Archives de catégorie : Suède / Sweden

Helmbrecht Michaela, Wirkmächtige Kommunikationsmedien

Helmbrecht Michaela, Wirkmächtige Kommunikationsmedien : Menschenbilder der Vendel- und Wikingerzeit und ihre Kontexte, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. B. Hårdh, Université de Lund)

Résumé/abstract :
This PhD thesis deals with anthropomorphic images from the Vendel and Viking Ages, their contexts and functions. The images are seen as means of communication with “effective power” or agency (« Wirkmächtigkeit »). They could have had a relationship of interaction or partial identity with what was represented, due to the fact that the Vendel and Viking Age societies were largely based on oral tradition. Using a semiotic approach, rules for the use of images can be deduced, and it can be differentiated between various levels of meanings. In a semiotic perspective, it is also the image-carrying object and the specific situation that contribute to the meanings of an image. The pictures are assigned to five groups: scenes, single figures, gestures and attributes, human-animal transformations, and heads/faces. These groups are subdivided into motif-groups and iconographic interpretations are discussed. Some important pictorial topics are journeys, battles, gender-specific actions, transformations between humans and animals, and binding. Only few motifs can be plausibly identified with narratives preserved in medieval texts. In the second part of the analysis, the image-carrying objects are discussed and compared with the written sources. The quantitatively largest groups are gold foil figures, components of clothing, and coins. Most motifs were used only on certain types of objects. Motifs and image carriers underwent changes during the Vendel and Viking Ages, especially in the decades before and around 800 A.D. Several motifs were transferred from the gold foil figures to pendants. Although the archaeological record and the information in the texts rarely correspond directly, the texts, too, contain distorted echoes of Vendel and Viking Age conceptions of the « Wirkmächtigkeit » of images, and their use in social strategies. Some situations of communication with and through pictures are discussed: the deposition of gold foil figures as an act of communication with “other worlds”; the material expression of gender identity in graves; the Gotlanders´ expression of their cultural identity and the role of anthropomorphic pictures at “central places”. The images were on the one hand media among the living, by conveying messages of wealth and visual complexity, which makes them active devices in social strategies. On the other hand, their Wirkmächtigkeit is also grounded in their artistic production, and in the relationship of mutual influence or partial identity of the image and the represented, so that the communication is also directed to “other worlds”.

Eilersgaard Christensen Lisbeth, Stednavne som kilde til yngre jernalders centralpladser

Eilersgaard Christensen Lisbeth, Stednavne som kilde til yngre jernalders centralpladser, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. B. Holmberg, Université de Copenhague)

Résumés :

Characteristic place-names with possible relevance for religion, social status, defence etc. often occur together, forming a relatively uniform pattern in certain parts of Sweden. These uniform patterns, so- called onomastic environments, occur most frequently in the central Swedish region and they have been interpreted as an expression of the social organisation in the areas in question. Onomastic environments are presumed to provide circumstantial linguistic evidence for the structures that have been designated by archaeologists as central-place complexes. The characteristic onomastic environments do not seem to appear in Southern Scandinavia, in spite of the fact that archaeological central-place complexes do occur here. A Swedish place-name scholar has put forward the hypothesis that changes in settlement structure disturbed the old place-name structures in Southern Scandinavia but that traces of onomastic environments can still be found, if both settlement names and field-names are taken into consideration in the analyses. The aim of the dissertation is to test this hypothesis by means of an analysis of the place-name material within selected regions in Denmark. As a basis for the study a catalogue of keywords has been compiled which consists of both Swedish and Danish name-elements in which interest in the structure of society and centrality is foremost in publications devoted to the theory of onomastic environments and other selected literature. The catalogue contains 84 keywords with varying relevance for central-places. The name material has been analysed in eight areas which have been selected on the basis of six sal-names, one tune-name and a name of the type Odinsvi. In each area the names with keywords or other relevance for central-places have been selected for detailed interpretation. The value of the testimony of this material for centrality in the Late Iron Age is then assessed. The archaeological material from the Late Iron Age is also described briefly so that the collected relevance of the testimony for centrality for each area can be assessed on the basis of both types of source. The analyses show that in the selected areas no evidence can be demonstrated that can be interpreted as the existence of such onomastic environments. In the majority of the areas, however, there is one name, in addition to the name which led to the selection of the area, that can be accorded relevance for centrality. At a few places there are more such names. Regional peculiarities in respect to naming may be a partial cause of the differing dissemination of repeated patterns in the onomastic material between (Central) Sweden and Denmark respectively. The theoretical approach to the onomastic material is also of great significance for the result of the analyses. There is a considerable body of onomastic material with relevance for the structure of society and centrality in Denmark but the value of its testimony for the organisational structure of its central-place complexes would not seem to be confirmed.

