Archives de catégorie : Écosse / Scotland

Bâtir un État « normand » aux XIe-XIIe siècles : de la guerre à la paix | Normonde

Normonde
Journée d’études organisée par P. Bauduin (Université de Caen Normandie) et A. Peters-Custot (Université de Nantes)

Bâtir un État « normand » aux XIe-XIIe siècles : de la guerre à la paix

Appel à communication

Université de Caen- MRSH SH 028
Vendredi 1er mars 2019

La transition entre l’état de guerre censé présider à une conquête territoriale, et l’état de paix censé inaugurer l’émergence d’une nouvelle construction politique est de moins en moins pensée comme le saut d’un fossé qualitatif qui séparerait la violence guerrière d’un côté, de l’établissement apaisé d’une logique étatique ou pseudo-étatique, et qui distinguerait les farouches et sanglants conquérants (et/ou envahisseurs) d’une part, des pacifiques édificateurs d’une organisation politique nouvelle embrassant les territoires et populations « conquises » d’autre part. Le renouvellement historiographique touchant ces questions est d’une acuité particulière en ce qui concerne la construction médiévale des « mondes normands ». Ces derniers, plus ou moins franchement marqués par l’origine scandinave – et le cortège de représentations associées aux vikings –  des acteurs ou de leurs descendants qui y opèrent, bénéficient des bouleversements historiographiques qui, depuis quelques décennies, relisent le phénomène viking lui-même. Ainsi, le passage de la conquête à la construction politique, en Normandie, dans l’Angleterre post-Hastings, et dans l’Italie méridionale et la Sicile du XIe siècle ne saurait plus être conçu de manière binaire comme un processus séquencé en deux temps exclusifs l’un de l’autre, faisant se succéder la guerre à la paix. Le processus de construction des royaumes scandinaves a été également l’objet de recherches importantes qui ont remis en cause une logique purement diffusionniste calquée sur un modèle occidental pour mettre en valeur les dynamiques propres aux sociétés scandinaves dans la construction des nouveaux pouvoirs.

L’actualité historiographique est fort riche sur ces sujets. La formation des royaumes scandinaves a été largement replacée dans un contexte européen (S. Bagge, From Viking Stronghold to Christian Kingdom. State Formation in Norway, c. 900-1350,2010 ; S. Bagge, Cross & Scepter. The Rise of the Scandinavian Kingdoms from the Vikings to the Reformation, 2014). La naissance du duché de Normandie est désormais considérée comme une histoire largement marquée par une appropriation des codes francs par les nouveaux venus, et ce bien avant le traité de Saint-Clair-sur-Epte en 911 (P. Bauduin, La première Normandie, 2004). Guillaume le Conquérant a fait l’objet d’une récente biographie – en cours de traduction en langue française – par David Bates, qui  avait proposé voici quelques années  une analyse de la conquête normande de l’Angleterre et de ses conséquences (Normans and Empire, 2013) permettant une révision du paradigme impérialiste à partir de nouveaux outils d’analyse. Les liens entre conquêtes et exercice du pouvoir sont au cœur de l’ouvrage d’Annliese Nef sur la Sicile des Hauteville (Conquérir et gouverner la Sicile islamique, 2010) et interrogent les catégories du pouvoir et de la domination dans le contexte très particulier des héritages islamiques actifs dans l’île à l’arrivée des « Normands » : le passage de la conquête à la construction politique y prend un tour d’autant plus exceptionnel que la conquête a duré plus de trois décennies, durant lesquelles les conquérants construisent un territoire politique en même temps qu’ils poursuivent la conquête  – si on peut appeler ainsi une si lente entreprise, qui ressemble beaucoup à une imprégnation. Pouvoir, domination, construction politique sont aussi au cœur des récentes études sur la Normandie (M. Hagger, Norman Rule in Normandy [911-1144], 2017) ou sur le royaume anglo-saxon et/ou anglo-normand (G. Molyneaux, The Formation of the English Kingdom in the Tenth Century, Oxford, 2015 ; J. Green, Forging the Kingdom : Power in English Society, 973-1189, 2017).

De telles relectures historiques nous invitent à reprendre, par le biais d’une approche comparatiste classique, les modalités dûment contextualisées et historicisées du passage de la conquête à la construction étatique. L’originalité de notre démarche tient à son audace épistémologique : nous souhaiterions, au-delà d’une synthèse comparatiste des cas, travailler en partant de modèles anachroniques ou politiquement divergents, en particulier en ne nous empêchant pas de nous inspirer, au risque de l’anachronisme, afin d’en tester la validité, de types connus de dynamiques politiques (empires anciens, empires coloniaux) voire de réflexions contemporaines sur la logique étatique (P. Bourdieu, De l’Etat) :

