Archives de catégorie : France

Acta of the Plantagenets

Acta of the Plantagenets

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Nicholas Vincent (n.vincent@uea.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of Cambridge

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The texts of original charters, writs, letters, and other documents, as well as copies and transcripts of them made between the twelfth century and the present, are being prepared for editions intended for publication, beginning with the acts of Henry II. In addition to those of Henry, the project has also collected the acts of Eleanor of Aquitaine, of Richard I, of John as Lord of Ireland and Count of Mortain, and of other members of the Plantagenet family.

[Lien/Link : http://www.britac.ac.uk/arp/acta.cfm]

Rickaby, Caroline, Girard d’Athee and the men from the Touraine: their roles under King John

Rickaby, Caroline, Girard d’Athee and the men from the Touraine: their roles under King John, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (M. Prestwich, C. Liddy, University of Durham)

Clause 50 of Magna Carta 1215 proscribes a group of men who are never again to hold office in England. They are described as Girard d’Athée’s relatives (parentes), and although some of their names appear, no reasons are given for their inclusion in the clause. This thesis traces the lives of Girard d’Athée and his group, from their origins in the Touraine, through their arrival in England, through their responsibilities and influence under John, concluding with a brief resumé of their careers under Henry III. It also analyses the reasons for the inclusion of Clause 50 in the 1215 version of Magna Carta. Were the men proscribed because of their foreign birth or because they abused their positions as servants of the king? Did the barons fear their military might, or merely object to their misdemeanours? Did the established baronage and zealous parvenus covet the rewards bestowed on Athée and his clan or were they simply jealous of the increasingly close friendship these men were forging with John? Or was the clause nothing more than the result of a personal vendetta against members of the clan? By comparing and contrasting the careers of the men from the Touraine with that of another contemporary of theirs from the same area, Peter de Maulay, who was not proscribed in Clause 50, a clear appreciation of their value to the king and country can be determined. A balanced judgement suggests that their actions justified the king’s confidence in them, and that they did not deserve the censure and suspicion of the chroniclers, some influential members of the baronage, and several modern historians.

[Source : http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/901/]

Middlemass Rachel, Bodies of men: manhood and masculinity in England and northern France, c.1100-c.1250

Middlemass Rachel, Bodies of men: manhood and masculinity in England and northern France, c.1100-c.1250, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. R. Balzaretti, J. Barrow, University of Nottingham)

Résumé/abstract :

This study responds to a gap in the existing historiography of medieval men and masculinities around the relationships between corporeality, gender identity, group membership. and social inequality. It aims primarily to elucidate the significance of the physical body to medieval masculine ideals and its role in processes of social categorisation which privileged most men over most women, and some men over others. In particular. I focus here on the ways in which culturally specific – but surprisingly coherent – discourses about and narrative representations of the body were used to construct prototypical models of manhood. principally via claims of polarisation from and superiority to corporeally distinct « others’. The analysis presented here is undertaken within a framework which borrows from anthropological and sociological methodologies, incorporating a dual focus on the ‘natural’ or essential, as well as the socially-constructed and discursive facets of the body. The body is viewed throughout as playing a simultaneously representational and instrumental role in the construction of both individual and collective identities. It is understood here both as a vehicle for the expression of those identities and as an active agent in their production; both a product of the behavioural codes prescribed for men and a site for and resource in men’s alignment with or resistance to these codes. It is likewise accorded agency in the unequal attribution of social status to both individual male bodies and collectives thereof. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of multiple ‘capitals’, the body is treated as a cultural asset whose unequal distribution, like any other form of capital, is hypothesised here to have played a role in the institution and maintenance of deep social divisions between medieval men.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.595315]

Bainton Willliam, History and the written word in the Angevin Empire, c. 1154-c. 1200

Bainton Willliam, History and the written word in the Angevin Empire, c. 1154-c. 1200, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (University of York)

Résumé/abstract :