Karakteristiske stednavne med mulig relevans for samfundsforhold som religion, status, forsvar osv. optræder i flere tilfælde sammen efter et relativt ensartet mønster i nogle dele af Sverige. Disse ensartede mønstrer, såkaldte navnemiljøer, optræder hyppigst i det mellemsvenske område, og de tolkes som udtryk for samfundsorganisationen i de pågældende områder. Navnemiljøerne formodes at være sproglige indicier på strukturer, der i arkæologien betegnes som centralpladskomplekser. De karakteristiske navnemiljøer forekommer tilsyneladende ikke i det sydskandinaviske område, til trods for at arkæologiske centralpladskomplekser optræder her. En svensk navneforsker har fremsat den hypotese, at bebyggelsesmæssige omstruktureringer har forstyrret de gamle stednavnestrukturer i Sydskandinavien, men at der kan findes reminiscenser af navnemiljøer, såfremt både bebyggelses- og marknavne inddrages i analyserne. Afhandlingens formål er at afprøve denne hypotese gennem analyser af stednavnematerialet inden for udvalgte undersøgelsesområder i Danmark. Som basis for analyserne er der udarbejdet et katalog af søgeord, der består af både svenske og danske navneled, som i navnemiljøteoretiske publikationer eller anden udvalgt litteratur tillægges interesse for samfundsstruktur og centralitet. Kataloget rummer 84 søgeord med varierende centralpladsrelevans. Navnematerialet er analyseret i otte udvalgte områder, som er udpeget på basis af seks sal-navne, et tune-navn og et navn af typen Odinsvi. I hvert område er navne med søgeord eller centralpladsrelevans i øvrigt udvalgt og tolket. Materialets udsagnsværdi for centralitet i yngre jernalder er herefter vurderet. Det arkæologiske materiale fra yngre jernalder er desuden skitseret, således at det samlede centralpladsrelaterede udtryk for hvert område kan vurderes ud fra begge kildetyper. Analyserne viser, at der i de udvalgte områder ikke kan påvises mønstre, der kan tolkes som navnemiljøer. I hovedparten af områderne er der dog ét navn, udover navnet som området er udpeget efter, der kan tillægges centralpladsrelevans. Enkelte steder er der flere. Navne med relevans for religion og forsvar er hyppigst forekommende, men udsagnsværdien er i nogle tilfælde vanskelig at fastlægge. Regionale særtræk i forbindelse med navngivning kan være en delvis årsag til forskellig udbredelse af gentagne mønstre i hhv. det (mellem)svenske og det danske navnemateriale, og den teoretiske tilgang ved tolkningen af materialet er også af væsentlig betydning for det analyserede resultat. Der er et stort navnemateriale med relevans for samfundsstruktur og centralitet i Danmark, men dets udsagnsværdi for centralpladskompleksernes organisatoriske struktur synes ikke bekræftet.

