay rates are reconstructed. A series of appendices provide details of this expenditure, along with evidence of scutages.

[Source : http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/454/]

Munns John M., The cross of Christ and Anglo-Norman religious imagination

Munns John M., The cross of Christ and Anglo-Norman religious imagination, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. P. Binski, University of Cambridge)

Résumé/abstract :

This study explores the ideas and images of the cross of Christ – intellectual, devotional, ethical, liturgical and artistic – in England between the Norman invasion and the beginning of the thirteenth century. The first chapter considers the influence of Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), both in the articulation of the first systemic exposition of the atonement and in the development of affective devotional practice. Chapter Two will relate these, in turn, to two other late eleventh-century developments that were nurtured in the Anglo-Norman cultural milieu: the defence of the doctrine of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist and the appearance of Trinitarian imagery in which the sacrificial offering of Christ on the cross is depicted as an eternal part of the divine life. Chapter Three will follow these developments into the twelfth century and explore their relationships to Cistercian spirituality and eremitic vocation.

In Part Two the remaining artistic evidence will provide the starting point for an art-historical exploration of the image of the crucified Christ. Chapters Four and Five survey the public image, representations in wall-painting, sculpture and metalwork and the use of the cross in liturgy and church furnishing. Chapter Six will consider the depiction of the passion and crucifixion in manuscript illumination, particularly in the ten substantial pictorial life-cycles of Christ to survive from twelfth-century England.

Part Three focuses on the period between the death of Thomas Becket in 1170 and the first decades of the thirteenth century. In Chapter Seven, Becket’s nurture of both ‘Anselmian’ devotion and an increasingly active cross-centred Christo-mimetic ethic will be demonstrated, and the subsequent rise in enthusiasm for pilgrimage and passion relics explored. The final chapter focuses on English engagement with the crusades and the Holy Land.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.609002]

Gobbitt Thomas J., The production and use of MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 383

Gobbitt Thomas J., The production and use of MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 383 in the late eleventh and first half of the twelfth centuries, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. M. Swan, O. Da Rold, University of Leeds)

Résumé/abstract :

MS Cambridge Corpus Christi College 383 (CCCC 383) is a collection of Anglo-Saxon law-codes and related texts copied in Old English dated to the beginning of the twelfth century. The manuscript is written throughout by a single scribe in a clear, subtly decorated and easy to read English Vernacular Minuscule and decorated throughout with red pen-drawn initials. Rubrics have been supplied in the first half of the twelfth century, as well as numerous additions and emendations dating from the first half of the twelfth century through to the sixteenth century. I have conducted an extensive codicological and contextual examination of the production and use of CCCC 383. I investigated a number of significant areas: the direct evidence for the materials and methods employed in the production of the manuscript and for its storage and use throughout the period; evidence for scribal behaviour and interaction with the manuscript in the writing, miniaturing, emendation and rubrication of the manuscript; analysis of the mise-en-page and the ways in which that can be used to assess the intentions of producers and users of the manuscript; and consideration of the continued roles of the Old English language and Anglo-Saxon law in the late eleventh and first half of the twelfth century. I argue that the production of the manuscript represented a significant and meaningful endeavour on the part of its producers and users and indicates the continued applicability and of Old English and Anglo-Saxon law-codes in the historical context of the late eleventh and first half of the twelfth centuries.

[Source : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/1531]

Lestremau Arnaud, Pratiques anthroponymiques et identités sociales en Angleterre (mi Xe-mi XIe siècles)

Lestremau Arnaud, Pratiques anthroponymiques et identités sociales en Angleterre (mi Xe-mi XIe siècles), Thèse de doctorat soutenue le 9 décembre 2013 (dir. R. Le Jan, Université de Paris I ; co-directeur P. Bauduin, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie)

