Établissements principaux/Main institutions : Historical Archaeology
Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Lund University
Projet en cours/Project in progress
The purpose of the project The Key to Uppåkra is to create an integrated database containing spatial and chronological information from the archaeological investigations at Uppåkra in Scania, connected to a visual collection of the artefacts for further research and public visualization of the extensive sources. Firstly, it will secure the quality of and access to the archaeological documentation from the site. In the project, eighteen years of very diverse archaeological investigations are synchronised into a coherent digital frame, by using Intrasis and GIS, translating digital data into visual format. Secondly, parallel to the temporal-spatial ordering, 28 000 artefacts will be photographed and made accessible on the Internet by the use of K-Samsök and Europeana, two commonly used facilities in museums. This opens up possibilities for research on societal change during the politically formative period for early Scandinavian states, based on a site with extremely long settlement continuity. The database will be internationally accessible to scholars, as well as the public, through open access. The mobilization for a database will be the launchpad for sustainable knowledge, with national and international impact. Uppåkra will be important for scholars occupied with questions on pre-urban societies and how they were established and transformed into towns, in their ecological, social and cultural context. As such, the Uppåkra database will have a global scope.
Grabowski Radoslaw, Cereal husbandry and settlement : Expanding archaeobotanical perspectives on the southern Scandinavian Iron Age, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. K. Viklund, Umeå universitet)
The here presented PhD project explores the phenomenon of cereal cultivation during the Iron Age (c. 500 BC – AD 1100) in southern Scandinavia. The main body of the thesis consists of four articles. These were written with the aim to identify chronological, geographical, theoretical and methodological gaps in current research, to develop, apply and evaluate approaches to how new knowledge on Iron Age cereal cultivation can be attained, and to assess the interaction between archaeobotany and other specialisms currently used in settlement archaeology. The introduction section of the thesis also contains a historical overview of archaeobotanical research on cereal cultivation in southern Scandinavia. The first article is a compilation and summary of all available previously performed archaeobotanical investigations in southern Sweden. This data is compared and discussed in relation to similar publications in Denmark and smaller scale compilations previously published in Sweden. The main result of the study is an updated and enhanced understanding of the main developments in the investigation area and a deepened knowledge of local development chronologies and trajectories in different parts of southern Sweden. The second article is a methodological presentation of a multiproxy analysis combining plant macrofossil analysis, phosphate analysis, magnetic susceptibility analysis and measurement of soil organic matter by loss on ignition. The applicability of the method for identification and delineation of space functions on southern Scandinavian Iron Age sites is discussed and illustrated by two case studies from the Danish site of Gedved Vest. Particular focus is placed on exploration of the use of the functional analysis for assessment of taphonomic and operational contexts of carbonised plant macrofossil assemblages. The third article aims at presenting an Iron Age cereal cultivation history for east-central Jutland, an area identified at the outset of the project as under-represented in archaeobotanical studies. The article combines data from depth analyses of material from the sites of Gedved Vest and Kristinebjerg Øst (analysed with the methods and theory presented in the second article) with a compilation of previously performed archaeobotanical analyses from east-central Jutland. The main results of the study are that developments in the study area appear to follow a chronology similar to that previously observed on Funen rather than the rest of the peninsula. Rye cultivation is furthermore discussed as more dynamic and flexible than previously presented in Scandinavian archaeobotanical literature. The fourth and final article leaves archaeobotany as the main topic. It focuses instead on evaluating, theorising and expanding the multiproxy method presented in the second article by a thorough comparison of the botanical, geochemical and geophysical methods to other techniques of functional analysis currently used in archaeology. These techniques include studies of artefact distributions, assessments of spatial relations between settlement features, and studies of the structural details of dwellings and other constructions. The main result is that there is a correspondence between the functional indications provided by botanical, geochemical and geophysical methods and techniques used in mainstream archaeology. The comparison furthermore shows that a combination of the two data sets allows for more highly resolved functional interpretations than if they are used separately. The main conclusion of the PhD thesis, based on the discussions in all four articles, is that archaeobotanical questions commonly necessitate the assessment of non-botanical archaeological material. The comparison of archaeobotanical data to other segments of the archaeological record does, however, enable the use of the former as an archaeological resource for addressing non-botanical questions. The increased understanding of (mainly settlement) site dynamics resulting from this integration of methods allows archaeobotanists to address increasingly complex botanical questions. Increased and more structured integration between archaeobotany and other specialisms operating within the framework of settlement archaeology is therefore argued to be the preferred approach to performing both high quality archaeobotany and settlement archaeology.