[Source : http://nfi.ku.dk/publikationer/phd-afhandlinger/LEC-afh_tekst.pdf]

Dverstorp Nils, Skrivaren och skriften

Dverstorp Nils, Skrivaren och skriften – om skrift- och handskriftsproduktion i Vadstena kloster, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. K. G. Johansson, L.-E. Edlund, Université d’Oslo)

Résumé :

Skriften i middelalderen var i begynnelsen under sterk innflytelse fra den latinske skrifttradisjonen. Da man begynte å skrive på sitt eget språk frigjorde man seg sakte fra denne tradisjonen.

I sin avhandling studerer Dverstorp den skriftlige variasjonen i et utvalg håndskrifter fra et slik perspektiv. Variasjon i og forandring av skriftens grafiske utformning står i fokus. De håndskrifter som undersøkes er produsert i Vadstena kloster i Sverige, som ble grunnlagt av den hellige Birgitta på slutten av 1300-tallet.

Avhandlingen viser hvordan skriften gjennomgikk små forandringer, noe som i sin tur gjør det mulig å si noe om hvordan håndskriftene ble produsert og om deres datering og skrivere. Dette gjør at vi får ny kunnskap ikke bare om de håndskrifter som undersøkes men også om håndskriftsproduksjonen i Vadstena kloster fra et større perspektiv.

[Source : http://www.hf.uio.no/iln/forskning/aktuelt/arrangementer/disputaser/2010/dverstorp.html]

Bianchi Marco, Runor som resurs

Bianchi Marco, Runor som resurs, Vikingatida skriftkultur i Uppland och Södermanland [Runes as a resource : Viking Age written culture in Uppland and Södermanland], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. H. Williams, A.-M. Karlsson, Université d’Uppsala)

Résumé :

The Viking Age rune-carvers and their readers used runes as a semiotic resource to convey and structure the messages on rune-stones. An analysis of the ways in which this resource is used together with other resources gives us a deeper insight into the relationship between writers and readers and into the written culture in which the rune-stones were produced.The present study treats runic carvings as multimodal texts in which different semiotic modes produce meaning by visual and verbal means. The roles played by runes in such texts are studied from three different perspectives. The empirical study in chapter 3 investigates how the verbal messages of the inscriptions interrelate with ornamental compositions. The most important convention found is that runic inscriptions usually start in the lower left part of the ornamental band in which they are inscribed. A second result is that there is a certain correlation between the visual and syntactic structure of runic texts. In chapter 4, Södermanlandic inscriptions employing more than one writing system are investigated. These carvings can be tied to a context of high social ambition in which at least two different, socially stratified discourses are expressed by means of the runes as a visual semiotic mode. Chapter 5 is devoted to non-lexical inscriptions, showing that such carvings are indeed runic texts despite their lack of verbal message.Different types of readers can use runic resources in different ways. Firstly, runes carry meaning independent of any verbal message, giving them significance even to illiterate readers. Secondly, literate readers can appreciate certain conventions of runic composition and, thirdly, one and the same runic text can be part of different discourses and hence be aimed at different kinds of readers.

[Source : http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121586]

Åkestam Mia, Bebådelsebilder : Om bildbruk under medeltiden

Åkestam Mia, Bebådelsebilder : Om bildbruk under medeltiden, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. M. Rossholm Lagerlöf, M. Kempff Östlind, Université de Stockholm)

Résumé :