Résumé/abstract

Au nombre des éléments de la vie sociale, le nom est un des plus universels. En effet, il est à la base de toute communication, dans la mesure où il permet de désigner un tiers. Cependant, le nom n’est pas neutre: il porte du sens et il permet souvent d’identifier les groupes auxquels un individu se rattache. L’étude des noms permet de comprendre une des multiples manières qu’ont les acteurs de s’inscrire dans le champ social. Le nom est une marque d’appartenance, consciente ou non, assumée ou non par son porteur. Sa dation, sa circulation, sa mémoire sont autant d’éléments qui peuvent nous renseigner sur le fonctionnement de la société. Comme outil linguistique et objet de la parole collective, mais aussi grâce à son contenu sémantique et à des phénomènes d’écho entre homonymes, le nom contribue à définir l’individu, mais aussi à l’ancrer dans le champ social. Grâce à la plupart des sources anglo-saxonnes des Xe-XIe siècles, nous menons à bien une étude complète de l’usage et des représentations du nom. Le nom peut en effet avoir des significations variables; il peut même recouvrir des identités contradictoires. Notre but, à ce titre, est de saisir tous ces niveaux de signification et d’articuler ces différentes identités. En constituant des corpus de noms et en les replaçant dans des groupes de parenté, dans des familles culturelles et dans d’autres types de communautés, nous montrons l’importance du nom pour signifier l’identité des hommes, tantôt en les distinguant les uns des autres (identité individuelle), tantôt en les inscrivant dans un ensemble d’identités collectives (notamment la parenté).

 

Among the elements of social life, the name is one of the most universal. Indeed, it is at the root of all communication, insofar as it allows you to designate a third party. However, the name is not neutral : it carries meanings and it often makes possible to identify the groups to which an individual belongs. The study of names thus allows you to understand how the actors are part of the social field. The name is a sign of affiliation, conscious or not, assumed or not, by the holder. Its giving, its circulation and its memory are all elements that can inform us about how societies do work. As a linguistic tool and as an object of the collective speech, but also through its semantic content and through the echoes it creates between homonyms, the name contributes to defining the individual, but also rooted him in the social field. Thanks to most of the late Anglo-Saxon sources, we carry out a comprehensive study about the naming practices and the representations of naming. The name may indeed have varying meanings and may even cover conflicting identities. Our aim, as such, is to capture ail of these levels of meanings and articulate these different identities. By setting up corpora of names and by replacing them in kinship groups, in cultural families and in other types of communities, we show the importance of the name to signify the identity of men, sometimes by distinguishing them from one another (individual identity), sometimes by placing them in a set of collective identities (mostly relatives).

Réf.: http://www.theses.fr/2013PA010646

Combalbert, Grégory

Maître de conférences d’histoire médiévale / Lecturer of Medieval History

Université de Caen Basse-Normandie 
Centre Michel de Boüard-CRAHAM (UMR 6273) 

Continuer la lecture de Combalbert, Grégory

L’historiographie médiévale normande et ses sources antiques (Xe-XIIe siècle)

Actes du colloque de Cerisy-la-Salle et du Scriptorial d’Avranches (8-11 octobre 2009)

publiés sous la direction de Pierre Bauduin et Marie-Agnès Lucas-Avenel

2014, 16×24 cm, broché, 380 p., ISBN : 978-2-84133-485-8

Presses universitaires de Caen

30 €

Les Normands au Moyen Âge se sont passionnés pour l’histoire. Soucieux de faire œuvre de mémoire, les auteurs médiévaux relatent les origines du duché et la destinée des Normands ; ils célèbrent les exploits de leurs ducs et des chevaliers partis conquérir l’Angleterre et l’Italie du Sud. Lecteurs assidus de la Bible, ils se sont aussi inspirés des œuvres de l’Antiquité gréco-romaine et chrétienne.
Comment, en revendiquant l’héritage des Anciens, ces auteurs ont-ils fait une œuvre originale ? Issu d’un colloque interdisciplinaire qui a réuni des spécialistes français, anglais et italiens à Cerisy-la-Salle et à Avranches, ce volume apporte des réponses à cette question, à partir de l’examen renouvelé des bibliothèques normandes et au travers de l’analyse des modèles littéraires ou des stratégies d’imitation mises au service de projets historiographiques différents.