Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (NUI Galway)
Matheson Laura E., Madness and deception in Irish and Norse-Icelandic sagas, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (University of Aberdeen)
Article publié dans le dossier thématique – actes de la journée d’étude du 20 novembre 2015, Les transferts culturels dans les mondes normands médiévaux I – Des mots pour le dire ?
From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland
University of Oxford, England, UK
In this short piece, I address the ways in which historians and archaeologists have approached, interpreted and described the Viking and Norman presences in England and Ireland. These are treated as very different phenomena, yet in many ways have similar origins and effects. ‘Vikings’ (a word hardly used in near-contemporary historical sources, which use ‘Northmen’, ‘Gentiles’, Foreigners’) became a feature of English and Irish historical consciousness from the 780s AD, with raids followed by more sustained semi-systematic warfare coupled to settlement and assimilation, and ultimately dynastic rivalry and competing claims on statehood. The latter are exemplified in England by the successful attempt by Svein Forkbeard of Denmark to wrest the crown and make way for his son Cnut’s accession in 1016, and in Ireland by the creation of the kingdom of Dublin and the failed attempts by external powers in the Norse world to invade Ireland in 1014 and by Magnus Barelegs of Norway in 1098/1103. Duke William of Normandy, it will need no reminder to say, invaded southern England in 1066, and over the following 20 years (expensively and often bloodily) established Norman rule over the majority of the country. An important dimension to the Norman invasion is its coincidence with the Northumbrian rebellion against Harold II and the Norwegian invasion led by Harald Hardraði, which narrowly failed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066, three days prior to the Norman fleet landing at Pevensey, Sussex. Following William’s success at Hastings, and his assumption of the crown, further unsuccessful Danish campaign was mounted against England in 1069-70. Subsequently in 1169-71, led initially by Norman settlers from West Wales, and representing the king Henry II (also Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine and Count of Anjou), an Anglo-Norman army landed (initially by Irish invitation) in south-eastern Ireland, rapidly effecting a take-over of the towns and then the Irish countryside. Continuer la lecture de From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland
Responsables du projet/Project leaders : John Sheehan (email@example.com)
Établissements principaux/Main institutions : University College Cork
Projet en cours/Project in progress
This project will result in the publication of study and catalogue of the eighty-eight Viking-age gold and silver hoards containing non-numismatic material of Scandinavian character from Ireland, c. AD 800-c.1000, and will discuss these finds in the context of related hoards from Britain and Scandinavia. Undertaken in conjunction with the National Museum of Ireland, this project details the hoards and their components and examines the social and economic impacts of the Vikings on early medieval Ireland.
Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (dir. K. O’Conor, NUI Galway)
The Anglo-Norman occupation of Cork permanently altered the physical and societal landscape of the city, and its immediate surrounding area. Over the course of nearly a century and a half, a small but functioning harbour became the premier Anglo-Norman port on the south-west coast of Ireland, and the earlier settlement transitioned from a small Hiberno-Norse trading community and nearby monastic nucleus into a socially- and architecturally-diverse urban centre. This process of urbanisation was a deliberate action on the part of the Anglo-Normans to ‘civilise’ their new colony in the late 12th century, and by the late 13th and early 14th centuries, the thriving town of Cork was a testament to the successful realization of this goal. There has been extensive archaeological investigation within the city, which has uncovered significant evidence of Cork’s urban medieval development. To date, the results of these excavations have not been academically assessed as a compound entity. This study is the first attempt to establish a cohesive archaeological and historical understanding of the impact of Anglo-Norman occupation on the social morphology of Cork’s earliest urban inhabitants. It is, effectively, the first integrated interpretation of all available archaeological data from the Anglo-Norman period in Cork. Using an approach which integrates historical and archaeological evidence to define exact temporal parameters, the present writer has interrogated all available excavation data as part of a high-resolution study of the social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork. This has resulted in a new understanding of some long-held perceptions of the period between c.1171 and c.1315 in the city. This research has challenged previous historical interpretations of the impact of the Anglo-Norman occupation on the existing Hiberno-Norse inhabitants, and re-defined their role as useful participants in the economy of the Anglo-Norman city. Evidence of at least four social strata within the town has been identified, and new information on the quality of life enjoyed by the lower-ranking craft-workers and artisans of the period is put forward. Phases of economic migration within the city have been recognized, as has physical evidence of the elite members of society at this time. Life-ways, both individual and familial, have been deciphered from the data in order to enrich, and personalize, this account of the social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork.
An International Research Network
The RMMC Network brings together researchers, including postgraduate students, in the fields of, for instance, History, Viking Studies, Medieval Studies, Runology, Art History, History of Religion, Archaeology, and Historical Linguistics with the intention to build up and strengthen an interdisciplinary research environment for researchers working with different aspects of carved stone monuments from the Viking Age and the early Middle Ages in Scandinavia, the British Isles, Ireland and Northern Europe.
