Archives de catégorie : Irlande / Ireland

Caitlin Ellis, The identity and international relations of Orkney and Dublin in the long eleventh century

Caitlin Ellis, The identity and international relations of Orkney and Dublin in the long eleventh century, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2018 (Université de Cambridge)

Continuer la lecture de Caitlin Ellis, The identity and international relations of Orkney and Dublin in the long eleventh century

Bâtir un État « normand » aux XIe-XIIe siècles : de la guerre à la paix | Normonde

Normonde
Journée d’études organisée par P. Bauduin (Université de Caen Normandie) et A. Peters-Custot (Université de Nantes)

Bâtir un État « normand » aux XIe-XIIe siècles : de la guerre à la paix

Appel à communication

Université de Caen- MRSH SH 028
Vendredi 1er mars 2019

La transition entre l’état de guerre censé présider à une conquête territoriale, et l’état de paix censé inaugurer l’émergence d’une nouvelle construction politique est de moins en moins pensée comme le saut d’un fossé qualitatif qui séparerait la violence guerrière d’un côté, de l’établissement apaisé d’une logique étatique ou pseudo-étatique, et qui distinguerait les farouches et sanglants conquérants (et/ou envahisseurs) d’une part, des pacifiques édificateurs d’une organisation politique nouvelle embrassant les territoires et populations « conquises » d’autre part. Le renouvellement historiographique touchant ces questions est d’une acuité particulière en ce qui concerne la construction médiévale des « mondes normands ». Ces derniers, plus ou moins franchement marqués par l’origine scandinave – et le cortège de représentations associées aux vikings –  des acteurs ou de leurs descendants qui y opèrent, bénéficient des bouleversements historiographiques qui, depuis quelques décennies, relisent le phénomène viking lui-même. Ainsi, le passage de la conquête à la construction politique, en Normandie, dans l’Angleterre post-Hastings, et dans l’Italie méridionale et la Sicile du XIe siècle ne saurait plus être conçu de manière binaire comme un processus séquencé en deux temps exclusifs l’un de l’autre, faisant se succéder la guerre à la paix. Le processus de construction des royaumes scandinaves a été également l’objet de recherches importantes qui ont remis en cause une logique purement diffusionniste calquée sur un modèle occidental pour mettre en valeur les dynamiques propres aux sociétés scandinaves dans la construction des nouveaux pouvoirs.

L’actualité historiographique est fort riche sur ces sujets. La formation des royaumes scandinaves a été largement replacée dans un contexte européen (S. Bagge, From Viking Stronghold to Christian Kingdom. State Formation in Norway, c. 900-1350,2010 ; S. Bagge, Cross & Scepter. The Rise of the Scandinavian Kingdoms from the Vikings to the Reformation, 2014). La naissance du duché de Normandie est désormais considérée comme une histoire largement marquée par une appropriation des codes francs par les nouveaux venus, et ce bien avant le traité de Saint-Clair-sur-Epte en 911 (P. Bauduin, La première Normandie, 2004). Guillaume le Conquérant a fait l’objet d’une récente biographie – en cours de traduction en langue française – par David Bates, qui  avait proposé voici quelques années  une analyse de la conquête normande de l’Angleterre et de ses conséquences (Normans and Empire, 2013) permettant une révision du paradigme impérialiste à partir de nouveaux outils d’analyse. Les liens entre conquêtes et exercice du pouvoir sont au cœur de l’ouvrage d’Annliese Nef sur la Sicile des Hauteville (Conquérir et gouverner la Sicile islamique, 2010) et interrogent les catégories du pouvoir et de la domination dans le contexte très particulier des héritages islamiques actifs dans l’île à l’arrivée des « Normands » : le passage de la conquête à la construction politique y prend un tour d’autant plus exceptionnel que la conquête a duré plus de trois décennies, durant lesquelles les conquérants construisent un territoire politique en même temps qu’ils poursuivent la conquête  – si on peut appeler ainsi une si lente entreprise, qui ressemble beaucoup à une imprégnation. Pouvoir, domination, construction politique sont aussi au cœur des récentes études sur la Normandie (M. Hagger, Norman Rule in Normandy [911-1144], 2017) ou sur le royaume anglo-saxon et/ou anglo-normand (G. Molyneaux, The Formation of the English Kingdom in the Tenth Century, Oxford, 2015 ; J. Green, Forging the Kingdom : Power in English Society, 973-1189, 2017).