Svensson Ola, Nämnda ting men glömda. Ortnamn, landskap och rättsutövning [Named but forgotten things: Place-names, landscape and justice], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. G. Byrman, S. Nyström, Linnéuniversitetet)
The dissertation describes the names related to justice and places in the landscape where justice was administered, applying an interdisciplinary perspective with place names as the chief source material. One aim is to collect and describe place names in Skåne designating or indirectly associated with meeting places and districts of the court, and to study the named places. The study covers many different periods, but especially the Middle Ages and the transition from the Late Iron Age to the Middle Ages. The analysis raises questions such as: Was there continuity in judicial sites between prehistoric and historic times? How old are the hundreds (härader)? Is there a spatial link between judicial sites and other central functions such as cult, markets, or rulers’ estates? The work is permeated by material-based onomastic research in combination with current perspectives in text research, historical geography, and archaeology. Nine case studies are conducted to describe the interaction between place, linguistic expression, and meaning. The study demonstrates the existence of a large corpus of names reflecting the early administration of justice. Most of the many field names which contain ting ‘court’ and galge ‘gallows’ can be related to the actual administration of justice. The medieval sites where courts assembled and people were executed stand out in particular, but in many cases these have prehistoric roots. Both unbroken continuity and the reuse of earlier places of assembly may be assumed. Close to sites with names indicating the administration of justice there are also landscape features with names that grant epic and mythical status to the locale. The special quality of these places was handed down, incorporated in larger narratives, based on changing ideas and circumstances in different periods. The landscape of the hundred courts (häradsting) is archaic, magnificent and mythical, and shared, qualities that contributed to the maintenance and legitimation of judicial practice. A division into a general, public judicial sphere and a more limited and exclusive sphere can be seen. In the medieval exercise of justice this division is manifested in two different judicial districts – härad and birk – but the phenomenon can be traced back to the Late Iron Age. The study also problematizes a traditional image of the names of the hundreds.
McLeod, Shane. The Beginning of Scandinavian Settlement in England. The Viking ‘Great Army’ and Early Settlers, c. 865-900
Turnhout: Brepols, 2014. Pp. xv, 319, 8 figures, 6 maps, 3 tables. EUR 80.00. ISBN: 978-2-503-54556-1.
Reviewed by P. Holm, Trinity College Dublin
Historians, archaeologists, and philologists have debated the character and extent of Scandinavian settlement like hardly any other phenomenon in Anglo-Saxon England, and more than seventy years after the publication of F.M. Stenton’s ground-breaking Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1943) agreement on the main issues seems far away. McLeod therefore does all parties a great service by assembling and reviewing a good deal of the pieces that make up the puzzle. He boldly imagines some new pieces to make a full picture emerge. Many readers will value McLeod’s book for its up-to-date review, while the model suggested may encourage further research. Continuer la lecture de McLeod, Shane. The Beginning of Scandinavian Settlement in England. The Viking ‘Great Army’ and Early Settlers, c. 865-90
2015, 248 pp., hb
This volume commemorates the three-hundred-fiftieth anniversary of the birth of the Icelandic scholar and antiquarian Árni Magnússon, who served as secretary of the Royal Archives and professor of Danish antiquities at the University of Copenhagen, in addition to building the most important collection of early Scandinavian manuscripts in existence.
The book presents descriptions of sixty-six manuscripts from the collection, one for each year of Magnússon’s life, complemented by high-quality color photographs, a comprehensive introduction to Magnússon’s life, and a chapter on book production in the medieval period.
Published in collaboration with the Arnamagnæan Institute at the Department of Nordic Research, Copenhagen and the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies, Reykjavík.
M.J. Driscoll is senior lecturer in Old Norse philology at the University of Copenhagen and head of the Arnamagnæan Institute.
Svanhildur Óskarsdóttir is head of the Manuscript Department at the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies in Reykjavík, Iceland.
Corsi Maria, Elite networks and courtly culture in medieval Denmark: Denmark in Europe, 1st to 14th centuries, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. Sally N. Vaughn, University of Houston)
This dissertation advances the study of the cultural integration of Denmark with continental Europe in the Middle Ages. By approaching the question with a view to the longue durée, it argues that Danish aristocratic culture had been heavily influenced by trends on the Continent since at least the Roman Iron Age, so that when Denmark adopted European courtly culture, it did so simultaneously to its development in the rest of Europe. Because elite culture as it manifested itself in the Middle Ages was an amalgamation of that of Ancient Rome and the Geiuianic tribes, its origins in Denmark is sought in the interactions between the Danish territory and the Roman Empire. Elites in Denmark sought to emulate Roman culture as a marker of status, with pan-European elite networks facilitating the incorporation of Roman material items and social norms in Denmark, thus setting the pattern for later periods. These types of networks continued to play an important role in the interactions between Denmark and the successor kingdoms to the Roman Empire in the Early Middle Ages, leading to the development of an increasingly homogenized elite culture in Denmark and on the Continent. Danish elites drew on the material and ideological cultural models of their southern neighbors, using Frankish imports to signify status and power, much as Roman imports had been used earlier. The economic, diplomatic, and military ties that developed in the Early Middle Ages remained important conduits for the adoption of European aristocratic culture into the High Middle Ages, while the conversion to Christianity by the Danes enabled Danish elites to take part in the new educational networks associated with the rise of universities across Europe. All of these long-standing ties meant that the Danish aristocracy actively participated in the development of medieval courtly culture, including cavalry warfare and knighthood, courtly food consumption and feasting, and courtly dress and ornamentation, resulting in increased social differentiation between those who could take part in the new courtly culture and those who could not. Thus, Denmark was never outside of Europe, and when Danish elites adopted medieval chivalric and courtly culture, they did so contemporaneously with their counterparts in other parts of Europe.
