Archives de catégorie : Normands en Méditerranée (XIe-XIIIe siècle) / The Normans in the Mediterranean (11th-13th c.)

Devenney Amy, Miracles and medicine in the Norman kingdom of Sicily

Devenney Amy, Miracles and medicine in the Norman kingdom of Sicily, (dir. G. Loud, P. Oldfield, I. McCleery, University of Leeds)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

My PhD research focuses on the issues of health and healthcare in the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Using predominantly hagiographical sources it aims to understand the relationship between religion and medicine within this region; to explore the attitudes and experiences of medieval people towards health; to investigate the healthcare available to the sick in medieval Southern Italy; and to explore the medieval mentalities towards those cases that we would now term ‘mental’ illness.

[Source : http://www.leeds.ac.uk/arts/profile/20046/994/amy_devenney]

Busigyn Alexander, The Christian laws of medieval Norway

Busigyn Alexander, The Christian laws of medieval Norway: ecclesiastical tradition and legal innovation on the periphery of the Christian West, (dir. H. Antonsson, D. d’Avray, University College London)

En cours depuis 2011/In preparation since 2011

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/christian-laws-medieval-norway-ecclesiastical-tradition-and-legal]

Nef Annliese, A companion to medieval Palermo: the history of a Mediterranean city from 600 to 1500

Nef Annliese, A companion to medieval Palermo: the history of a Mediterranean city from 600 to 1500, Leiden, Brill, 2013, 576 p. ISBN: 978-90-04-22392-9

Compte rendu par/Review by : Paul Oldfield

H-Net

Date : Mar 2014

In recent decades research on the medieval city has increasingly produced ever more holistic analyses informed by methodologies from across multiple disciplines. As an endeavour it has proved both enriching and hugely demanding. There are, arguably, few medieval cities more open to such inter-disciplinary and synthetic examination than the Sicilian city of Palermo; and there are, equally, few cities which offer up more challenges in doing so. Between 600 and 1500, Palermo felt the full effects of its location in a frontier zone where the worlds of Greek Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Latin Christianity all intersected. The city moved in and out of the orbit of different political hegemonies, its constantly fluctuating urban topography (street-plans, quarters, architecture) testament to that process. The city also experienced significant demographic shifts, economic up-turns and down-turns, and socio-cultural transformation as the linguistic, ethnic and religious make-up of the city was seemingly in a constant flux.

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Bolognese Isabella, The monastery of Montevergine: its development and early history, 1118-1210

Bolognese, Isabella, The monastery of Montevergine: its development and early history, 1118-1210, (dir. G. Loud, University of Leeds)

This thesis examines the institutional and socio-economic development of the monastery of Montevergine during the twelfth century in the Kingdom of Sicily. Founded as a hermitage c. 1119 by the Italian hermit, William of Vercelli, Montevergine grew into a conventional Benedictine establishment by the end of the twelfth century. Over the course of the century, the religious community of Montevergine built an extensive land patrimony that went hand in hand with the growth of its pool of donors, and consequently caused the institutional identity and structure to evolve, and the monastery to increase its network of dependencies across its landholdings. This thesis aims to disentangle the events surrounding the monastery’s foundation, to explore its economic activities, and its relationships with its donors and the local lay community. The thesis is divided into two sections, the first taking a linear narrative approach to the study of Montevergine’s early development, and the second adopting a more thematic approach to the study of the economic, social, and institutional development of the monastery. Chapter 1 focusses on the foundation of Montevergine; Chapter 2 looks at its development during Norman rule of the Kingdom of Sicily; Chapter 3 follows its development during Hohenstaufen rule up to 1210; Chapter 4 surveys the geographical setting of Montevergine to provide a better understanding of its economic activities, which are the subject of Chapter 5. Chapter 6 explores the monastery’s relationships with the laity and the networks it built among the local lay community; Chapter 7 looks at the internal administrative and institutional development of Montevergine, while Chapter 8 analyses the expansion of its monastic network, focussing on a number of the monastery’s dependencies as case studies.

[Source : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/6500/]

Lincoln George, Settlements in pre-Norman and Norman Sicily

Lincoln George, Settlements in pre-Norman and Norman Sicily, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. A. Jotischky, A. Metcalfe, Lancaster University)

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available.