It is axiomatic that later twelfth-century England witnessed a growth in the sophistication of government and a related proliferation of written records. This period is also noted for its prolific and distinctive historical writing — which was often written by administrators and reproduced administrative documents. Taking these connected phenomena as its starting point, this study investigates how the changing uses of, access to and attitudes towards the written word affected the writing of history. Conversely, it also seeks to understand how historiography — which had long been associated with the written word — shaped contemporary assumptions about the written word itself. It assesses why historians quoted (and versified) so many documents in their histories, and traces structural similarities between chronicles and other contemporary forms of documentary collection. In doing so, it suggests that the apparently ‘official’ documents reproduced by histories are better thought of as social productions that told stories about the past, for and about those holding public office. It suggests that by rewriting documents as history, historical writing played a fundamental role in committing them to memory — and that it used historical narrative to explain the documents of the past to an imagined future. It also investigates why the period’s historical writing is so attuned to the performances that surrounded the written word. By investigating the presentation of documentary practices in both Latin and vernacular historiography, and by reconstructing the multilingual milieu that historians and historiography inhabited, the study challenges the way that vernacular textual practices are associated primarily with orality and performance, and Latin textual practices with writing and the making of ‘passive’ records. In the process, it suggests that both vernacular and Latin (historical) writing presented a normative picture of the functions of the written word — and of the literati — in contemporary society.

[Source : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/1233/]

The Charters of William II and Henry I

The Charters of William II and Henry I

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Richard Sharpe (richard.sharpe@history.ox.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of Oxford

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The overall aim is to collect, edit, and interpret the royal acts issued in the names of two English kings, William II (reigned 1087 to 1100), and his brother Henry I (reigned 1100 to 1135), who was also duke of Normandy from 1106 until 1135. Royal acts, mainly charters but also writs and other letters, are the prime documentary source for the period, providing the means to understand the workings of the realm in a way not possible from chronicles and other narrative sources.

This edition differs from previous work on documents of this period by treating beneficiary archives as a unit. Although the king issued documents for his own reasons in many circumstances, for example royal proclamations, treaties, royal letters, and writs concerning fiscal administration, these rarely survive. What remains, therefore, is very largely the material in whose preservation someone had a direct interest. Most documents, even those representing the exercise of the king’s power such as the appointment of bishops or abbots, survive through the archive of the beneficiary who received and retained the documents. Different beneficiary archives tell different stories. The organization of the edition presents, for the most part, beneficiary archives with a headnote to explain the background, including the motivations behind seeking the king’s seal and the reasons for preservation.

When complete, the edition will include several hundred beneficiary archives. The acts are not distributed evenly between them: almost half are contained in just thirty archives. The files currently available on this site represent about an eighth of the material to be included in the final edition, which will be published as a multi-volume book.

[Lien/Link : https://actswilliam2henry1.wordpress.com/]

Dutton Kathryn, Geoffrey, count of Anjou and duke of Normandy, 1129-51

Dutton Kathryn, Geoffrey, count of Anjou and duke of Normandy, 1129-51, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. S. Marritt, University of Glasgow)

Résumé/abstract :

Count Geoffrey V of Anjou (1129-51) features in Anglo-French historiography as a peripheral figure in the Anglo-Norman succession crisis which followed the death of his father-in-law, Henry I of England and Normandy (1100-35). The few studies which examine him directly do so primarily in this context, dealing briefly with his conquest and short reign as duke of Normandy (1144-50), with reference to a limited range of evidence, primarily Anglo-Norman chronicles. There has never been a comprehensive analysis of Geoffrey’s comital reign, nor a narrative of his entire career, despite an awareness of his importance as a powerful territorial prince and important political player. This thesis establishes a complete narrative framework for Geoffrey’s life and career, and examines the key aspects of his comital and ducal reigns. It compiles and employs a body of 180 acta relating to his Angevin and Norman administrations to do so, alongside narrative evidence from Greater Anjou, Normandy, England and elsewhere. It argues that rule of Greater Anjou prior to 1150 had more in common with neighbouring principalities such as Brittany, whose rulers had emerged in the tenth and eleventh centuries as primus inter pares, than with Normandy, where ducal powers over the native aristocracy were more wide-ranging, or royal government in England. It explores the count’s territories, the personnel of government, the dispensation of justice, revenue collection, the comital army, and Geoffrey’s ability to carry out ‘traditional’ princely duties such as religious patronage in the context of Angevin elite landed society’s virtual autonomy and tendency to rebel in the first half of the twelfth century. The character of Geoffrey’s power and authority was fundamentally shaped by the region’s tenurial and seigneurial history, and could only be conducted within that framework. This study also addresses Geoffrey’s activities as first conqueror then ruler of Normandy. The process by which the duchy was conquered is shown to be more intricate than the chroniclers’ accounts of Angevin siege warfare suggest, and the ducal reign more complex than merely a regency until Geoffrey’s son, the future Henry II (1150-89), came of age. Through use of a much wider body of evidence than previously considered in connection with Geoffrey’s career, and a charter-based methodology, this thesis provides a new and appropriate treatment of an important non-royal ruler. It situates Geoffrey in his proper context and provides an account of not only how he was presented by commentators who were sometimes geographically and temporally remote, but by his own administration and those over whom he ruled. It provides an in-depth analysis of the explicit and implicit characteristics of princely rulership, and how they were won, maintained and exploited in two different contexts.

