Archives de catégorie : Écosse / Scotland

Majoros Christie, The function of hospitaller houses in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales

Majoros Christie, The function of hospitaller houses in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, (dir. H. Nicholson, P. Edbury, University of Cardiff)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

The specific goal of this project is to determine what kind of function the houses of the Hospitallers in the British Isles performed, or were intended to perform. Since it is clear that not all Hospitaller houses were built or acquiredfor a hospitable or charitable purpose, they must have been maintained by the Order for other reasons. I plan to investigate individual houses in an effort to determine what these other reasons were. Specifically, I will be looking for evidence of usefulness in one of four ways: martial, charitable, religious, or economic. The degree to which these houses were actually successful in fulfilling the function expected of them would be of secondary importance, entering into the discussion only where relevant to the determination of function. The project’s purpose is instead to create a comprehensive study that can be used as a tool for further research, allowing larger arguments to be made regarding both the activities and administrative practices of the Hospitaller Order in the British Isles, and how these practices figured into regional and international needs both within and outside of the Order.

[Source : http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/share/contactsandpeople/postgraduatestudents/christiemajoros-overview_new.html]

Cooke Siobhan, Characterising human-animal relations in Viking Age Scotland

Cooke Siobhan, Characterising human-animal relations in Viking Age Scotland: a reassessment of the archaeological record, (dir. J. Downes, M. Macleod, University of the Highlands and Islands)

En cours depuis 2012/In preparation since 2012

Résumé/abstract :

This study aims to characterise the nature of human-animal relations in Scotland during the Viking Age, particularly the use of animals in the creation, manipulation and confirmation of human identity. My research also aims to identify regional difference and to determine the factors affecting the construction of human-animal relations at local level.

[Source : http://www.uhi.ac.uk/en/archaeology-institute/our-research/research-students/siobhan-cooke]

Bankier Anne, Norse settlements and contacts in north Argyll

Bankier Anne, Norse settlements and contacts in north Argyll, (dir. C. Batey, University of Glasgow)

En cours depuis 2007/In preparation since 2007

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/norse-settlements-and-contacts-north-argyll]

Acta of the Plantagenets

Acta of the Plantagenets

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Nicholas Vincent (n.vincent@uea.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of Cambridge

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The texts of original charters, writs, letters, and other documents, as well as copies and transcripts of them made between the twelfth century and the present, are being prepared for editions intended for publication, beginning with the acts of Henry II. In addition to those of Henry, the project has also collected the acts of Eleanor of Aquitaine, of Richard I, of John as Lord of Ireland and Count of Mortain, and of other members of the Plantagenet family.

[Lien/Link : http://www.britac.ac.uk/arp/acta.cfm]

Dockrill Stephen James, Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles : a multidisciplinary approach

Dockrill Stephen James,  Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles : a multidisciplinary approach, archaeological research into long term settlements and their associated arable fields from the Neolithic to the Norse periods, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. C. P. Heron, L. D. Brown, Université de Bradford)

Résumé/abstract :
The research contained in these papers embodies both results from direct archaeological investigation and also the development of techniques (geophysical, chronological and geoarchaeological) in order to understand long-term settlements and their associated landscapes in Orkney and Shetland. Central to this research has been the study of soil management strategies of arable plots surrounding settlements from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. It is argued that this arable system provides higher yields in marginal locations. The ability to enhance yield in good years and to store surplus can mitigate against shortage. Control and storage of this surplus is seen as one catalyst for the economic power of elite groups over their underlying or ‘client’ population. The emergence of a social elite in the Iron Age, building brochs and other substantial roundhouses of near broch proportions, is seen as being linked to the control of resources. Evidence at the site of Old Scatness indicated that there was a continuity of wealth and power from the Middle Iron Age through the Pictish period, before the appearance of the Vikings produced a break in the archaeological record. The Viking period saw a break in building traditions, the introduction of new artefacts and changes in farming and fishing strategies. Each of the papers represents a contribution that builds on these themes.

The Charters of William II and Henry I

The Charters of William II and Henry I

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Richard Sharpe (richard.sharpe@history.ox.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of Oxford

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The overall aim is to collect, edit, and interpret the royal acts issued in the names of two English kings, William II (reigned 1087 to 1100), and his brother Henry I (reigned 1100 to 1135), who was also duke of Normandy from 1106 until 1135. Royal acts, mainly charters but also writs and other letters, are the prime documentary source for the period, providing the means to understand the workings of the realm in a way not possible from chronicles and other narrative sources.