Kapitaikin Lev, The twelfth-century paintings of the ceilings of the Cappella Palatina, Palermo

Kapitaikin, Lev, The twelfth-century paintings of the ceilings of the Cappella Palatina, Palermo, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. J. Johns, University of Oxford)

Résumé/abstract :

The three ‘Islamic’ ceilings of the Cappella Palatina in Palermo, the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Sicily, were commissioned by king Roger II around 1143. The grandiose muqarnas (stalactite) ceiling of the nave and the two smaller ceilings of the two aisles were just one part of the opulent, multifaceted decoration of the royal chapel, that included also Byzantine mosaics with Christian scenes and Southern-Italian marble pavements and revetments. As with other medieval chapels of palaces, the Cappella Palatina served concomitantly as a royal audience hall, a thing evidenced by the great throne platform at its west end. The paintings of the three ceilings present ‘Islamic’ figural and ornamental decoration and Arabic inscriptions, the salient subject-matter of which is the Islamic royal banquet, the majlis, centered upon the king. The study presents new stylistic and iconographic evidence to show that the painters of the ceilings came mainly from Fatimid Egypt, and that the paintings could reflect also some impact of the Christian arts of that country, if not the actual participation of Coptic artists in their production. Despite the predominantly Islamic subject-matter of the paintings, their imagery was simultaneously enriched with Christian themes, the models for which were likely provided by Romanesque, Middle-Byzantine, and – to a lesser extent – Coptic artwork. Far from being an alien ‘Oriental’ element incorporated into the otherwise Christian chapel, the designer/s of the chapel actually sought to manipulate the Islamic princely imagery of the ceilings through the insertion of Christian ‘triumphal’ themes and a few crosses in the paintings. The Christian scenes were, moreover, placed in focal programmatic points at the ceilings, and associated spatially with ceremonial and-liturgical features of the chapel, namely: the royal throne platform at the west end, and the entrance to the sanctuary at the east. The ‘Islamicate’ – rather than Islamic – ceilings and their imagery were thus adapted to the Christian setting within the palatine chapel of the Norman monarchs.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=1&uin=uk.bl.ethos.550801]

Bowie Colette Marie, The daughters of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

Bowie, Colette Marie, The daughters of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine: a comparative study of twelfth-century royal women, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. M. Strickland, University of Glasgow)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis compares and contrasts the experiences of the three daughters of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Matilda, Leonor and Joanna all undertook exogamous marriages which cemented dynastic alliances and furthered the political and diplomatic ambitions of their parents. Their later choices with regards religious patronage, as well as the way they and their immediate families were buried, seem to have been influenced by their natal family, suggesting a coherent sense of family consciousness. To discern why this might be the case, an examination of the childhoods of these women has been undertaken, to establish what emotional ties to their natal family may have been formed at this time. The political motivations for their marriages have been analysed, demonstrating the importance of these dynastic alliances, as well as highlighting cultural differences and similarities between the courts of Saxony, Castile, Sicily and the Angevin realm. Dowry and dower portions are important indicators of the power and strength of both their natal and marital families, and give an idea of their access to economic resources which could provide financial means for patronage. The thesis then examines the patronage and dynastic commemorations of Matilda, Leonor and Joanna, in order to discern patterns or parallels. Their possible involvement in the burgeoning cult of Thomas Becket, their patronage of Fontevrault Abbey, the names they gave to their children, and finally where and how they and their immediate families were buried, suggests that all three women were, to varying degrees, able to transplant Angevin family customs to their marital lands. The resulting study, the first of its kind to consider these women in an intergenerational context, advances the hypothesis that there may have been stronger emotional ties within the Angevin family than has previously been allowed for.

[Source : http://theses.gla.ac.uk/3177/]

Theotokis Georgios, The campaigns of the Norman dukes of southern Italy against Byzantium

Theotokis Georgios, The campaigns of the Norman dukes of southern Italy against Byzantium, in the years between 1071 and 1108 AD, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. M. Strickland, University of Glasgow)

Résumé/abstract :

The topic of my thesis is The campaigns of the Norman dukes of southern Italy to Byzantium, in the years between 1071 and 1108 A.D. As the title suggests, I am examining all the main campaigns conducted by the Normans against Byzantine provinces, in the period from the fall of Bari, the Byzantine capital of Apulia and the seat of the Byzantine governor (catepano) of Italy in 1071, to the Treaty of Devol that marked the end of Bohemond of Taranto’s Illyrian campaign in 1108. My thesis, however, aims to focus specifically on the military aspects of these confrontations, an area which for this period has been surprisingly neglected in the existing secondary literature. My intention is to give answers to a series of questions, of which only some of them are presented here: what was the Norman method of raising their armies and what was the connection of this particular system to that in Normandy and France in the same period (similarities, differences, if any)? Have the Normans been willing to adapt to the Mediterranean reality of warfare, meaning the adaptation of siege engines and the creation of a transport and fighting fleet? What was the composition of their armies, not only in numbers but also in the analogy of cavalry, infantry and supplementary units? While in the field of battle, what were the fighting tactics used by the Normans against the Byzantines and were they superior to their eastern opponents? However, as my study is in essence comparative, I will further compare the Norman and Byzantine military institutions, analyse the clash of these two different military cultures and distinguish any signs of adaptations in their practice of warfare. Also, I will attempt to set this enquiry in the light of new approaches to medieval military history visible in recent historiography by asking if any side had been familiar to the ideas of Vegetian strategy, and if so, whether we characterise any of these strategies as Vegetian?