History Books in the Anglo-Norman World c.1100-c.1300
Responsable du projet/Project leader :
Laura Cleaver (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Établissement principal/Main institution :
Trinity College Dublin
Projet en cours/Project in progress
In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries history (interpreted as both the recent past and a period stretching back to include the biblical narrative) seems to have become a major interest for both the educated elite and a growing audience who accessed ideas through vernacular texts. New chronicles and annals were produced, together with accounts of the histories of particular peoples, nations and subjects. At the same time, history was explored through images in books and other media. Much historical writing in this period dealt with issues of conquest and identity, which were often allied to geography, ethnicity or particular institutions. The ‘History Books’ project, funded by the Marie Curie Programme (FP7), will examine surviving medieval manuscripts in order to investigate the writing of history in areas controlled by the Anglo-Norman Empire, concentrating on the period 1100-1300. In particular the project will explore the use of images in the presentation of history in books and beyond.
Majoros Christie, The function of hospitaller houses in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, (dir. H. Nicholson, P. Edbury, University of Cardiff)
En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013
The specific goal of this project is to determine what kind of function the houses of the Hospitallers in the British Isles performed, or were intended to perform. Since it is clear that not all Hospitaller houses were built or acquiredfor a hospitable or charitable purpose, they must have been maintained by the Order for other reasons. I plan to investigate individual houses in an effort to determine what these other reasons were. Specifically, I will be looking for evidence of usefulness in one of four ways: martial, charitable, religious, or economic. The degree to which these houses were actually successful in fulfilling the function expected of them would be of secondary importance, entering into the discussion only where relevant to the determination of function. The project’s purpose is instead to create a comprehensive study that can be used as a tool for further research, allowing larger arguments to be made regarding both the activities and administrative practices of the Hospitaller Order in the British Isles, and how these practices figured into regional and international needs both within and outside of the Order.
Fontaine Janel M., Slave raiding and the slave trade in Britain and Ireland and the Slavic lands, 7th-11th centuries, (dir. A. Rio, King’s College London)
En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014
Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available
Acta of the Plantagenets
Responsable du projet/Project leader :
Nicholas Vincent (email@example.com)
Établissement principal/Main institution :
University of Cambridge
Projet en cours/Project in progress
The texts of original charters, writs, letters, and other documents, as well as copies and transcripts of them made between the twelfth century and the present, are being prepared for editions intended for publication, beginning with the acts of Henry II. In addition to those of Henry, the project has also collected the acts of Eleanor of Aquitaine, of Richard I, of John as Lord of Ireland and Count of Mortain, and of other members of the Plantagenet family.
[Lien/Link : http://www.britac.ac.uk/arp/acta.cfm]
McManama-Kearin Lisa, The use of G.I.S. in determining the role of visibility in the siting of early Anglo-Norman stone castles in Ireland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (Queen’s University Belfast)
This work examines the effectiveness of the use of GIS and GIS viewsheds as tools in the study of medieval castles in Ireland. To date, archaeological usage of GIS viewsheds has centred on prehistoric funerary sites. Little work has been done using GIS in relation to medieval castles, a subject and time-frame which is well documented. To date, no work has tested GIS and viewshed analysis across a wide comparative sample of castles. This study uses GIS to examine the visibility of and the views from structures about which much is known. A comparable set of twenty sample castles were taken from a particular period in one social/geographical context, the first century of English lordship in Ireland. Research objectives included exploring the priorities of the first three generations of Anglo-Norman castle builders in Ireland, by determining if there are patterns in site choices. Specifically the project aims to establish whether visibility may have played a role in the siting of these castles.
Jenkins James, King John and the Cistercians in Wales, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. H.J. Nicholson, University of Cardiff)
Although the primary aim of this thesis was originally to explore the dynamic between King John and the Cistercians in Wales, it has been necessary to go beyond the bounds of this remit, namely to explore his relations with the Order in Ireland and England and also as a whole, to put his relations with the Cistercians in Wales into greater context. Primarily from an analysis of the charters John issued to individual abbeys, this thesis demonstrates that the interactions between John and individual Cistercian houses was not determined by where they were, rather their dynamic was more complex. John’s grants to individual houses were often an extension of his relationship with the abbey’s patron, when they were favoured their houses would prosper, when they fell from grace or defied John, their abbeys would suffer. Only however, by placing the charters John granted to individual houses into their wider political context can this correlation be appreciated, namely whether they were issued when John was trying to woo or punish the patron or at a time of hostility with the wider Order and as such clear demonstrations of royal favour. This was not the only dynamic that influenced the relationships between John and individual houses, those abbots who supported and opposed John were shown royal favour and anger respectively, and often this factor overrode all other concerns.