This edition differs from previous work on documents of this period by treating beneficiary archives as a unit. Although the king issued documents for his own reasons in many circumstances, for example royal proclamations, treaties, royal letters, and writs concerning fiscal administration, these rarely survive. What remains, therefore, is very largely the material in whose preservation someone had a direct interest. Most documents, even those representing the exercise of the king’s power such as the appointment of bishops or abbots, survive through the archive of the beneficiary who received and retained the documents. Different beneficiary archives tell different stories. The organization of the edition presents, for the most part, beneficiary archives with a headnote to explain the background, including the motivations behind seeking the king’s seal and the reasons for preservation.

When complete, the edition will include several hundred beneficiary archives. The acts are not distributed evenly between them: almost half are contained in just thirty archives. The files currently available on this site represent about an eighth of the material to be included in the final edition, which will be published as a multi-volume book.

[Lien/Link : https://actswilliam2henry1.wordpress.com/]

Hjaltland Network – Mapping Viking Age Shetland

Responsable du projet/Project leader : Andrew Jennings (andrew.jennings@nafc.uhi.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution : University of the Highlands and Islands

Projet en cours/Project in progress
Description :
The Hjaltland Research Network has received £17,000 from the Royal Society of Edinburgh to bring together national and international scholars of folklore onomastics, genetics, isotope research, archaeology and history to plan a large-scale research project entitled Mapping Viking Age Shetland, which will start in 2013. There will be a series of organizational meetings over the next two years in Shetland, Edinburgh and Copenhagen.

Mapping Viking Age Shetland will seek, through the digitising and mapping of the datasets of each discipline, to answer many of the unresolved questions about Shetland’s Viking Age, such as:

– what happened to the pre-Viking population,

– the date of Viking settlement,

– the origins of the Norse settlers and the anomaly of the divergent origins of the male and female lines,

– the nature of Shetland’s connections to the Celtic world,

– the intensity of settlement and the extent and duration of Norse pagan beliefs and folk traditions.

Mapping Viking Age Shetland will be a truly interdisciplinary approach to Viking-Age research, applying the latest technological advances and innovative new research in the various scientific and technological fields, which will allow for the teasing out of additional information from existing sources and the uncovering of new evidence, onomastic, genetic and isotopic.

Mapping Viking Age Shetland itself will be the pilot for a larger scale project, calledMSGI: Migration, Settlement and Genetic Inheritance: Mapping the Legacy of the Viking Age.

Hunter Linsey, Charter diplomatics and norms of landholding and lordship between the Humber and Forth, c.1066-c.1250

Hunter Linsey, Charter diplomatics and norms of landholding and lordship between the Humber and Forth, c.1066-c.1250, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. J. Hudson, University of St Andrews)

This thesis closely analyses the linguistic forms of aspects of non-royal charters produced c.1066-c.1250 in the north-east of England and the south-east of Scotland, namely, consent, joint grants, separate confirmations, inheritance language, leaseholds and warranty. This study identifies the preferred forms of each studied aspect as well as variants, developments and alternatives and analyses them according to a clear chronological framework and other potential causal factors such as the status and gender of participants, location and grant type. Additionally, the spread of linguistic patterns throughout the studied region, Stringer’s “diplomatic transplant”, is examined. Firstly, the charter underwent tremendous development across this period of study becoming trusted evidence of landholding transactions routine at most levels of society and subjected to sophisticated scrutiny by legal professionals in landholding disputes. Secondly, charter language was introduced, modified or abandoned according to many influences, e.g. the emergence of early Common Law systems in both Scotland and England, the rise of the legal profession and the growth in written culture evidenced partly through the spread of monastic houses and increasing trust in the written word. Indeed, the introduction of significant legal reforms – in England from the 1160s and in Scotland during the second quarter of the thirteenth century – are repeatedly revealed to be the point at which linguistic patterns became noticeably more settled and variants became much rarer. Notably, the fact that the language patterns of the Northumberland houses better mirror the patterns seen in south-east Scotland demonstrates the contrast in the level of bureaucratic organisation against the neighbouring shires of Durham and Yorkshire. Thirdly, this thesis highlights the existence of preferred linguistic forms by individual religious houses, religious orders, families or groups of people within localities or larger geographical regions. In particular, religious houses were especially influential in the widespread adoption of some forms of language. Overall, developments and changes to charter language were streamlined, revised or modified with the dual aims of providing greater clarity and thus maximum legal protection; before legal reform the latter was much more dependent upon familial and seignorial ties, a factor reflected in the greater variety of linguistic forms.