  • La logique du gouvernement des populations conquises : maintien ou solidité de structures préexistantes (ex. Old English State, cadres administratifs et fiscaux byzantins et islamiques en Sicile), revendication ou non d’une continuité de la domination politique par les nouveaux pouvoirs ; élimination massive ou sélective, particulièrement des anciennes élites ; processus militaire et social de « pacification » (en s’inspirant des théories du XIXe siècle notamment, pour la France, Pennequin / Lyautey / Gallieni) ; création de formes de consensus, d’adhésion et de participation des communautés conquises.
  • La logique juridique : légitimation de la conquête ; passage de l’état de guerre à l’état de paix par une constitution juridique nouvelle ; adoption ou adaptation des corpus législatifs, positionnement des nouveaux dominants dans cette logique.
  • La logique socio-politique : intégration sociale, reconfiguration politique des élites, intégration idéologique, formation de nouvelles identités.

D’autres logiques, qui recoupent en partie les précédentes peuvent être évoquées et être croisées avec celles énumérées ci-dessus ou faire l’objet de développements ultérieurs :

  • La construction économique et foncière  de la domination : appropriation, recensement, cadastration, relance de la pompe fiscale (imposition de nouveaux flux fiscaux et/ou reprise des anciennes fiscalités), modifications dans la production économique.
  • La logique religieuse : entreprises « missionnaires », conversions, reconfigurations territoriales des religions et de leurs points d’appui…
  • La logique « culturelle » : modifications linguistiques, usages de l’écrit, politique mono ou pluri-linguistique, appropriations esthétiques et artistiques, échanges de culture matérielle.

A défaut d’embrasser toutes ces thématiques cette journée d’étude se propose de réfléchir aux points d’entrées possible à une réflexion collective et comparatiste sur la construction politique en contexte post-conquête en partant des expériences historiques étudiées dans les mondes normands.

Cette manifestation s’inscrit dans le cadre de l’ axe « Une mondialisation médiévale : les Normands (IXe-XVe siècle) », du projet NORMONDE (dir. Jean-François Klein, Université du Havre), financé par la Région Normandie (http://grhis.univ-rouen.fr/grhis/?page_id=13327).

Le retour des propositions de communication est attendu au 15 septembre 2018, avec un court résumé (1000 caractères/150 mots).

Contacts :
Annick Peters-Custot : annick.peterscustot@univ-nantes.fr
Pierre Bauduin : pierre.bauduin@unicaen.fr

Continuity and Conquest – Memory and Social Practice in the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman Realms

INTERNATIONAL MEDIEVAL CONGRESS 2018

Call for Papers

Conquests are traditionally seen as some of the great turning points of history: paradigm shifts in which one regime is swept away by another, after which the course of history is forever altered for both subject and conquering peoples. However, conquests are frequently defined as much by their continuities as their changes. Memory plays a key role both in legitimisation and in resisting conquest, but also in the reconciliation and acceptance of new regimes. This role of memory is also frequent!y precipitated by, and reflected in, change and continuity in social practices, across diverse social strata and ethnie identities. For example, it is evident in political, legal, and religious practices, but also in wider social trends such as marriage and naming practices. Moreover, changing memories of conquest can be detected in their presentation in narrative sources, with differing perceptions of the past being articulated to rationalise, decry, or legitimise the present.

These sessions will cover the role of social practices in the memory of conquest in the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman worlds. We hope to challenge the problematic historiographically-embedded divides caused by traditional periodisation by examining the eleventh to thirteenth centuries as a whole. The sessions will explore the effects of conquest and both the continuity and change in social practices and processes of memorialisation which occurred in their wake. The three sessions will begin in the eleventh century (r016 and ro66), then cover the later effects of conquest in the twelfth century, before ending with the Joss of Normand y in the early-thirteenth century (1204).

Proposed papers should be 20 minutes in length, on topics including (but not limited to):

  • Formation and re-formation of ethnie and social identities.
  • Appropriation (and forgetting) of the pre-conquest past.
  • Change and continuity in religious, legal, and political practices.
  • Differing perceptions of the past among differing social strata.
  • Assimilation/acculturation of conquered and conquerors.

Continuity And Conquest PDF

Anderson Katherine, The influence of Scots and Norse law on law and governance in Orkney and Shetland 1450-1650

Anderson Katherine, The influence of Scots and Norse law on law and governance in Orkney and Shetland 1450-1650, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (University of Aberdeen)

Continuer la lecture de Anderson Katherine, The influence of Scots and Norse law on law and governance in Orkney and Shetland 1450-1650

McGuigan Neil, Neither Scotland nor England : Middle Britain, c.850-1150

McGuigan Neil, Neither Scotland nor England : Middle Britain, c.850-1150, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (University of St Andrews)

Continuer la lecture de McGuigan Neil, Neither Scotland nor England : Middle Britain, c.850-1150