This thesis investigates the Annunciation motif and the use of images in a medieval socio-cultural context. There are almost 400 medieval images of the Annunciation from the period 1150–1550 in Sweden today. It is found in murals, baptismal fonts, paintings, wooden sculpture, stone reliefs, liturgical vessels, textile works and altarpieces. The aim of the thesis is to present this rich and varied material, and also to relate the images to the milieus where they were used and viewed as objects of cult, and to elucidate the historical situation in which they were used for communicative purposes.  It is argued that an “image-culture” perspective and a long-term investigation can reveal other aspects than a specific study, and that it is fruitful to equally emphasize the rhetoric of the image, the beholders part and the historical context. Hence the picture analysis is based on semiotics and rhetoric analysis of pictures and reception theory. With this point of departure the thesis addresses iconographic problems and shows that text as a source and explanation of historical image can be insufficient. The study shows that the figures’ gestures and body language, their contenace, is crucial for our understanding, and remains the most important mark of identification. The motif can be identified even with an angel without wings. The meaning of this universal picture could then be enlarged with specific attributes and symbols with a purpose to emphasize specific ideas. In context this elucidates bishopric, monastic as well as worldly use of imagery. The image context includes motifs from classical antiquity, references to the pious Christian worshiper, as well as symbolic staging of the Gospels and Christian faith. More expected is the biblical history. The motif can also be displayed alone, and thus it can be regarded as a sign. An important outcome is that the Annunciation not is used in legendary suites or in narratives of the Virgin Mary. Hence, the relationship between image and text is not uncomplicated. The thesis shows that people in the Middle Ages were fully aware of the use of pictures and skilfully used the rhetoric of the image.

[Source : http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43494]

Niblaeus Erik Gunnar, German influence on religious practice in Scandinavia, c. 1050-1150

Niblaeus Erik Gunnar, German influence on religious practice in Scandinavia, c. 1050-1150, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. J.L. Nelson, King’s College London)

Résumé/abstract :

The thesis is concerned with the later stages of Christianisation of Scandinavia, following the missionary period, when the church was consolidated and given secure foundations for worship and pastoral care, including the building and equipment of thousands of local churches, and the creation of a lasting diocesan structure. It argues that the German influence during this period, while often taken for granted, deserves to be investigated in more detail, and has been underplayed in recent scholarship. It is divided into five chapters, the first three more general in scope, concerned with the whole of Scandinavia, the last two more specific studies organised according to geographical area. Chapter one is introductory. Chapter two considers in general and comparative terms the importance of liturgy and books in the process of Scandinavian Christianisation. Chapter three is a consideration of the German interest in Scandinavia as it developed from the eleventh to the twelfth century, first in secular terms, second in religious terms, including a discussion of the clergy with German affiliations who held office in Scandinavia. It also includes an investigation of the clerical ideals of the principal narrative primary source to the period, Adam of Bremen’s History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. Chapters four and five deal with questions of the introduction of German liturgy and German books into the churches of Denmark and Sweden respectively.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.539896]

CNS – Corpus Nummorum Saeculorum IX-XI qui in Suecia Reperti Sunt [Catalogue of Coins from the Viking Age Found in Sweden]

CNS – Corpus Nummorum Saeculorum IX-XI qui in Suecia Reperti Sunt [Catalogue of Coins from the Viking Age Found in Sweden]

Responsable du projet/Project leader : Kenneth Jonsson (kenneth.jonsson@ark.su.se)Établissement principal/Main institution : Stockholm University

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

CNS is the abbreviation for a project intending to publish  all Viking coins found in Sweden (ca. 800-1140 ). Nine volumes have been printed so far, as well as the publications of a committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities until 2010. Since 2011, the project is entirely directed by the Numismatic Research Group of Stockholm University  and the future publications will only be published through our website , where some works are already available.
CNS är förkortningen för ett projekt där alla vikingatida myntfynd (ca 800-1140) i Sverige ska publiceras. Nio volymer har tryckts och fram t.o.m. 2010 organiserades publiceringen av en kommitté inom Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien. Fr.o.m. 2011 leds projektet helt av Numismatiska forskningsgruppen och den framtida publiceringen sker enbart via vår hemsida, där några fynd redan finns tillgängliga.