[Source : http://hdl.handle.net/10023/3096]

Buchanan Courtney, Viking artefacts from southern Scotland and northern England

Buchanan Courtney, Viking artefacts from southern Scotland and northern England: cultural contacts, interactions, and identities in peripheral areas of Viking settlement, (dir. C. Batey, University of Glasgow)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis explores the portable, non-indigenous material culture strongly related, but not exclusive, to one specific ethnic group in the medieval period. It is based on the idea that people from different cultural backgrounds cannot come into contact with each other without their identities being altered in some significant way, and these altered identities will be expressed in their material culture. During the period c.800-1100, the Vikings initiated contact with the inhabitants of Britain, first by raiding and attacking, then by trading and settling amongst the local populations. Whereas most research of Viking and local interaction has focused on Viking settlements in the Northern and Western Isles or the Anglo-Scandinavian town of York, this thesis focuses on the peripheral areas of Viking political control: northern England and southern Scotland. It is in these regions where there are increasing amounts of evidence of Viking activities and interactions with the local peoples.

Three key research questions are asked of the materials found within the study area: 1) how and why did items of ‘Viking’ material culture enter regions outside of the centres of traditional Viking settlements? 2) How and why were these items used to conduct meaningful contacts and interactions with those people already inhabiting this land? 3) How and why were identities constructed in these regions where multiple cultural traditions came into contact with one another? A multifaceted approach is adopted to answer these questions. First, the historical sources are analysed for different contexts of contact and interaction between Vikings and non- Vikings in the study area. Second, a postcolonial approach to studying the interactions between groups was adopted in order to move away from simplistic assimilation or acculturation narratives where one group subsumes the other. Rather, this approach argues for the creation of a new social dimension in which people’s actions, routines, and identities are altered in order to negotiate and thrive within the new cultural landscape. It is argued that the hybridization seen in many of the artefacts, as well as other sources utilised throughout the thesis, is the material articulation of this new space. Finally, this thesis includes data recovered through the Portable Antiquities Scheme and Treasure Trove Scotland in addition to excavated finds. In the study region, 499 items are identified and catalogued as Viking or hybrid-Viking, many of which have no archaeological context as they are stray or metal-detected finds. Through the course of searching, three major concentrations were identified along major maritime inlets: the Solway Firth, the River Clyde, and the Forth and Tay Basins. These concentrations were turned into three case-study areas based upon concentrations of finds as well as the contextual aids of historical sources, place-names, and stone sculpture. The first case study examines the Solway Firth and determines that the Vikings were a very important part of the population, and a hybridized society is seen there. The second case study of Strathclyde also determines that the Vikings were active there; the evidence indicates smaller, more concentrated communities of Vikings that integrated into the British population of the region. The final case study of the Forth and Tay basins establishes the Vikings as important actors there, although not only in the traditional view of their attacks opening up the Pictish throne for Cinaed mac Alpin. The Vikings settled in this region and aided the formation of the new kingdom of Alba. Overall, it is shown that Vikings were much more active on the peripheries of their political establishments than has previously been realised. It is also demonstrated that people in contact with others from different cultural backgrounds will alter their routines, practices, materials, and identities in order to negotiate the new social sphere that is created by such interaction. The key to understanding this negotiation is recognising the multiple contexts in which people interact and that each situation will result in different hybridized routines, materials, and identities that are unique to that specific context.

[Source : http://theses.gla.ac.uk/3391/]

Kupiec Patrycja, Transhumance in the North Atlantic

Kupiec Patrycja, Transhumance in the North Atlantic : an interdisciplinary approach to the identification and interpretation of Viking-Age and Medieval shieling sites, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (University of Aberdeen)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis contributes new archaeological evidence to the debate on transhumance in the Viking and Medieval Periods in Iceland and the Outer Hebrides. It examines shielings in these two regions at new levels of detail, and with new techniques, to improve previous methodologies for the identification of periodically occupied settlements. It presents detailed geoarchaeological studies of the floor deposits at both known and putative shieling sites in Iceland and the Western Isles, which demonstrate that micromorphological analysis is a method capable of distinguishing between periods of punctuated and permanent occupation. The results of these analyses form the basis of a new analytical and interpretive framework suited to identify and study periodic occupation at shieling sites in the North Atlantic region. The micromorphological studies, contextualized by a review of ethnographic sources, provide new insights into the potential flexibility of the type and duration of occupation at Icelandic and Hebridean shielings, and demonstrate that high-resolution geoarchaeological techniques might be essential to disentangle these changes. By integrating archaeological, historical, and ethnographic sources for the first time, this work also provides new insights into Norse shieling economies in Iceland and the Western Isles of Scotland. This analysis reveals a picture of multi-faceted shieling activities, with the use of shielings adapted to fit unique local conditions in different Norse colonies, proving that rigid models cannot be used to study past transhumant practices. The study of the archaeology of Viking-age and medieval shielings, and the medieval saga literature and later folklore that relate to shielings, demonstrates that shielings were conceptualized as different to farms, and that they played an important role in shaping the social relationships and identities of those engaged in summer transhumance. Through this holistic approach to the study of Viking-age and medieval shielings, a fuller picture of Norse society emerges, in which seasonal pastoral settlements are given a more prominent place alongside other features of the Viking and medieval landscape in the North Atlantic region.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.698843]

