Beñat Elortza, A comparative analysis of the transformation of the Scandinavian military apparatus from a European perspective, c. 1035-1202, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université d’Aberdeen)
Anders Håkansson, Bebyggelsehierarkier och bylandskap : om övergången mellan vikingatid och tidig medeltid ur ett halländskt perspektiv, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université de Lund)
Alessandro Palumbo, Skriftsystem i förändring: en grafematisk och paleografisk studie av de svenska medeltida runinskrifterna, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2018 (Université d’Uppsala)
Kristina Linscott, Interpretations of old wood : figuring mid-twelfth century church architecture in west Sweden, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université de Göteborg)
Ljung Cecilia, Under runristad häll : Tidigkristna gravmonument i 1000-talets Sverige, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (Stockholm University)
Karlsson Johnny, Spill Om djur, hantverk och nätverk i Mälarområdet under vikingatid och medeltid, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (Stockholm University)
Établissements principaux/Main institutions : Historical Archaeology
Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Lund University
Projet en cours/Project in progress
The purpose of the project The Key to Uppåkra is to create an integrated database containing spatial and chronological information from the archaeological investigations at Uppåkra in Scania, connected to a visual collection of the artefacts for further research and public visualization of the extensive sources. Firstly, it will secure the quality of and access to the archaeological documentation from the site. In the project, eighteen years of very diverse archaeological investigations are synchronised into a coherent digital frame, by using Intrasis and GIS, translating digital data into visual format. Secondly, parallel to the temporal-spatial ordering, 28 000 artefacts will be photographed and made accessible on the Internet by the use of K-Samsök and Europeana, two commonly used facilities in museums. This opens up possibilities for research on societal change during the politically formative period for early Scandinavian states, based on a site with extremely long settlement continuity. The database will be internationally accessible to scholars, as well as the public, through open access. The mobilization for a database will be the launchpad for sustainable knowledge, with national and international impact. Uppåkra will be important for scholars occupied with questions on pre-urban societies and how they were established and transformed into towns, in their ecological, social and cultural context. As such, the Uppåkra database will have a global scope.
Karlsson Catarina, Förlorat järn — Det medeltida jordbrukets behov och förbrukning av järn och stål [Lost Iron – requirement and consumption of iron and steel in agriculture in medieval Sweden], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet)
Lost Iron – requirement and consumption of iron and steel in agriculture in medieval Sweden This study aims at an estimation of the amount of iron required for agriculture during the Middle Ages in Sweden. To calculate this we need to know which implements were used, their weights and how they were subjected to wear. Research on wear has been very scarce but it is of great importance to measure how much iron that was needed to replace what was taken away by constant wear, i.e. on shares for ploughs and ards. To achieve this a new method was devised. The method is based on previous research by Grith Lerche, with additional analyses and calculations. The method presented and used is called Wear Calculation Method and consists of five steps. Step 1: Study of medieval agricultural implements, their shape and weight. Step 2: Metallurgical analysis of selected implements, to answer questions about materials and how they were processed. Step 3: Experimental Archaeology: Manufacture of replicas of the implements analyzed in step 2. Step 4: Experimental Archaeology: ard ploughing and haymaking with replicas of ard shares and scythes for the purpose of measuring wear. Step 5: Analysis of the wear experiment, results and calculations of consumption of iron and steel in medieval agriculture. The experimental part of the thesis focuses on ard shares and scythes, since the ard and the scythe were the main implements for ploughing and haymaking during the Middle Ages in Sweden. These experiments were carried out during two seasons at Östra Järvafältet, north of Stockholm, Sweden. I have measured wear on the ard shares in grams per kilometer. But more relevant and often more compatible with data from written sources is a measure of how many grams that are worn off per hectare or any other given unit of land. The wear is approximated at 100 grams of iron and steel per ploughed hectare (10 000 m2), in conditions similar to the situation when the replicas were used. I chose to do my analyses on two different spatial levels, the farm and the county. The results prove that ard ploughing means much heavier wear on the implements compared to haymaking. Generally you needed an annual addition of slightly over 1 kg of iron to plough the fields of a normal-sized farm in Uppland. Thus we may estimate the total amount of iron required in Uppland to replace the wear caused by ploughing to 8,4 ton a year. These results show that iron and steel production were of great importance for the High Medieval economic expansion and modernization, where increased iron production and consumption as well as simultaneous expansion of arable land were vital. Between the end of the first millennium and the mid-14th century, the population of Sweden approximately doubled in size, much like the rest of Europe. Iron was a most important third factor (in combination with an increased population and the cultivation of new land) in this expanding age, ca AD 1000–1300. Production and consumption of iron and steel increased sharply during this period and it reached every person, farm, meadow and field in the country. This is a sure sign of a very developed market and system for the distribution of iron and steel.