[Source : http://theses.gla.ac.uk/3052/]

Thomas Elizabeth, ‘We have nothing more valuable in our treasury’ : royal marriage in England, 1154-1272

Thomas, Elizabeth, ‘We have nothing more valuable in our treasury’ : royal marriage in England, 1154-1272, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. J. Hudson, University of St Andrews)

Résumé/abstract :

That kings throughout the entire Middle Ages used the marriages of themselves and their children to further their political agendas has never been in question. What this thesis examines is the significance these marriage alliances truly had to domestic and foreign politics in England from the accession of Henry II in 1154 until the death of his grandson Henry III in 1272. Chronicle and record sources shed valuable light upon the various aspects of royal marriage at this time: firstly, they show that the marriages of the royal family at this time were geographically diverse, ranging from Scotland and England to as far abroad as the Empire, Spain, and Sicily. Most of these marriages were based around one primary principle, that being control over Angevin land-holdings on the continent. Further examination of the ages at which children were married demonstrates a practicality to the policy, in that often at least the bride was young, certainly young enough to bear children and assimilate into whatever land she may travel to. Sons were also married to secure their future, either as heir to the throne or the husband of a wealthy heiress. Henry II and his sons were almost always closely involved in the negotiations for the marriages, and were often the initiators of marriage alliances, showing a strong interest in the promotion of marriage as a political tool. Dowries were often the centre of alliances, demonstrating how much the bride, or the alliance, was worth, in land, money, or a combination of the two. One of the most important aspects for consideration though, was the outcome of the alliances. Though a number were never confirmed, and most royal children had at least one broken proposal or betrothal before their marriage, many of the marriages made were indeed successful in terms of gaining from the alliance what had originally been desired.

[Source : http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2001]

Bowie Colette Marie, The daughters of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

Bowie, Colette Marie, The daughters of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine: a comparative study of twelfth-century royal women, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. M. Strickland, University of Glasgow)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis compares and contrasts the experiences of the three daughters of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Matilda, Leonor and Joanna all undertook exogamous marriages which cemented dynastic alliances and furthered the political and diplomatic ambitions of their parents. Their later choices with regards religious patronage, as well as the way they and their immediate families were buried, seem to have been influenced by their natal family, suggesting a coherent sense of family consciousness. To discern why this might be the case, an examination of the childhoods of these women has been undertaken, to establish what emotional ties to their natal family may have been formed at this time. The political motivations for their marriages have been analysed, demonstrating the importance of these dynastic alliances, as well as highlighting cultural differences and similarities between the courts of Saxony, Castile, Sicily and the Angevin realm. Dowry and dower portions are important indicators of the power and strength of both their natal and marital families, and give an idea of their access to economic resources which could provide financial means for patronage. The thesis then examines the patronage and dynastic commemorations of Matilda, Leonor and Joanna, in order to discern patterns or parallels. Their possible involvement in the burgeoning cult of Thomas Becket, their patronage of Fontevrault Abbey, the names they gave to their children, and finally where and how they and their immediate families were buried, suggests that all three women were, to varying degrees, able to transplant Angevin family customs to their marital lands. The resulting study, the first of its kind to consider these women in an intergenerational context, advances the hypothesis that there may have been stronger emotional ties within the Angevin family than has previously been allowed for.

[Source : http://theses.gla.ac.uk/3177/]

Exposition – La tombe viking de Groix

Exposition – La tombe viking de Groix

Le Port-musée, Douarnenez

8/6/2013 – 3/11/2013

Commissaires scientifiques/Scientific directors : Jean-Christophe Cassard, Kelig-Yann Cotto

Description :

Cette exposition évoque la découverte en 1906 d’un bateau-tombe viking du début du Xe siècle sur île de Groix et se propose de présenter les présenter les pratiques funéraires des anciens Scandinaves et l’impact des invasions vikings en Bretagne. Plusieurs objets sont ainsi exposés : artefacts retrouvés sur le site, documents d’archives, manuscrits médiévaux, réplique d’un bateau scandinave…