De telles relectures historiques nous invitent à reprendre, par le biais d’une approche comparatiste classique, les modalités dûment contextualisées et historicisées du passage de la conquête à la construction étatique. L’originalité de notre démarche tient à son audace épistémologique : nous souhaiterions, au-delà d’une synthèse comparatiste des cas, travailler en partant de modèles anachroniques ou politiquement divergents, en particulier en ne nous empêchant pas de nous inspirer, au risque de l’anachronisme, afin d’en tester la validité, de types connus de dynamiques politiques (empires anciens, empires coloniaux) voire de réflexions contemporaines sur la logique étatique (P. Bourdieu, De l’Etat) :

  • La logique du gouvernement des populations conquises : maintien ou solidité de structures préexistantes (ex. Old English State, cadres administratifs et fiscaux byzantins et islamiques en Sicile), revendication ou non d’une continuité de la domination politique par les nouveaux pouvoirs ; élimination massive ou sélective, particulièrement des anciennes élites ; processus militaire et social de « pacification » (en s’inspirant des théories du XIXe siècle notamment, pour la France, Pennequin / Lyautey / Gallieni) ; création de formes de consensus, d’adhésion et de participation des communautés conquises.
  • La logique juridique : légitimation de la conquête ; passage de l’état de guerre à l’état de paix par une constitution juridique nouvelle ; adoption ou adaptation des corpus législatifs, positionnement des nouveaux dominants dans cette logique.
  • La logique socio-politique : intégration sociale, reconfiguration politique des élites, intégration idéologique, formation de nouvelles identités.

D’autres logiques, qui recoupent en partie les précédentes peuvent être évoquées et être croisées avec celles énumérées ci-dessus ou faire l’objet de développements ultérieurs :

  • La construction économique et foncière  de la domination : appropriation, recensement, cadastration, relance de la pompe fiscale (imposition de nouveaux flux fiscaux et/ou reprise des anciennes fiscalités), modifications dans la production économique.
  • La logique religieuse : entreprises « missionnaires », conversions, reconfigurations territoriales des religions et de leurs points d’appui…
  • La logique « culturelle » : modifications linguistiques, usages de l’écrit, politique mono ou pluri-linguistique, appropriations esthétiques et artistiques, échanges de culture matérielle.

A défaut d’embrasser toutes ces thématiques cette journée d’étude se propose de réfléchir aux points d’entrées possible à une réflexion collective et comparatiste sur la construction politique en contexte post-conquête en partant des expériences historiques étudiées dans les mondes normands.

Cette manifestation s’inscrit dans le cadre de l’ axe « Une mondialisation médiévale : les Normands (IXe-XVe siècle) », du projet NORMONDE (dir. Jean-François Klein, Université du Havre), financé par la Région Normandie (http://grhis.univ-rouen.fr/grhis/?page_id=13327).

Le retour des propositions de communication est attendu au 15 septembre 2018, avec un court résumé (1000 caractères/150 mots).

Contacts :
Annick Peters-Custot : annick.peterscustot@univ-nantes.fr
Pierre Bauduin : pierre.bauduin@unicaen.fr

Continuity and Conquest – Memory and Social Practice in the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman Realms

INTERNATIONAL MEDIEVAL CONGRESS 2018

Call for Papers

Conquests are traditionally seen as some of the great turning points of history: paradigm shifts in which one regime is swept away by another, after which the course of history is forever altered for both subject and conquering peoples. However, conquests are frequently defined as much by their continuities as their changes. Memory plays a key role both in legitimisation and in resisting conquest, but also in the reconciliation and acceptance of new regimes. This role of memory is also frequent!y precipitated by, and reflected in, change and continuity in social practices, across diverse social strata and ethnie identities. For example, it is evident in political, legal, and religious practices, but also in wider social trends such as marriage and naming practices. Moreover, changing memories of conquest can be detected in their presentation in narrative sources, with differing perceptions of the past being articulated to rationalise, decry, or legitimise the present.