Svedjemo Gustaf, Landscape Dynamics : Spatial analyses of villages and farms on Gotland AD 200-1700

Svedjemo Gustaf, Landscape Dynamics : Spatial analyses of villages and farms on Gotland AD 200-1700, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. F. Herschend, H. Martinsson-Wallin, Université d’Uppsala)

Résumé/abstract :
 This dissertation deals with the long-term dynamics and fluctuations of settlements on Gotland for the period from AD 200 up until early modern times. The settlement structure on Gotland is most often described as very stable and consisting of solitary farms, established in the Iron Age. A contrasting view is presented by analyses of a vast source material from different periods. The source material consists of both physical remains, noted in the Swedish national Archaeological Sites Information System, FMIS and large scale historical maps, as well as other written sources. For the first studied period, the locations of some 2 000 houses are known, since they were constructed with sturdy stone walls and are thus preserved. The source material for the following periods is scarcer, but some hundred Viking Age sites are identified, mainly by the find places of silver hoards. By retrogressive analyses of historical maps, from the decades around the year 1700, and other written sources, later periods are analysed. All available data are gathered in geodatabases, which enables both generalised and detailed spatial and statistical analyses. The results of the analyses show a more varied picture, with great fluctuations in the number of farms; the existence of villages is also clearly indicated in a large part of the settlements. The villages are centred on kinship and the lack of strong royal power or landed gentry meant they were not fixed in cadastres, as fiscal units, as villages were on the Swedish mainland. Two peaks, followed by major dips, were identified in the number of settlements and thus in the population. The first peak occurred during the late Roman Iron Age/Migration period, which was followed by a reduction in the Vendel period of possibly up to 30-50%. After this, a recovery started in the Viking Age, which culminated during the heydays of Gotland in the High Middle Ages, with population numbers most probably not surpassed until late in history. This upward trend was broken by the diminishing trade of Gotland, the Medieval agrarian crisis, The Danish invasion and later events. All this resulted in a decline, probably as great as after the Migration period.

Viberg Andreas, Remnant echoes of the past Archaeological geophysical prospection in Sweden

Viberg Andreas, Remnant echoes of the past Archaeological geophysical prospection in Sweden, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. K. Lidén, B. Olofsson, R. Dalan, B. Bevan, Université de Stockholm)

Résumé/abstract :
The aim of this thesis has been to investigate the benefits, pitfalls and possibilities of using geophysical methods in archaeological projects. This is exemplified by surveys carried out at archaeological sites in different geographical and chronological contexts. The thesis also aims at investigating the cause for the under-use of the methods in Swedish archaeology by looking at previously conducted surveys. The methods used during these surveys have been Ground-penetrating radar (GPR), magnetometer, slingram and a kappameter. The surveys in the mountain tundra region of Lapland show that magnetic susceptibility surveys is a valuable aid in discovering heaps of fire-cracked stones and when combined with magnetometry, also hearths. GPR and magnetometer surveys within the Migration Period ringfort Sandbyborg provided the spatial layout of the fort and indicated, along with results from recent excavations and metal detections, many similarities with the ringfort Eketorp II. The non-magnetic character of the sedimentary bedrock on Öland and Gotland is suitable for magnetometer surveys and the method is also highly appropriate for the detection of the remains of high-temperature crafts. GPR surveys at St. Mary’s Dominican convent in Sigtuna produced the spatial layout of the central cloister area. The investigations also show that the geology, pedology, land use and the character of commonly occurring prehistoric remains in Sweden, in certain circumstances and in certain areas, have restricted the possibility of successfully carrying out geophysical surveys. Care must therefore be taken to choose the right instrument for the survey and to tailor the sampling density of each geophysical survey, according to the character and size of the expected archaeological remains, in order to maximize their information return. To increase the use of geophysical methods in Sweden the educational opportunities, both for surveyors and professional archaeologists, need to improve.