[Source : http://orca.cf.ac.uk/43581/]
Brown Daniel, Fortune’s wheel: the rise, fall and restoration of Hugh II de Lacy, earl of Ulster, 1190-1242, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. M.T. Flanagan, Queen’s University Belfast)
This thesis focuses on one of the most fascinating, and neglected, figures in Angevin Ireland. Forged in the crucible of a frontier society, the career of Hugh II de Lacy was in some ways comparable to those of other second-generation Anglo-Norman colonists grappling for power in a contested land. It is the singular aspects of de Lacy’s story which are of most value to the historian. Hugh’s earldom of Ulster was the first comital creation in Ireland, an honour made all the more intriguing by de Lacy’s relatively modest beginnings. Ulster itself was unique among Ireland’s great feudatories, connected to other constituent polities of the Irish Sea world by trade routes, political alliances and kinship. De Lacy was twice a rebel against the king of England, and spent a decade crusading against dualist heretics in southern France. A study of the earl of Ulster, utilising a wide range of source material, is also a touchstone through which wider themes and questions pertinent to thirteenth-century Ireland can be explored. In examination of Hugh’s written acta, we come to know more about how magnates in Ireland viewed themselves; how others perceived them; and how identity might be consciously shaped. The cohesiveness of the settler community in Ireland is also discussed, along with the factors that could make or break aristocratic relationships. Some assumptions about the development of royal power in Ireland are challenged, and de Lacy’s interactions with the English crown shed light on how nobles won, lost and regained favour with the Angevin Lords of Ireland.
Boyd, Rebecca, Viking houses in Ireland and western Britain, AD 850-1100: a social archaeology of dwellings, households and cultural identities, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. A. O’Sullivan Boyd, University College, Dublin)
Viking settlers arriving in Ireland and western Britain in the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries built houses which incorporated native and Viking characteristics: rectangular form, three-aisled divisions, and central hearths. That much has already been established by previous studies of this architecture.
This thesis moves beyond this simplistic reading of shape and construction and explores how these houses were used to express the emerging hybrid identities of their inhabitants. The Viking longhouse was a primordial statement of Viking origin which is conspicuously missing here; instead, the Vikings and natives created a new architecture. This new architecture was more subtle and more in tune with the fluidities of the instrumental identities of their inhabitants, which included elements from across the study area.
554 houses were identified as expressing this hybrid style of architecture. An ‘analytical tool-box’, consisting of traditional building analyses, artefact distribution studies and access analysis, was applied from the perspective of social archaeology to explore this exceptional dataset. Individually, these analyses identified trends in and across building association and layouts, active zones and movement routes within buildings and identified household occupations and lifestyles.
On the wider scale, they identified that there were differences between the internal and external appearance of the buildings. From the outside, all the properties looked the same, but inside, each household expressed its own cultural and ethnic identities. The ninth to twelfth centuries were a period of intense change, with expansions in trade networks, outside influences, and the emergence of urbanism. Throughout all this, the house remained a constant for the household allowing them to become part of this new urban way of life. Its constancy in appearance within defined properties established a stability and provided with the households with a vital sense of place and connection to the towns.
Sheldon Gwendolyn, The Conversion of the Vikings in Ireland from a Comparative Perspective, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. A. Orchard, Université de Toronto)
The history of the Viking invasions in England and what is now France in the ninth and tenth centuries is fairly well documented by medieval chroniclers. The process by which these people adopted Christianity, however, is not. The written and archaeological evidence that we can cobble together indicates that the Scandinavians who settled in England and Normandy converted very quickly. Their conversion was clearly closely associated with settlement on the land. Though Scandinavians in both countries expressed no interest in Christianity as long as they engaged in a Viking lifestyle, characterized by rootless plundering, they almost always accepted Christianity within one or two generations of becoming peasants, even when they lived in heavily Scandinavian, Norse-speaking communities. While the early history of the Vikings in Ireland was similar to that of the Vikings elsewhere, it soon took a different course. While English and French leaders were able to set aside land on which they encouraged the Scandinavians to settle, none of the many petty Irish kings had the wealth or power to do this. The Vikings in Ireland were therefore forced to maintain a lifestyle based on plunder and trade. Over time, they became concentrated into a few port towns from which they travelled inland to conduct raids and then exported what they had stolen from other parts of the Scandinavian diaspora. Having congregated at a few small sites, most prominently Dublin, they remained distinct from the rest of Ireland for centuries. The evidence suggests that they took about four generations to convert. Their conversion differed from that of Scandinavians elsewhere not only in that it was so delayed, but also in that, unlike in England and Normandy, it was not associated with the re-establishment of an ecclesiastical hierarchy. Rather, when the Scandinavians in Ireland did convert, they did so because they were evangelized by monastic communities, in particular the familia of Colum Cille, who had not fled from foundations close to the Viking ports. These communities were probably driven by political concerns to take an interest in the rising Scandinavian towns.