These sessions will cover the role of social practices in the memory of conquest in the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman worlds. We hope to challenge the problematic historiographically-embedded divides caused by traditional periodisation by examining the eleventh to thirteenth centuries as a whole. The sessions will explore the effects of conquest and both the continuity and change in social practices and processes of memorialisation which occurred in their wake. The three sessions will begin in the eleventh century (r016 and ro66), then cover the later effects of conquest in the twelfth century, before ending with the Joss of Normand y in the early-thirteenth century (1204).

Proposed papers should be 20 minutes in length, on topics including (but not limited to):

  • Formation and re-formation of ethnie and social identities.
  • Appropriation (and forgetting) of the pre-conquest past.
  • Change and continuity in religious, legal, and political practices.
  • Differing perceptions of the past among differing social strata.
  • Assimilation/acculturation of conquered and conquerors.

Continuity And Conquest PDF

Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork

Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (NUI Galway)

Continuer la lecture de Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork

Matheson Laura E., Madness and deception in Irish and Norse-Icelandic sagas

Matheson Laura E., Madness and deception in Irish and Norse-Icelandic sagas, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (University of Aberdeen)

Continuer la lecture de Matheson Laura E., Madness and deception in Irish and Norse-Icelandic sagas

From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland

Article publié dans le dossier thématique – actes de la journée d’étude du 20 novembre 2015, Les transferts culturels dans les mondes normands médiévaux I – Des mots pour le dire ?

From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland

David Griffiths

University of Oxford, England, UK


In this short piece, I address the ways in which historians and archaeologists have approached, interpreted and described the Viking and Norman presences in England and Ireland. These are treated as very different phenomena, yet in many ways have similar origins and effects. ‘Vikings’ (a word hardly used in near-contemporary historical sources, which use ‘Northmen’, ‘Gentiles’, Foreigners’) became a feature of English and Irish historical consciousness from the 780s AD, with raids followed by more sustained semi-systematic warfare coupled to settlement and assimilation, and ultimately dynastic rivalry and competing claims on statehood. The latter are exemplified in England by the successful attempt by Svein Forkbeard of Denmark to wrest the crown and make way for his son Cnut’s accession in 1016, and in Ireland by the creation of the kingdom of Dublin and the failed attempts by external powers in the Norse world to invade Ireland in 1014 and by Magnus Barelegs of Norway in 1098/1103. Duke William of Normandy, it will need no reminder to say, invaded southern England in 1066, and over the following 20 years (expensively and often bloodily) established Norman rule over the majority of the country. An important dimension to the Norman invasion is its coincidence with the Northumbrian rebellion against Harold II and the Norwegian invasion led by Harald Hardraði, which narrowly failed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066, three days prior to the Norman fleet landing at Pevensey, Sussex. Following William’s success at Hastings, and his assumption of the crown, further unsuccessful Danish campaign was mounted against England in 1069-70. Subsequently in 1169-71, led initially by Norman settlers from West Wales, and representing the king Henry II (also Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine and Count of Anjou), an Anglo-Norman army landed (initially by Irish invitation) in south-eastern Ireland, rapidly effecting a take-over of the towns and then the Irish countryside. Continuer la lecture de From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland

Hoards: Viking Age Gold and Silver from Ireland

Responsables du projet/Project leaders : John Sheehan (jsheehan@ucc.ie)

Établissements principaux/Main institutions : University College Cork

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

This project will result in the publication of study and catalogue of the eighty-eight Viking-age gold and silver hoards containing non-numismatic material of Scandinavian character from Ireland, c. AD 800-c.1000, and will discuss these finds in the context of related hoards from Britain and Scandinavia. Undertaken in conjunction with the National Museum of Ireland, this project details the hoards and their components and examines the social and economic impacts of the Vikings on early medieval Ireland.

