Archives de catégorie : 2010

Smith Nicholas J.C., Servicium debitum and scutage in twelfth-century England

Smith, Nicholas J.C., Servicium debitum and scutage in twelfth-century England, with comparisons to the Regno of southern Italy, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (University of Durham)

Résumé/abstract :

The purpose of this study is to re-assess the system of military obligation in England at the earliest time sufficient documents survive to provide an in-depth explanation. It is both an examination of the twelfth-century feudal structure and lordship arrangements as described by these documents, and how they came to be in their twelfth-century forms. This is supplemented by a similar, but briefer, evaluation of the Regno of southern Italy and of the occasional relevant documents from Normandy. An examination of the place of military obligation in the kingdom of England covers three major areas: the assessment of this obligation, the cost of service both to the king and the individual knight, and how the men actually served. These three areas offer insight into how the Normans established the servicium debitum, how knights exempted themselves from their obligation or were compensated for extra service, and various aspects of what their service entailed, such as castle guard.

A study of the returns made by tenants-in-chief in 1166 suggests that these have been misinterpreted in the past; their inspiration lay in the desire of the barons to protect themselves from excessive royal demands, rather than in the crown’s desire to update the servicium debitum. The survey conducted in the Regno earlier is unlikely to have served as a prototype for the 1166 inquiry; it was different in purpose and in form. Scutages are examined, to show the complex patterns of payment, and to suggest that under Henry II a significant number of tenants-in-chief performed their service, rather than commuted it. The Pipe Rolls are used to analyse military expenditure at a local level in two counties, Kent and Shropshire; in particular pay rates are reconstructed. A series of appendices provide details of this expenditure, along with evidence of scutages.

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Niblaeus Erik Gunnar, German influence on religious practice in Scandinavia, c. 1050-1150

Niblaeus Erik Gunnar, German influence on religious practice in Scandinavia, c. 1050-1150, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. J.L. Nelson, King’s College London)

Résumé/abstract :

The thesis is concerned with the later stages of Christianisation of Scandinavia, following the missionary period, when the church was consolidated and given secure foundations for worship and pastoral care, including the building and equipment of thousands of local churches, and the creation of a lasting diocesan structure. It argues that the German influence during this period, while often taken for granted, deserves to be investigated in more detail, and has been underplayed in recent scholarship. It is divided into five chapters, the first three more general in scope, concerned with the whole of Scandinavia, the last two more specific studies organised according to geographical area. Chapter one is introductory. Chapter two considers in general and comparative terms the importance of liturgy and books in the process of Scandinavian Christianisation. Chapter three is a consideration of the German interest in Scandinavia as it developed from the eleventh to the twelfth century, first in secular terms, second in religious terms, including a discussion of the clergy with German affiliations who held office in Scandinavia. It also includes an investigation of the clerical ideals of the principal narrative primary source to the period, Adam of Bremen’s History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. Chapters four and five deal with questions of the introduction of German liturgy and German books into the churches of Denmark and Sweden respectively.

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Munns John M., The cross of Christ and Anglo-Norman religious imagination

Munns John M., The cross of Christ and Anglo-Norman religious imagination, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. P. Binski, University of Cambridge)

Résumé/abstract :

This study explores the ideas and images of the cross of Christ – intellectual, devotional, ethical, liturgical and artistic – in England between the Norman invasion and the beginning of the thirteenth century. The first chapter considers the influence of Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), both in the articulation of the first systemic exposition of the atonement and in the development of affective devotional practice. Chapter Two will relate these, in turn, to two other late eleventh-century developments that were nurtured in the Anglo-Norman cultural milieu: the defence of the doctrine of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist and the appearance of Trinitarian imagery in which the sacrificial offering of Christ on the cross is depicted as an eternal part of the divine life. Chapter Three will follow these developments into the twelfth century and explore their relationships to Cistercian spirituality and eremitic vocation.

In Part Two the remaining artistic evidence will provide the starting point for an art-historical exploration of the image of the crucified Christ. Chapters Four and Five survey the public image, representations in wall-painting, sculpture and metalwork and the use of the cross in liturgy and church furnishing. Chapter Six will consider the depiction of the passion and crucifixion in manuscript illumination, particularly in the ten substantial pictorial life-cycles of Christ to survive from twelfth-century England.

Part Three focuses on the period between the death of Thomas Becket in 1170 and the first decades of the thirteenth century. In Chapter Seven, Becket’s nurture of both ‘Anselmian’ devotion and an increasingly active cross-centred Christo-mimetic ethic will be demonstrated, and the subsequent rise in enthusiasm for pilgrimage and passion relics explored. The final chapter focuses on English engagement with the crusades and the Holy Land.