[Source : http://theses.gla.ac.uk/1884/]

Smith Nicholas J.C., Servicium debitum and scutage in twelfth-century England

Smith, Nicholas J.C., Servicium debitum and scutage in twelfth-century England, with comparisons to the Regno of southern Italy, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (University of Durham)

Résumé/abstract :

The purpose of this study is to re-assess the system of military obligation in England at the earliest time sufficient documents survive to provide an in-depth explanation. It is both an examination of the twelfth-century feudal structure and lordship arrangements as described by these documents, and how they came to be in their twelfth-century forms. This is supplemented by a similar, but briefer, evaluation of the Regno of southern Italy and of the occasional relevant documents from Normandy. An examination of the place of military obligation in the kingdom of England covers three major areas: the assessment of this obligation, the cost of service both to the king and the individual knight, and how the men actually served. These three areas offer insight into how the Normans established the servicium debitum, how knights exempted themselves from their obligation or were compensated for extra service, and various aspects of what their service entailed, such as castle guard.

A study of the returns made by tenants-in-chief in 1166 suggests that these have been misinterpreted in the past; their inspiration lay in the desire of the barons to protect themselves from excessive royal demands, rather than in the crown’s desire to update the servicium debitum. The survey conducted in the Regno earlier is unlikely to have served as a prototype for the 1166 inquiry; it was different in purpose and in form. Scutages are examined, to show the complex patterns of payment, and to suggest that under Henry II a significant number of tenants-in-chief performed their service, rather than commuted it. The Pipe Rolls are used to analyse military expenditure at a local level in two counties, Kent and Shropshire; in particular pay rates are reconstructed. A series of appendices provide details of this expenditure, along with evidence of scutages.

[Source : http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/454/]

I Normanni del Mezzogiorno e il movimento crociato

Luigi Russo

Uno degli equivoci storiografici ancora oggi meglio radicati è quello di una sostanziale differenza nella partecipazione normanna al movimento crociato, improntata ad istanze di natura prettamente terrena, al contrario di quanto avvenuto per gli altri pellegrini reclutati al seguito dell’appello di Clermont lanciato da papa Urbano II nel novembre del 1095. In una serie di saggi scritti nell’ultimo decennio e presentati in numerose sedi internazionali, l’autore intende fornire una completa rivisitazione del movimento di espansione con cui i Normanni del Mezzogiorno si rivolsero, tra la fine del secolo XI ed i primi tre decenni del secolo successivo, in direzione dell’impero bizantino e della Terrasanta latina, meglio conosciuta sotto il nome diOutremer. Facendo il punto sugli esiti più aggiornati delle ricerche storiografiche a livello internazionale, l’intento di questo volume è collocare l’apporto dei Normanni nel più ampio contesto storico dei secoli XI-XII, e comprenderne ragioni e motivi che li spinsero a dispiegare una politica di espansione così ampia ed impegnativa.

  • Pagine 192
  • Formato 17×24, brossura
  • Collana Quaderni del Centro di Studi Normanno-Svevi, 4
  • Anno di pubblicazione 2014

Information

L’historiographie médiévale normande et ses sources antiques (Xe-XIIe siècle)

Actes du colloque de Cerisy-la-Salle et du Scriptorial d’Avranches (8-11 octobre 2009)

publiés sous la direction de Pierre Bauduin et Marie-Agnès Lucas-Avenel

2014, 16×24 cm, broché, 380 p., ISBN : 978-2-84133-485-8

Presses universitaires de Caen

30 €

Les Normands au Moyen Âge se sont passionnés pour l’histoire. Soucieux de faire œuvre de mémoire, les auteurs médiévaux relatent les origines du duché et la destinée des Normands ; ils célèbrent les exploits de leurs ducs et des chevaliers partis conquérir l’Angleterre et l’Italie du Sud. Lecteurs assidus de la Bible, ils se sont aussi inspirés des œuvres de l’Antiquité gréco-romaine et chrétienne.
Comment, en revendiquant l’héritage des Anciens, ces auteurs ont-ils fait une œuvre originale ? Issu d’un colloque interdisciplinaire qui a réuni des spécialistes français, anglais et italiens à Cerisy-la-Salle et à Avranches, ce volume apporte des réponses à cette question, à partir de l’examen renouvelé des bibliothèques normandes et au travers de l’analyse des modèles littéraires ou des stratégies d’imitation mises au service de projets historiographiques différents.