[Lien/Link : http://www.ucc.ie/en/archaeology/research/projects/hoards/]

Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork

Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (dir. K. O’Conor, NUI Galway)

Résumé/abstract :

The Anglo-Norman occupation of Cork permanently altered the physical and societal landscape of the city, and its immediate surrounding area. Over the course of nearly a century and a half, a small but functioning harbour became the premier Anglo-Norman port on the south-west coast of Ireland, and the earlier settlement transitioned from a small Hiberno-Norse trading community and nearby monastic nucleus into a socially- and architecturally-diverse urban centre. This process of urbanisation was a deliberate action on the part of the Anglo-Normans to ‘civilise’ their new colony in the late 12th century, and by the late 13th and early 14th centuries, the thriving town of Cork was a testament to the successful realization of this goal. There has been extensive archaeological investigation within the city, which has uncovered significant evidence of Cork’s urban medieval development. To date, the results of these excavations have not been academically assessed as a compound entity. This study is the first attempt to establish a cohesive archaeological and historical understanding of the impact of Anglo-Norman occupation on the social morphology of Cork’s earliest urban inhabitants. It is, effectively, the first integrated interpretation of all available archaeological data from the Anglo-Norman period in Cork. Using an approach which integrates historical and archaeological evidence to define exact temporal parameters, the present writer has interrogated all available excavation data as part of a high-resolution study of the social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork. This has resulted in a new understanding of some long-held perceptions of the period between c.1171 and c.1315 in the city. This research has challenged previous historical interpretations of the impact of the Anglo-Norman occupation on the existing Hiberno-Norse inhabitants, and re-defined their role as useful participants in the economy of the Anglo-Norman city. Evidence of at least four social strata within the town has been identified, and new information on the quality of life enjoyed by the lower-ranking craft-workers and artisans of the period is put forward. Phases of economic migration within the city have been recognized, as has physical evidence of the elite members of society at this time. Life-ways, both individual and familial, have been deciphered from the data in order to enrich, and personalize, this account of the social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork.

[Source : https://aran.library.nuigalway.ie/xmlui/handle/10379/5045]

monumentsnetwork.org/

Runes, Monuments and Memorial Carvings

An International Research Network

http://monumentsnetwork.org/

The RMMC Network brings together researchers, including postgraduate students, in the fields of, for instance, History, Viking Studies, Medieval Studies, Runology, Art History, History of Religion, Archaeology, and Historical Linguistics with the intention to build up and strengthen an interdisciplinary research environment for researchers working with different aspects of carved stone monuments from the Viking Age and the early Middle Ages in Scandinavia, the British Isles, Ireland and Northern Europe.

Continuer la lecture de monumentsnetwork.org/

History Books in the Anglo-Norman World c.1100-c.1300

History Books in the Anglo-Norman World c.1100-c.1300

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Laura Cleaver (cleaverl@tcd.ie)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

Trinity College Dublin

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries history (interpreted as both the recent past and a period stretching back to include the biblical narrative) seems to have become a major interest for both the educated elite and a growing audience who accessed ideas through vernacular texts. New chronicles and annals were produced, together with accounts of the histories of particular peoples, nations and subjects. At the same time, history was explored through images in books and other media. Much historical writing in this period dealt with issues of conquest and identity, which were often allied to geography, ethnicity or particular institutions. The ‘History Books’ project, funded by the Marie Curie Programme (FP7), will examine surviving medieval manuscripts in order to investigate the writing of history in areas controlled by the Anglo-Norman Empire, concentrating on the period 1100-1300. In particular the project will explore the use of images in the presentation of history in books and beyond.