[Source : http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/11435/]
Grabowski Radoslaw, Cereal husbandry and settlement : Expanding archaeobotanical perspectives on the southern Scandinavian Iron Age, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. K. Viklund, Umeå universitet)
The here presented PhD project explores the phenomenon of cereal cultivation during the Iron Age (c. 500 BC – AD 1100) in southern Scandinavia. The main body of the thesis consists of four articles. These were written with the aim to identify chronological, geographical, theoretical and methodological gaps in current research, to develop, apply and evaluate approaches to how new knowledge on Iron Age cereal cultivation can be attained, and to assess the interaction between archaeobotany and other specialisms currently used in settlement archaeology. The introduction section of the thesis also contains a historical overview of archaeobotanical research on cereal cultivation in southern Scandinavia. The first article is a compilation and summary of all available previously performed archaeobotanical investigations in southern Sweden. This data is compared and discussed in relation to similar publications in Denmark and smaller scale compilations previously published in Sweden. The main result of the study is an updated and enhanced understanding of the main developments in the investigation area and a deepened knowledge of local development chronologies and trajectories in different parts of southern Sweden. The second article is a methodological presentation of a multiproxy analysis combining plant macrofossil analysis, phosphate analysis, magnetic susceptibility analysis and measurement of soil organic matter by loss on ignition. The applicability of the method for identification and delineation of space functions on southern Scandinavian Iron Age sites is discussed and illustrated by two case studies from the Danish site of Gedved Vest. Particular focus is placed on exploration of the use of the functional analysis for assessment of taphonomic and operational contexts of carbonised plant macrofossil assemblages. The third article aims at presenting an Iron Age cereal cultivation history for east-central Jutland, an area identified at the outset of the project as under-represented in archaeobotanical studies. The article combines data from depth analyses of material from the sites of Gedved Vest and Kristinebjerg Øst (analysed with the methods and theory presented in the second article) with a compilation of previously performed archaeobotanical analyses from east-central Jutland. The main results of the study are that developments in the study area appear to follow a chronology similar to that previously observed on Funen rather than the rest of the peninsula. Rye cultivation is furthermore discussed as more dynamic and flexible than previously presented in Scandinavian archaeobotanical literature. The fourth and final article leaves archaeobotany as the main topic. It focuses instead on evaluating, theorising and expanding the multiproxy method presented in the second article by a thorough comparison of the botanical, geochemical and geophysical methods to other techniques of functional analysis currently used in archaeology. These techniques include studies of artefact distributions, assessments of spatial relations between settlement features, and studies of the structural details of dwellings and other constructions. The main result is that there is a correspondence between the functional indications provided by botanical, geochemical and geophysical methods and techniques used in mainstream archaeology. The comparison furthermore shows that a combination of the two data sets allows for more highly resolved functional interpretations than if they are used separately. The main conclusion of the PhD thesis, based on the discussions in all four articles, is that archaeobotanical questions commonly necessitate the assessment of non-botanical archaeological material. The comparison of archaeobotanical data to other segments of the archaeological record does, however, enable the use of the former as an archaeological resource for addressing non-botanical questions. The increased understanding of (mainly settlement) site dynamics resulting from this integration of methods allows archaeobotanists to address increasingly complex botanical questions. Increased and more structured integration between archaeobotany and other specialisms operating within the framework of settlement archaeology is therefore argued to be the preferred approach to performing both high quality archaeobotany and settlement archaeology.
Svensson Ola, Nämnda ting men glömda. Ortnamn, landskap och rättsutövning [Named but forgotten things: Place-names, landscape and justice], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. G. Byrman, S. Nyström, Linnéuniversitetet)
The dissertation describes the names related to justice and places in the landscape where justice was administered, applying an interdisciplinary perspective with place names as the chief source material. One aim is to collect and describe place names in Skåne designating or indirectly associated with meeting places and districts of the court, and to study the named places. The study covers many different periods, but especially the Middle Ages and the transition from the Late Iron Age to the Middle Ages. The analysis raises questions such as: Was there continuity in judicial sites between prehistoric and historic times? How old are the hundreds (härader)? Is there a spatial link between judicial sites and other central functions such as cult, markets, or rulers’ estates? The work is permeated by material-based onomastic research in combination with current perspectives in text research, historical geography, and archaeology. Nine case studies are conducted to describe the interaction between place, linguistic expression, and meaning. The study demonstrates the existence of a large corpus of names reflecting the early administration of justice. Most of the many field names which contain ting ‘court’ and galge ‘gallows’ can be related to the actual administration of justice. The medieval sites where courts assembled and people were executed stand out in particular, but in many cases these have prehistoric roots. Both unbroken continuity and the reuse of earlier places of assembly may be assumed. Close to sites with names indicating the administration of justice there are also landscape features with names that grant epic and mythical status to the locale. The special quality of these places was handed down, incorporated in larger narratives, based on changing ideas and circumstances in different periods. The landscape of the hundred courts (häradsting) is archaic, magnificent and mythical, and shared, qualities that contributed to the maintenance and legitimation of judicial practice. A division into a general, public judicial sphere and a more limited and exclusive sphere can be seen. In the medieval exercise of justice this division is manifested in two different judicial districts – härad and birk – but the phenomenon can be traced back to the Late Iron Age. The study also problematizes a traditional image of the names of the hundreds.
McLeod, Shane. The Beginning of Scandinavian Settlement in England. The Viking ‘Great Army’ and Early Settlers, c. 865-900
Turnhout: Brepols, 2014. Pp. xv, 319, 8 figures, 6 maps, 3 tables. EUR 80.00. ISBN: 978-2-503-54556-1.
Reviewed by P. Holm, Trinity College Dublin
Historians, archaeologists, and philologists have debated the character and extent of Scandinavian settlement like hardly any other phenomenon in Anglo-Saxon England, and more than seventy years after the publication of F.M. Stenton’s ground-breaking Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1943) agreement on the main issues seems far away. McLeod therefore does all parties a great service by assembling and reviewing a good deal of the pieces that make up the puzzle. He boldly imagines some new pieces to make a full picture emerge. Many readers will value McLeod’s book for its up-to-date review, while the model suggested may encourage further research. Continuer la lecture de McLeod, Shane. The Beginning of Scandinavian Settlement in England. The Viking ‘Great Army’ and Early Settlers, c. 865-90
Jessen Mads, The sacred space in a time of religious change: Material and conceptual interaction in ritual environments during the Christianization of South Scandinavia, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (Université d’Aarhus)
Fried Alexandra, The Swedish Madonnas : a comparative study of wooden sculptures of the Virgin and Child between 1250 and 1350, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. P. Lindley, D. Ekserdjian, Université de Leicester)