Pierce Elizabeth A., Identity at the far edge of the earth

Pierce Elizabeth A., Identity at the far edge of the earth : an examination of cultural identity manifested in the material culture of the North Atlantic, c. 1150-1450, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. C. E. Batey, Université de Glasgow)

Résumé/abstract :
Beginning in the late eighth century A.D., the Vikings of Scandinavia expanded westward, first to raid and later to settle and trade. By the 11th century, they inhabited territory extending into the North Atlantic, including the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland. These settlements were by no means monocultural and were located hundreds of miles away from the population centres of medieval Europe. In time, this distance and the relative isolation of the region contributed to the development of new cultural identities of the inhabitants. Unfortunately, the Middle Ages have not received as much attention as the Viking Age in the North Atlantic, and little has been written about identity in the North Atlantic aside from the underlying assumption that the people were Norwegian prior to forming their own local identities. This thesis aims to examine these identities over the entire North Atlantic region by studying the relationships between the island groups and questioning how the inhabitants used material culture to interact within a larger European, Christian milieu. Focussing on the period c. 1150-1450, this thesis approaches the cultural identity of these societies by evaluating the material culture and practices of the inhabitants using theoretical frameworks in identity, material culture, and island archaeology that have rarely, if ever, been applied in the medieval North Atlantic. Because of the wide geographical scope of this study, three case studies of artefact assemblages will be used: one each in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland. These assemblages will be analysed both for the style and form of the objects and for the domestic and overseas contacts they represent, using the British Isles and Norway as starting points because of their known contacts with the North Atlantic. Material culture can be manipulated in order to create identities that give the user certain social, political or economic advantages. Understanding the material choices made in the North Atlantic, such as church architecture, clothing, table wares and dress accessories, can help us to understand the identities these people sought to portray. Further, using the abovementioned theoretical approaches, this thesis attempts to understand why certain material choices were made and what advantages those people hoped to gain by using that material culture. It is hoped that this thesis will help to illustrate the role that material culture played in cultural identity of the North Atlantic settlements in the Middle Ages, and to promote further discussion of identity in the North Atlantic on a regional level in this period.

Thomas Elizabeth, ‘We have nothing more valuable in our treasury’ : royal marriage in England, 1154-1272

Thomas, Elizabeth, ‘We have nothing more valuable in our treasury’ : royal marriage in England, 1154-1272, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. J. Hudson, University of St Andrews)

Résumé/abstract :

That kings throughout the entire Middle Ages used the marriages of themselves and their children to further their political agendas has never been in question. What this thesis examines is the significance these marriage alliances truly had to domestic and foreign politics in England from the accession of Henry II in 1154 until the death of his grandson Henry III in 1272. Chronicle and record sources shed valuable light upon the various aspects of royal marriage at this time: firstly, they show that the marriages of the royal family at this time were geographically diverse, ranging from Scotland and England to as far abroad as the Empire, Spain, and Sicily. Most of these marriages were based around one primary principle, that being control over Angevin land-holdings on the continent. Further examination of the ages at which children were married demonstrates a practicality to the policy, in that often at least the bride was young, certainly young enough to bear children and assimilate into whatever land she may travel to. Sons were also married to secure their future, either as heir to the throne or the husband of a wealthy heiress. Henry II and his sons were almost always closely involved in the negotiations for the marriages, and were often the initiators of marriage alliances, showing a strong interest in the promotion of marriage as a political tool. Dowries were often the centre of alliances, demonstrating how much the bride, or the alliance, was worth, in land, money, or a combination of the two. One of the most important aspects for consideration though, was the outcome of the alliances. Though a number were never confirmed, and most royal children had at least one broken proposal or betrothal before their marriage, many of the marriages made were indeed successful in terms of gaining from the alliance what had originally been desired.