Marchlewski Ann-Katrin, St. Cnut of Denmark, king and martyr: his Lives, their authors and the politics of his cult (c.1086-1200), Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. P. Hayward, Lancaster University)
Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available.
Gazzoli, Paul, Anglo-Danish relations in the later eleventh century, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. F. Edmonds, University of Cambridge)
This thesis puts forward a new interpretation of the Anglo-Danish relationship for the period 1042-1103. It is argued that the impact of the Scandinavian settlement of England in the ninth and tenth centuries cannot account for the Danish sympathies visible in northern and eastern England in the later eleventh century and proposes that the Danish identity of these areas was reinvigorated or reinvented following Cnut’s conquest of England as a way for the inhabitants to identify themselves with their new rulers. This revitalisation was most pronounced in Northumbria, where, since Cnut was an absent ruler for much of his reign, the most important figure is argued to have been the highly successful Earl Siward. It is suggested that in this period England took on a central role in the formation of Danish identity, so that men from all over Scandinavia could become Danish by participating in the Danish kings’ campaigns; this inclusiveness was what made it possible for natives of England of Scandinavian descent to opt in to the new, prestigious identity of the conquerors.
After the Norman Conquest, a Danish cultural identity was still politically important to the rule of Siward’s son, Waltheof, and affected the reception of the Danish invasions of 1069 and 1070, both by the locals where the Danes landed and by the writers who described them. Denmark’s history after the loss of England in 1042 is also considered, and it is argued that English influence continued to be of the utmost importance to the Danish kings’ self-image and religious interests: in particular it is argued that Knud the Holy (1080–6) drew inspiration from and modelled himself on William the Conqueror, to whose rule he was exposed during his campaigns in England in 1069, 1070 and 1075 and that Erik Ejegod (1095-1103) built up strong relations to English religious communities beginning during his exile during the reign of Oluf Hunger (1086-95), which he used during his reign to promote Christianity in Denmark, especially in the form of the cult of his martyred brother Knud. In general, the re-conquest of England continued to be one of their highest priorities of the Danish kings until the end of the century, but was often hampered by the increasing importance of relations with the German Empire.
Ravn Morten, Bygning og brug af skibe til krigsførelse i 1000-tallets danske rige, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. Université de Copenhague)
Jessen Mads, The sacred space in a time of religious change: Material and conceptual interaction in ritual environments during the Christianization of South Scandinavia, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (Université d’Aarhus)
Eilersgaard Christensen Lisbeth, Stednavne som kilde til yngre jernalders centralpladser, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. B. Holmberg, Université de Copenhague)
Characteristic place-names with possible relevance for religion, social status, defence etc. often occur together, forming a relatively uniform pattern in certain parts of Sweden. These uniform patterns, so- called onomastic environments, occur most frequently in the central Swedish region and they have been interpreted as an expression of the social organisation in the areas in question. Onomastic environments are presumed to provide circumstantial linguistic evidence for the structures that have been designated by archaeologists as central-place complexes. The characteristic onomastic environments do not seem to appear in Southern Scandinavia, in spite of the fact that archaeological central-place complexes do occur here. A Swedish place-name scholar has put forward the hypothesis that changes in settlement structure disturbed the old place-name structures in Southern Scandinavia but that traces of onomastic environments can still be found, if both settlement names and field-names are taken into consideration in the analyses. The aim of the dissertation is to test this hypothesis by means of an analysis of the place-name material within selected regions in Denmark. As a basis for the study a catalogue of keywords has been compiled which consists of both Swedish and Danish name-elements in which interest in the structure of society and centrality is foremost in publications devoted to the theory of onomastic environments and other selected literature. The catalogue contains 84 keywords with varying relevance for central-places. The name material has been analysed in eight areas which have been selected on the basis of six sal-names, one tune-name and a name of the type Odinsvi. In each area the names with keywords or other relevance for central-places have been selected for detailed interpretation. The value of the testimony of this material for centrality in the Late Iron Age is then assessed. The archaeological material from the Late Iron Age is also described briefly so that the collected relevance of the testimony for centrality for each area can be assessed on the basis of both types of source. The analyses show that in the selected areas no evidence can be demonstrated that can be interpreted as the existence of such onomastic environments. In the majority of the areas, however, there is one name, in addition to the name which led to the selection of the area, that can be accorded relevance for centrality. At a few places there are more such names. Regional peculiarities in respect to naming may be a partial cause of the differing dissemination of repeated patterns in the onomastic material between (Central) Sweden and Denmark respectively. The theoretical approach to the onomastic material is also of great significance for the result of the analyses. There is a considerable body of onomastic material with relevance for the structure of society and centrality in Denmark but the value of its testimony for the organisational structure of its central-place complexes would not seem to be confirmed.