Telldahl Ylva, Working Animals and Skeletal Lesions

Telldahl Ylva, Working Animals and Skeletal Lesions : Paleopathology of Cattle and Horse in Iron Age and Medieval Öland, Sweden, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. J. Storå, Université de Stockholm)

Résumé/abstract :
Central to this thesis is the relationship between animal husbandry practices and the associated pathological conditions. Since bone elements from the extremities are subjected to abnormal load when animals are put to hard work this research aims to go further and interpret the prevalence of varying lesions and their connection with animal husbandry by using methods such as osteometric analysis, conventional radiograpic and bone mineral study, as well as incorporated molecular analysis.The results show that approximately 15% of the cattle extremities at Eketorp ringfort had some kind of skeletal lesion. Cattle metatarsals exhibited a higher frequency of lesions than metacarpals. Skeletal lesions connected to draught use were more frequently recorded on bone elements from male than from female cattle. The anterior phalanges 1-2 had a higher occurence of lesions than the posterior elements. In addition, there was a significant correlation between larger sized animals and lesions. Osteological measurements were also investigated using molecular sex identification. Several measurements in both fragmented and complete metapodials proved useful in separating cows from oxen or bulls.Conventional radiographics were used on cattle metapodials from Eketorp ringfort to investigate the age structure in slaughtered cattle over 3 years of age. In phase III more male cattle were slaughtered before 8 years of age which could reflect the character of the site. The bone density analysis showed that modern cattle metapodials had higher values than the archaeological specimens which made intepretation of post-depositional changes problematic. The molecular analysis did not show any selected breed or specific type of animal. All but two of the Eketorp cattle belonged to haplogroup Y2 which is common in Southern Europe. The Y1 haplogroup (one in phase II and one in phase III) is common in Western and Northern Europe. The results point to that the Ölandic cattle population was homogeneous over time. The results from thirty-four bone elements show that twenty-five bones belonged to animals with red or light coat coloration and nine of uncertain, possibly partly black colour.

Hållans Ann-Mari, Fornminnen : det förflutnas roll i det förkristna och kristna Mälardalen

Hållans Ann-Mari, Fornminnen : det förflutnas roll i det förkristna och kristna Mälardalen, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. A. Andrén, Université de Lund)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examine how farm-dwellers in the Mälaren region during the late Iron Age and early Middle Ages created, transferred, and preserved memory by deliberately placing new houses and graves on the houses and graves of previous generations. Focus is on memory as a social phenomenon and culture-specific resource created by these deliberate practices. The culture-specific element is oral culture. Place is an important part of the contextualization of social memory. The pre-Christian and early Christian farm has a special quality that is so self-evident that it is seldom highligh¬ted – the presence of the graves within its territory. This distinguishes that farm from those where the dead were buried in a graveyard. My theoretical framework is that of memory theory. In focus is human agency, formal and ritualized practice, and structured and constructed reality. All the media then available for memory construction are taken into consideration: formal and ritual acts such as ‘super-imposing’; material remains such as graves and buildings; sites on different scale levels in the landscape, such as farms with grave-fields and yards; narratives such as the Icelandic sagas. The source material consists of more than 300 archaeological excavations of grave-fields and settlements conducted in the Mälaren valley. The analysis include four sub-studies of superimpositions: grave on grave, house on house, grave on house, and house on grave. It takes into account possible variations in the scope and expression of the superimpositions because of the chronological, geographical, and social context. One of the more significant results is that the superimpositions showed very deliberate patterns, implying that the practices were very conscious. In the synthesis superimposition practices are considered as historical entities, and as functions of a possible historical culture in different eras. Down the ages, from the Migration Period up to and including the early Middle Ages, major regional changes in society have steered the contemporaneous perceptions of history. This means new social, ideological, and cultural context, which in its turn created the need for new memories.
I vår egen tid finns ett stort intresse för släktforskning och historia hos många. Men man tänker sällan på att även människor i gångna tider kunnat blicka tillbaka på sitt förflutna och fundera på sin egen plats i släktleden. Vad var de ville minnas och hur mindes de i en tid utan skriv- och läskunnighet? Det är frågor som ställs i avhandlingen och där svaren söks i de lämningar som grävts fram från järnåldern vid många arkeologiska undersökningar i Mälardalen. En inblick i detta ger oss en större förståelse för det förflutnas roll och betydelse i såväl dåtid som vår egen tid. I avhandlingen visas hur människor på gårdar under järnåldern i Mälardalen ”byggde” minnen genom att medvetet placera nya gravar och hus på tidigare generationers gravar och hus.