[Source : http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2001]

Watt Angela, The implications of cultural interchange in Scalloway, Shetland, with reference to a perceived Nordic heritage

Watt Angela, The implications of cultural interchange in Scalloway, Shetland, with reference to a perceived Nordic heritage, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. D. Heddle, Université d’Aberdeen)

Résumé/abstract :
Shetland’s geographical location has long been considered remote or isolated from a centralised Scottish perspective. However, as an island group situated between the neighbouring landmasses of Scotland and Norway, Shetland is directly situated on the maritime highway of the North Atlantic Rim. The mobilising quality of the maritime highway created a path of entry into the islands, allowing the development of locational narratives, but has also resulted in the loss of some of these narratives. This investigation addresses the dynamics of cultural interchange by formulating a theoretical model of the exchange of ‘cultural products’; with particular regard for practices of recording and displaying visual narratives. The ancient capital of Shetland, Scalloway, provides the background for a microcosmic account of Shetland’s wider history and cultural composition and forms the main focus of the thesis. Within this setting the process of cultural interchange can be seen to have been formative in the development of island identity; particularly in traditional practices, occupational forms, dialect, place-names and cultural expressions. The historical account of Scalloway provides material culture evidence for human occupation reaching back to the Bronze Age. Successive ‘layers’ in the archaeological record and officially recorded histories indicate distinct periods pertinent in the development of a local identity; Iron Age, Norse Era, Stewart Earldom and World War Two. Collectively, these periods represent a consecutive process of ‘imprinting’ characteristics upon the local population; including geographical positioning, dialect, political control and shared narrative histories with Norway during the Second World War. However, it can be seen that there is an over-determination of the Norse element of island identity, which finds a greater degree of replication in visual accounts. It is argued in this investigation that this over-determination is a deliberate cultural construct of island identity that is maintained in opposition to Scottish control.

Turner Valerie Erica, Location, form and function in Shetland’s prehistoric field systems

Turner Valerie Erica, Location, form and function in Shetland’s prehistoric field systems, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. I. A. Simpson, S. Winterbottom, W. P. Adderley, Université de Stirling)

Résumé/abstract :
Shetland boasts exceptionally well-preserved, but largely overlooked, field systems spanning a period of approximately 4000 years (Neolithic/Bronze Age – Viking/Norse). These have the potential to vastly increase our understanding of past agricultural practices and life styles. This study uses topographical survey, Shape Analysis, GIS, soil survey and micromorphology to answer questions relating to their location, form and function/management, pioneering the use of new tools and testing current models. An holistic landscape approach to the field systems is developed and tested against a multi-period site. Previously unknown types and periods of field systems are identified through survey and shape analysis, tools demonstrated to be valuable in refining the emerging model of field classification. GIS has illuminated pre-, during and post- construction factors influencing boundary form. New insights into location arise from the survey and GIS. Soils work has demonstrated that existing models of soil management over-simplify a complex situation, that thin acidic soils retain cultural information and that accretion was important to the sustainability of these peaty soils. While soils were sustainable over extended periods, the cultural inheritance of managed land appears to be limited. This thesis therefore presents the most holistic and comprehensive understanding of Shetland field systems which has so far been attempted.

McGuire Erin-Lee Halstad, Manifestations of identity in burial

McGuire Erin-Lee Halstad, Manifestations of identity in burial : evidence from Viking-Age graves in the North Atlantic diaspora,Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir.  C. Batey, Université de Glasgow)

Résumé/abstract :

In the early Middle Ages, when settlers began to leave Scandinavia to find new homes for themselves and their families, they began a process that impacted their lives dramatically. Research on modern population movements has demonstrated that migration-induced stresses change the lives of immigrants, and shape how they adapt to their new homes. Migration affects societies and people in a number of ways: it changes family and household organisation; gender relations and roles shift; and general social and cultural structures are altered through the integration of different practices and beliefs. While the identification of the societal changes caused by migration has been the focus of research in a number of fields, it has yet to be directly addressed in archaeology. This thesis seeks to examine the ways in which various social identities were displayed through funerary rituals and the associated material culture in the Norse North Atlantic, and to identify how these changed through the course of migration. The analysis is conducted by comparing burial data collected from two regions of Norway, representing the homeland of the migrants, and Scotland and Iceland, representing two critical destination points. Approximately 500 graves are catalogued and assessed using multivariate statistics. Six case studies, selected from the study areas, are used for comparative purposes. The analysis of the overall data-set and the case study sites indicates that there are key differences between the homeland and the communities of the Viking diaspora. Moreover, the results indicate that the circumstances of migration, such as location, resource availability, and the presence of a local population, results in society changing in different, yet significant, ways: gendered burial practices are altered; new manifestations of traditional rites appear; and migrant identities emerge.

[Source : http://theses.gla.ac.uk/1736/]