Karakteristiske stednavne med mulig relevans for samfundsforhold som religion, status, forsvar osv. optræder i flere tilfælde sammen efter et relativt ensartet mønster i nogle dele af Sverige. Disse ensartede mønstrer, såkaldte navnemiljøer, optræder hyppigst i det mellemsvenske område, og de tolkes som udtryk for samfundsorganisationen i de pågældende områder. Navnemiljøerne formodes at være sproglige indicier på strukturer, der i arkæologien betegnes som centralpladskomplekser. De karakteristiske navnemiljøer forekommer tilsyneladende ikke i det sydskandinaviske område, til trods for at arkæologiske centralpladskomplekser optræder her. En svensk navneforsker har fremsat den hypotese, at bebyggelsesmæssige omstruktureringer har forstyrret de gamle stednavnestrukturer i Sydskandinavien, men at der kan findes reminiscenser af navnemiljøer, såfremt både bebyggelses- og marknavne inddrages i analyserne. Afhandlingens formål er at afprøve denne hypotese gennem analyser af stednavnematerialet inden for udvalgte undersøgelsesområder i Danmark. Som basis for analyserne er der udarbejdet et katalog af søgeord, der består af både svenske og danske navneled, som i navnemiljøteoretiske publikationer eller anden udvalgt litteratur tillægges interesse for samfundsstruktur og centralitet. Kataloget rummer 84 søgeord med varierende centralpladsrelevans. Navnematerialet er analyseret i otte udvalgte områder, som er udpeget på basis af seks sal-navne, et tune-navn og et navn af typen Odinsvi. I hvert område er navne med søgeord eller centralpladsrelevans i øvrigt udvalgt og tolket. Materialets udsagnsværdi for centralitet i yngre jernalder er herefter vurderet. Det arkæologiske materiale fra yngre jernalder er desuden skitseret, således at det samlede centralpladsrelaterede udtryk for hvert område kan vurderes ud fra begge kildetyper. Analyserne viser, at der i de udvalgte områder ikke kan påvises mønstre, der kan tolkes som navnemiljøer. I hovedparten af områderne er der dog ét navn, udover navnet som området er udpeget efter, der kan tillægges centralpladsrelevans. Enkelte steder er der flere. Navne med relevans for religion og forsvar er hyppigst forekommende, men udsagnsværdien er i nogle tilfælde vanskelig at fastlægge. Regionale særtræk i forbindelse med navngivning kan være en delvis årsag til forskellig udbredelse af gentagne mønstre i hhv. det (mellem)svenske og det danske navnemateriale, og den teoretiske tilgang ved tolkningen af materialet er også af væsentlig betydning for det analyserede resultat. Der er et stort navnemateriale med relevans for samfundsstruktur og centralitet i Danmark, men dets udsagnsværdi for centralpladskompleksernes organisatoriske struktur synes ikke bekræftet.
Niblaeus Erik Gunnar, German influence on religious practice in Scandinavia, c. 1050-1150, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. J.L. Nelson, King’s College London)
The thesis is concerned with the later stages of Christianisation of Scandinavia, following the missionary period, when the church was consolidated and given secure foundations for worship and pastoral care, including the building and equipment of thousands of local churches, and the creation of a lasting diocesan structure. It argues that the German influence during this period, while often taken for granted, deserves to be investigated in more detail, and has been underplayed in recent scholarship. It is divided into five chapters, the first three more general in scope, concerned with the whole of Scandinavia, the last two more specific studies organised according to geographical area. Chapter one is introductory. Chapter two considers in general and comparative terms the importance of liturgy and books in the process of Scandinavian Christianisation. Chapter three is a consideration of the German interest in Scandinavia as it developed from the eleventh to the twelfth century, first in secular terms, second in religious terms, including a discussion of the clergy with German affiliations who held office in Scandinavia. It also includes an investigation of the clerical ideals of the principal narrative primary source to the period, Adam of Bremen’s History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. Chapters four and five deal with questions of the introduction of German liturgy and German books into the churches of Denmark and Sweden respectively.