Cartwright Ben Helmut John, Making the cloth that binds us : the role of spinning and weaving in crafting the communities of Viking Age Atlantic Scotland (AD c.600-1400)

Cartwright Ben Helmut John, Making the cloth that binds us : the role of spinning and weaving in crafting the communities of Viking Age Atlantic Scotland (AD c.600-1400), Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (University of Cambridge)

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=1&uin=uk.bl.ethos.708804]

 

The Norman Edge: Identity and state formation on the frontiers of Europe

Responsables du projet/Project leaders : Keith Stringer (k.stringer@lancaster.ac.uk )

 

Établissements principaux/Main institutions : Lancaster University, Department of History

 

Description:

The Norman Edge: Identity and State-Formation on the Frontiers of Europe is a colloborative research project based in the History Department at Lancaster University. The project was funded by a major grant from the Arts and Humanities Research Council between December 2008 and December 2011.

The research investigated the salient characteristics of Norman expansion from their northern French homeland to the frontiers of Christian Europe, assessing the relationships between medieval ‘state-formation’ and political identities. The project provided new insights into the processes of medieval western European expansion, state-formation and identity-construction, and sought to re-evaluate the political ontology of the Norman world.

The project addressed the historical development of political cultures in three areas on the periphery of the ‘Norman world’: middle Britain (northern England and southern Scotland), southern Italy, and the crusader states.

Preliminary work comparing Norman elites in southern Italy and Normandy suggests that an important factor in the construction of new Norman polities was the capacity of settlers in the diaspora to maintain connections between themselves and with the ‘homeland’ of Normandy. This project has and will continue to produce a systematic study of the relationships between different parts of the Norman diaspora.

In each area of new settlement, Normans faced also established local elites with whom power had to be either contested or shared. Moreover, the ethnic and religious composition of the native peoples differed across and within these regions, and included Muslims, Arabic-speaking Christians, Greeks, and English- and Celtic-speaking inhabitants. The challenges posed by this diversity to Norman political and ethnic identity will provide a crucial dimension to the research.

[Lien/Link : http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/normanedge/ ]

Birsay-Skaill Landscape Archaeology Project, Orkney, Scotland, UK

Responsables du projet/Project leaders : David Griffiths (david.griffiths@conted.ox.ac.uk), Ms Jane Harrison (jane.harrison@conted.ox.ac.uk)

Établissements principaux/Main institutions : University of Oxford

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

Established to explore the Medieval landscapes around Birsay and the Bay of Skaill in Orkney, this project conducts survey and excavation targeting settlement history. Excavations have focused on Norse-period settlements in the Mound of Snusgar area (site of a famous Norse-period hoard), a few minutes walk from the Skara Brae Neolithic site. Although the aim is to explore the Medieval landscape, the project has a wider landscape reconstruction remit which covers earlier periods as well. There are both training and research opportunities. There is normally a fee for student participation to cover costs and training. Fieldwork normally happens in August each year, and there are many opportunities to explore the famous sites on Orkney mainland.

[Lien/Link : https://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/birsay-skaill/index.php]

Knight Dayanna, Identity construction and maintenance in the North Atlantic c. AD800-1250

Knight Dayanna, Identity construction and maintenance in the North Atlantic c. AD800-1250,  Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. C.P. Loveluck, A.G. Poulter, Université de Nottingham)

Résumé/abstract :

This study is a multivalent investigation of Scandinavian identity formation and cultural structures within the north Atlantic that looks specifically at the construction and maintenance of island identities circa AD800-1250. This not only includes consideration of the Norse settlers but also the effects of contact between the emerging island cultural identities and continental Europe. In order to do this zones of settlement have been defined to better compare the expansion of medieval Scandinavian populations in terms of microscale practices and interactions within family groups and the macroscale vectors of social, economic and political change. It employs a wide variety of material that makes use of aspects of both prehistoric and historic sources. The variety of enabling conditions ultimately provided for a time the circumstances necessary for the long-term success of a number of the settlements established during this period. The evidence is considered in as subjective manner as possible with the sources available also reflecting the conditions of initial region excavation and publication.

[Source : http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/14078/]

monumentsnetwork.org/

Runes, Monuments and Memorial Carvings

An International Research Network

http://monumentsnetwork.org/

The RMMC Network brings together researchers, including postgraduate students, in the fields of, for instance, History, Viking Studies, Medieval Studies, Runology, Art History, History of Religion, Archaeology, and Historical Linguistics with the intention to build up and strengthen an interdisciplinary research environment for researchers working with different aspects of carved stone monuments from the Viking Age and the early Middle Ages in Scandinavia, the British Isles, Ireland and Northern Europe.