Lodén Sofia, Le chevalier courtois à la rencontre de la Suède médiévale

Lodén Sofia, Le chevalier courtois à la rencontre de la Suède médiévale, Du Chevalier au lion à Herr Ivan, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. A. Bengtsson, M. Gally, P. Förnegård, Université de Stockholm)

Résumé/abstract :
This dissertation investigates the links between Chrétien de Troyes’ romance Le Chevalier au lion from the late twelfth century and the Old Swedish text Herr Ivan, written at the behest of Queen Eufemia of Norway at the beginning of the fourteenth century. The study has two parts. The first sets out to determine the sources of the Swedish text: Was Le Chevalier au lion really the source text of Herr Ivan? The second part raises the question of what happened to the courtly ideals that characterize the French romance when they were transferred into Swedish.The analysis of the question concerning the sources of Herr Ivan confirms that Le Chevalier au lion was the translator’s main source, while the Old Norse version Ívens saga, from the middle of the thirteenth century, was used as a secondary source. The relationship between Le Chevalier au lion, Ívens saga and Herr Ivan is examined through a comparison of the three texts: the choice of verse or prose, the role of prologues and epilogues, and the use of the voice of a narrator and of direct and indirect discourse. Four specific passages are compared at a micro-level.By comparing Herr Ivan to its sources, it becomes clear that the Swedish translator wanted to stress certain courtly ideals by presenting a distinct and coherent interpretation of what Chrétien de Troyes refers to as courtoisie. This indicates that the function of the text was to present a set of ideological and aesthetic values. The analysis of the transmission of courtly ideals takes its point of departure in the uses of the French word courtois and the Swedish equivalent hövisker. As a next step, three elements intimately linked to courtliness are examined: aventure, gaieté and honneur. Also the different roles played by the lion are highlighted. Finally, it is shown how the courtly ideals of Herr Ivan can be read in the light of the other Old Swedish texts written at the behest of Queen Eufemia: Hertig Fredrik av Normandie and Flores och Blanzeflor.

Gustafsson Ny Björn, Casting Identities in Central Seclusion

Gustafsson Ny Björn, Casting Identities in Central Seclusion, Aspects of non-ferrous metalworking and society on Gotland in the Early Medieval Period, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (Université de Stockholm)

Résumé/abstract :
The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and interpret late Iron Age and Early Medieval traces of non-ferrous metalworking on the island Gotland, Sweden. Gotland was not, based on the archaeological record, an integrated part of the common Scandinavian culture. Instead a local, endemic cultural expression had developed; a seclusion which lasted for centuries despite the islands central position in the Baltic Sea. In the past, key elements for the understanding of local settlement- and burial practices as well as the local material culture were mainly recovered and reported by local farmers. A specific category of such finds – so-called ‘bronze slag’ is discussed and partly reinterpreted in the first study of this thesis. Two further studies treat different aspects of metalworking and metalworkers – one discusses common archaeological notions of Scandinavian workshops, production sites and metalworkers from a critical perspective while the other mainly focuses on the Gotlandic finds from metal-detector surveys carried out over the last 35 years. Based on where and to which extent, both from a quantitative and a qualitative point of view, these finds occur a hierarchical classification into four sub groups is presented – ordinary farm sites with traces of non-ferrous metalworking, workshop sites, potential workshop sites and last, extrovert harbour settlements. A fourth study presents an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of magnetometry in delimiting extant traces of high-temperature crafts, such as metalworking. The last study of the thesis presents an attempt to use trace elements analysis of skeletal lead in human bone to identify potential non-ferrous metalworkers. As the wearing of endemic Gotlandic jewellery appears to have been central in the manifestation of the local identity it is argued that the metalworking artisans played a crucial role in defining how this identity was signalled and displayed via the jewellery and dress-related metal objects. It is further suggested that these artisans might have played an important role in upholding the local economy before the advent of local minting.