[Lien/Link : https://www.tcd.ie/History_of_Art/research/history-books.php]

Majoros Christie, The function of hospitaller houses in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales

Majoros Christie, The function of hospitaller houses in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, (dir. H. Nicholson, P. Edbury, University of Cardiff)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

The specific goal of this project is to determine what kind of function the houses of the Hospitallers in the British Isles performed, or were intended to perform. Since it is clear that not all Hospitaller houses were built or acquiredfor a hospitable or charitable purpose, they must have been maintained by the Order for other reasons. I plan to investigate individual houses in an effort to determine what these other reasons were. Specifically, I will be looking for evidence of usefulness in one of four ways: martial, charitable, religious, or economic. The degree to which these houses were actually successful in fulfilling the function expected of them would be of secondary importance, entering into the discussion only where relevant to the determination of function. The project’s purpose is instead to create a comprehensive study that can be used as a tool for further research, allowing larger arguments to be made regarding both the activities and administrative practices of the Hospitaller Order in the British Isles, and how these practices figured into regional and international needs both within and outside of the Order.

[Source : http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/share/contactsandpeople/postgraduatestudents/christiemajoros-overview_new.html]

Fontaine Janel M., Slave raiding and the slave trade in Britain and Ireland and the Slavic lands

Fontaine Janel M., Slave raiding and the slave trade in Britain and Ireland and the Slavic lands, 7th-11th centuries, (dir. A. Rio, King’s College London)

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/slave-raiding-and-slave-trade-britain-and-ireland-and-slavic-lands-7th]

Acta of the Plantagenets

Acta of the Plantagenets

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Nicholas Vincent (n.vincent@uea.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of Cambridge

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The texts of original charters, writs, letters, and other documents, as well as copies and transcripts of them made between the twelfth century and the present, are being prepared for editions intended for publication, beginning with the acts of Henry II. In addition to those of Henry, the project has also collected the acts of Eleanor of Aquitaine, of Richard I, of John as Lord of Ireland and Count of Mortain, and of other members of the Plantagenet family.

[Lien/Link : http://www.britac.ac.uk/arp/acta.cfm]

McManama-Kearin Lisa, The use of G.I.S. in determining the role of visibility in the siting of early Anglo-Norman stone castles in Ireland

McManama-Kearin Lisa, The use of G.I.S. in determining the role of visibility in the siting of early Anglo-Norman stone castles in Ireland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (Queen’s University Belfast)

Résumé/abstract :

This work examines the effectiveness of the use of GIS and GIS viewsheds as tools in the study of medieval castles in Ireland. To date, archaeological usage of GIS viewsheds has centred on prehistoric funerary sites. Little work has been done using GIS in relation to medieval castles, a subject and time-frame which is well documented. To date, no work has tested GIS and viewshed analysis across a wide comparative sample of castles. This study uses GIS to examine the visibility of and the views from structures about which much is known. A comparable set of twenty sample castles were taken from a particular period in one social/geographical context, the first century of English lordship in Ireland. Research objectives included exploring the priorities of the first three generations of Anglo-Norman castle builders in Ireland, by determining if there are patterns in site choices. Specifically the project aims to establish whether visibility may have played a role in the siting of these castles.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.534618]

Jenkins James, King John and the Cistercians in Wales

Jenkins James, King John and the Cistercians in Wales, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. H.J. Nicholson, University of Cardiff)

Although the primary aim of this thesis was originally to explore the dynamic between King John and the Cistercians in Wales, it has been necessary to go beyond the bounds of this remit, namely to explore his relations with the Order in Ireland and England and also as a whole, to put his relations with the Cistercians in Wales into greater context. Primarily from an analysis of the charters John issued to individual abbeys, this thesis demonstrates that the interactions between John and individual Cistercian houses was not determined by where they were, rather their dynamic was more complex. John’s grants to individual houses were often an extension of his relationship with the abbey’s patron, when they were favoured their houses would prosper, when they fell from grace or defied John, their abbeys would suffer. Only however, by placing the charters John granted to individual houses into their wider political context can this correlation be appreciated, namely whether they were issued when John was trying to woo or punish the patron or at a time of hostility with the wider Order and as such clear demonstrations of royal favour. This was not the only dynamic that influenced the relationships between John and individual houses, those abbots who supported and opposed John were shown royal favour and anger respectively, and often this factor overrode all other concerns.

[Source : http://orca.cf.ac.uk/43581/]