[Lien : http://www.port-musee.org/expositions/la-tombe-viking-de-lile-de-groix-expositions/la-tombe-viking-de-lile-de-groix.html]

Smith Angela Marion, King Æthelstan in the English, Continental and Scandinavian traditions of the tenth to the thirteenth centuries

Smith Angela Marion, King Æthelstan in the English, Continental and Scandinavian traditions of the tenth to the thirteenth centuries, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. M. Swan, A. Hall,  Université de Leeds)

Résumé/abstract :
Using close textual analysis, this thesis has identified similarities and differences in the ways in which the Anglo-Saxon king, Æthelstan, is depicted in narrative sources from England, the Continent and Scandinavia during the tenth to the thirteenth centuries; how historical, cultural, and literary contexts influenced their writers and their patrons and how literary analysis might contribute further to historical understandings of Æthelstan and his reign. Central to my analysis are the concepts of the sources as textual and visual narratives, deriving contemporary meaning from their intertextuality with other sources and fulfilling a function of recording and creating social memories for their own time and for the future. The thesis does not argue for the historical veracity of any one version over another but for the individual narrative ‗voices‘ to be heard and understood as part of their own historical, national and contemporary backgrounds. Based on my literary analysis of the texts I have questioned some generally held historical interpretations, suggested some alternative interpretations of my own and identified further areas for research. The thesis demonstrates that there are similarities but also significant differences in the way Æthelstan is depicted both between and within the English, Continental and Scandinavian traditions. It identifies a number of narratives within the sources that provide the basis for further research on Æthelstan: his Carolingian ambitions, his role as foster-father to Hákon of Norway, the possibility that he had a second coronation to confirm his claim to be King of all Britain and the depictions of him as a king-maker and a friend and ally of the Vikings.

Les Vikings dans l’Empire Franc : Impact, Héritage, Imaginaire

Les Vikings dans l’Empire Franc : Impact, Héritage, Imaginaire

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Valenciennes

16/5/2014 – 7/9/2014

Commissaire scientifique/Scientific director : Elisabeth Ridel (elisabeth.ridel@unicaen.fr)

Description :

L’objectif de cette exposition au musée des Beaux-Arts de Valenciennes est de rassembler l’essentiel des objets scandinaves mis au jour au nord de la Loire et de faire une présentation générale des sociétés nordiques et de l’impact de l’expansion viking dans l’Empire franc. Parmi les objets exposés, on trouvera ainsi des manuscrits médiévaux mentionnant les activités des Scandinaves dans la région, des armes, des bijoux ou encore divers objets de le vie quotidienne.

Catalogue : Élisabeth Ridel (dir.), Les Vikings dans l’Empire Franc : Impact, Héritage, Imaginaire, Bayeux, OREP, 2014.

[Lien/Link : http://www.valenciennes.fr/fr/minisites/vie-active/culture/musee/les-expositions-temporaires.html

Lamb Sally Elsie, Francia and Scandinavia in the early Viking Age, c.700-900

Lamb Sally Elsie, Francia and Scandinavia in the early Viking Age, c.700-900, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. R. D. McKitterick, Université de Cambridge)

L’historiographie médiévale normande et ses sources antiques (Xe-XIIe siècle)

Actes du colloque de Cerisy-la-Salle et du Scriptorial d’Avranches (8-11 octobre 2009)

publiés sous la direction de Pierre Bauduin et Marie-Agnès Lucas-Avenel

2014, 16×24 cm, broché, 380 p., ISBN : 978-2-84133-485-8

Presses universitaires de Caen

30 €

Les Normands au Moyen Âge se sont passionnés pour l’histoire. Soucieux de faire œuvre de mémoire, les auteurs médiévaux relatent les origines du duché et la destinée des Normands ; ils célèbrent les exploits de leurs ducs et des chevaliers partis conquérir l’Angleterre et l’Italie du Sud. Lecteurs assidus de la Bible, ils se sont aussi inspirés des œuvres de l’Antiquité gréco-romaine et chrétienne.
Comment, en revendiquant l’héritage des Anciens, ces auteurs ont-ils fait une œuvre originale ? Issu d’un colloque interdisciplinaire qui a réuni des spécialistes français, anglais et italiens à Cerisy-la-Salle et à Avranches, ce volume apporte des réponses à cette question, à partir de l’examen renouvelé des bibliothèques normandes et au travers de l’analyse des modèles littéraires ou des stratégies d’imitation mises au service de projets historiographiques différents.