Continuer la lecture de monumentsnetwork.org/

History Books in the Anglo-Norman World c.1100-c.1300

History Books in the Anglo-Norman World c.1100-c.1300

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Laura Cleaver (cleaverl@tcd.ie)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

Trinity College Dublin

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries history (interpreted as both the recent past and a period stretching back to include the biblical narrative) seems to have become a major interest for both the educated elite and a growing audience who accessed ideas through vernacular texts. New chronicles and annals were produced, together with accounts of the histories of particular peoples, nations and subjects. At the same time, history was explored through images in books and other media. Much historical writing in this period dealt with issues of conquest and identity, which were often allied to geography, ethnicity or particular institutions. The ‘History Books’ project, funded by the Marie Curie Programme (FP7), will examine surviving medieval manuscripts in order to investigate the writing of history in areas controlled by the Anglo-Norman Empire, concentrating on the period 1100-1300. In particular the project will explore the use of images in the presentation of history in books and beyond.

[Lien/Link : https://www.tcd.ie/History_of_Art/research/history-books.php]

Majoros Christie, The function of hospitaller houses in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales

Majoros Christie, The function of hospitaller houses in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, (dir. H. Nicholson, P. Edbury, University of Cardiff)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

The specific goal of this project is to determine what kind of function the houses of the Hospitallers in the British Isles performed, or were intended to perform. Since it is clear that not all Hospitaller houses were built or acquiredfor a hospitable or charitable purpose, they must have been maintained by the Order for other reasons. I plan to investigate individual houses in an effort to determine what these other reasons were. Specifically, I will be looking for evidence of usefulness in one of four ways: martial, charitable, religious, or economic. The degree to which these houses were actually successful in fulfilling the function expected of them would be of secondary importance, entering into the discussion only where relevant to the determination of function. The project’s purpose is instead to create a comprehensive study that can be used as a tool for further research, allowing larger arguments to be made regarding both the activities and administrative practices of the Hospitaller Order in the British Isles, and how these practices figured into regional and international needs both within and outside of the Order.

[Source : http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/share/contactsandpeople/postgraduatestudents/christiemajoros-overview_new.html]

Cooke Siobhan, Characterising human-animal relations in Viking Age Scotland

Cooke Siobhan, Characterising human-animal relations in Viking Age Scotland: a reassessment of the archaeological record, (dir. J. Downes, M. Macleod, University of the Highlands and Islands)

En cours depuis 2012/In preparation since 2012

Résumé/abstract :

This study aims to characterise the nature of human-animal relations in Scotland during the Viking Age, particularly the use of animals in the creation, manipulation and confirmation of human identity. My research also aims to identify regional difference and to determine the factors affecting the construction of human-animal relations at local level.

[Source : http://www.uhi.ac.uk/en/archaeology-institute/our-research/research-students/siobhan-cooke]

Bankier Anne, Norse settlements and contacts in north Argyll

Bankier Anne, Norse settlements and contacts in north Argyll, (dir. C. Batey, University of Glasgow)

En cours depuis 2007/In preparation since 2007

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/norse-settlements-and-contacts-north-argyll]

Acta of the Plantagenets

Acta of the Plantagenets

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Nicholas Vincent (n.vincent@uea.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of Cambridge

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The texts of original charters, writs, letters, and other documents, as well as copies and transcripts of them made between the twelfth century and the present, are being prepared for editions intended for publication, beginning with the acts of Henry II. In addition to those of Henry, the project has also collected the acts of Eleanor of Aquitaine, of Richard I, of John as Lord of Ireland and Count of Mortain, and of other members of the Plantagenet family.

[Lien/Link : http://www.britac.ac.uk/arp/acta.cfm]

Dockrill Stephen James, Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles : a multidisciplinary approach

Dockrill Stephen James,  Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles : a multidisciplinary approach, archaeological research into long term settlements and their associated arable fields from the Neolithic to the Norse periods, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. C. P. Heron, L. D. Brown, Université de Bradford)

Résumé/abstract :
The research contained in these papers embodies both results from direct archaeological investigation and also the development of techniques (geophysical, chronological and geoarchaeological) in order to understand long-term settlements and their associated landscapes in Orkney and Shetland. Central to this research has been the study of soil management strategies of arable plots surrounding settlements from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. It is argued that this arable system provides higher yields in marginal locations. The ability to enhance yield in good years and to store surplus can mitigate against shortage. Control and storage of this surplus is seen as one catalyst for the economic power of elite groups over their underlying or ‘client’ population. The emergence of a social elite in the Iron Age, building brochs and other substantial roundhouses of near broch proportions, is seen as being linked to the control of resources. Evidence at the site of Old Scatness indicated that there was a continuity of wealth and power from the Middle Iron Age through the Pictish period, before the appearance of the Vikings produced a break in the archaeological record. The Viking period saw a break in building traditions, the introduction of new artefacts and changes in farming and fishing strategies. Each of the papers represents a contribution that builds on these themes.