Pettersson Jensen Ing-marie, Norberg och Järnet : Bergsmännen och den medeltida industrialiseringen

Pettersson Jensen Ing-marie, Norberg och Järnet : Bergsmännen och den medeltida industrialiseringen, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. G. Magnusson, A. Carlsson, Université de Stockholm)

Résumé/abstract :
This thesis is an archeological study of continuity and change in mining and settlement 1000 – 1500. At the time for the earliest possible introduction of mining, in the mid-10th century, the primary area for Norbergs’ mining district was sparsely settled, but in the late Viking Age and/or early Middle Ages, the analyses demonstrate a significant agricultural expansion.Based on the dating of the medieval blast furnaces, the 13th century seems to have been the main expansion phase for mining in the area. In the early 14th century there may have been 121 blast furnaces around Norberg. During the later parts of the Middle Ages, starting in the second half of the 14th century, in total 30%, of the blast furnaces was closed.The Christian ideology broke down the former power of the local Viking Age magnates and dissolved their strong control over the route taken by the iron to the consumer. Their strong control over the craft and the craftsmen was also reduced. Together, this contributed to the quantitative development of iron production, and permitted craftsmen and iron producers to strengthen their social positions by developing their operations. These actors became stronger during the Middle Ages and had much to win from an increasingly powerful monarchy. The development of the towns and trading created entirely new routes and institutions for the iron to be shipped down from the mining area. This created the right conditions for the peasant miners to free themselves entirely from the old structures that controlled the mining area and trade.After the Black Death it was increasingly important to be more self-sufficient and to reside on site, which is why the so-called peasant miner organization reinforced its position and became dominant. But at the same time, the first large scale industrialization of the mining area stopped.

Harlitz Erika, Urbana system och riksbildning i Skandinavien

Harlitz Erika, Urbana system och riksbildning i Skandinavien. En studie av Lödöses uppgång och fall ca 1050 – 1646  [Urban Systems and State Formation in Scandinavia: A Study of the Rise and Fall of the Town of Lödöse, c. 1050– 1646], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (Université de Göteborg)

Résumé/abstract :

The investigation and analysis of Lödöse’s political functions over a period of six hundred years has made it possible to follow and contextualize a town’s life cycle and development. Lödöse has been used as a case study which illuminates how and why a town emerged, developed and disappeared in medieval and early modern Scandinavia, in relation to the processes of state formation and urbanization. The theory applied is the Dynamic Urban Systems Theory. The position of a town within this theory is determined by the functions of the town, as well as the exclusivity of these functions. The influences of the Scandinavian state formation process on the town and the subsequent emergence of the river Göta Älv as the border of the realm have been ubiquitous during the evolution of Lödöse’s functions. The results of the dissertation have been reached by abandoning the interpretational framework offered by the borders of the Scandinavian national states and instead using the Glomma-Risveden region as a focal point. This way, it has been demonstrated that Lödöse was founded in the 11th century during the urbanization of the medieval eastern Norwegian region of Viken, and not as a power manifestation by the Swedish kings, as has been previously assumed. Due to the evolution of the border between the Norwegian and Swedish kingdoms, Lödöse in time became a part of the developing Swedish urban system. This system evolved and was shaped in such a way by the Swedish state that, by the early 17th century, Lödöse was rendered obsolete; therefore, the town ultimately lost its system position and was subsequently abandoned.

[Source : http://gup.ub.gu.se/publication/120754-urbana-system-och-riksbildning-i-skandinavien-en-studie-av-lodoses-uppgang-och-fall-ca-1050-1646]