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Gobbitt Thomas J., The production and use of MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 383

Gobbitt Thomas J., The production and use of MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 383 in the late eleventh and first half of the twelfth centuries, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. M. Swan, O. Da Rold, University of Leeds)

Résumé/abstract :

MS Cambridge Corpus Christi College 383 (CCCC 383) is a collection of Anglo-Saxon law-codes and related texts copied in Old English dated to the beginning of the twelfth century. The manuscript is written throughout by a single scribe in a clear, subtly decorated and easy to read English Vernacular Minuscule and decorated throughout with red pen-drawn initials. Rubrics have been supplied in the first half of the twelfth century, as well as numerous additions and emendations dating from the first half of the twelfth century through to the sixteenth century. I have conducted an extensive codicological and contextual examination of the production and use of CCCC 383. I investigated a number of significant areas: the direct evidence for the materials and methods employed in the production of the manuscript and for its storage and use throughout the period; evidence for scribal behaviour and interaction with the manuscript in the writing, miniaturing, emendation and rubrication of the manuscript; analysis of the mise-en-page and the ways in which that can be used to assess the intentions of producers and users of the manuscript; and consideration of the continued roles of the Old English language and Anglo-Saxon law in the late eleventh and first half of the twelfth century. I argue that the production of the manuscript represented a significant and meaningful endeavour on the part of its producers and users and indicates the continued applicability and of Old English and Anglo-Saxon law-codes in the historical context of the late eleventh and first half of the twelfth centuries.

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Edvardsson Ragnar, The role of marine resources in the medieval economy of Vestfirdir, Iceland

Edvardsson Ragnar, The role of marine resources in the medieval economy of Vestfirdir, Iceland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. T.H. McGovern, City University of New York)

Résumé/abstract :

Vestfirdir became a stagnant and backwater region of Iceland following the social and political changes in the 17th century that crippled the Icelandic economy. For the next two hundred years people in Vestfirdir struggled to survive but at the end of the 19th century the regional economy began to recover and living standards in the region improved. However, these impoverished years in the history of Vestfirdir have always influenced the historical view of the region. Both scholars and laymen alike believed Vestfirdir to have been consistently poor from the beginning of the settlement to the present day. Archaeological and historical data now contradict these ideas and suggest that through most of its history the region based its income primarily on marine resources and supplied the remainder of Iceland with marine products not readily available elsewhere. Vestfirdir was settled at the same time as other regions of Iceland and soon after settlement the region developed a specialized fishing industry, focusing on the production of skreiđ (dried fish) for both Icelandic and European markets. In the Medieval and early modern periods Vestfirdir gained wealth from trade with foreigners which made it one of the richest region of Iceland. The work presented here contradicts the idea of a stagnant and unchanging society and gives a new perspective of a diverse and flexible society, built around the marine resources, which were the key to the success of the settlement in Vestfirdir.

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Sarah Baccianti, Telling stories in the medieval north: historical writing and literary artistry in medieval England and medieval Scandinavia

Sarah Baccianti, Telling stories in the medieval north: historical writing and literary artistry in medieval England and medieval Scandinavia, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. H. O’Donoghue, University of Oxford)

Résumé/abstract :

The primary aim of this study is to highlight the importance of the narrative structure in four texts written in medieval England and Scandinavia: Historia Anglorum, Heimskringla, Historia regum Britanniae and Breta Sögur. These are prose texts written in Anglo-Latin and Old Norse-Icelandic, and all contain some features characteristic of medieval historical writing: interpolation of verses and passages of dialogue, authorial interventions, the use prologues and written sources. These common features show that the medieval historians/chroniclers of medieval England and Scandinavia, in spite of following the dictates of medieval historical writing, nonetheless apply their own particular characteristics, as the chapter on Breta Sögur shows.

The thesis is organised in chronological order, using the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, throughout the work, as work of reference/comparison and of paramount importance to the medieval historians. It begins with Henry of Huntingdon’s Historia Anglorum, which provides a history of England in a continuous narration and in a heavily moralistic tone. It then moves into a discussion of Heimskringla, which also offers a continuous narration of the history of Norway. However, unlike Historia Anglorum, history is depicted through the life of each king and not the various battles and events. Breta Sögur, on the other hand, is an excellent example of how the Scandinavian redactor of the saga adapted and reworked Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia, corroborating the idea that the use of common sources/texts does not necessarily mean that the final result is identical. This thesis explores the ways medieval historians in northern Europe conceived of and transmitted historical facts, but most importantly how the role of the historian, his auctoritas, and his audience shaped the perception of the past, and influenced its modes of perception.

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Kershaw Jane, Culture and gender in the Danelaw: Scandinavian and Anglo-Scandinavian brooches, 850-1050

Kershaw Jane, Culture and gender in the Danelaw: Scandinavian and Anglo-Scandinavian brooches, 850-1050, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. H. Hamerow, University of Oxford)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis presents the first synthesis of Viking-Age Scandinavian and Anglo-Scandinavian brooches and pendants, found on English soil. Incorporating data for over five hundred items, including recent metal-detector finds, it generates a new archaeological dataset for the study of the Danelaw. The thesis describes these objects and explores a number of themes related to their contemporary use, including their date, distribution and function in costume. It argues that Scandinavian and Anglo-Scandinavian brooches elucidate cultural and gender identities in late ninth-and tenth-century England.

The first chapter places the current study in the context of previous research and identifies the scope and aims of the thesis. Chapter 2 describes the theoretical principles which underpin the interpretations made in later sections. The third chapter explains the methods by which material was assembled and critiques the sources of Scandinavian metalwork. Chapter 4 outlines a classification for Scandinavian and Anglo-Scandinavian brooches, based on a number of aesthetic principles.

Chapter 5 describes the Scandinavian origins and background of the brooch types represented in England and introduces their typologies. It acts as a key to Chapter 6, in which the evidence for brooches from England is presented. Subsequent chapters consider brooch function and gender attribution (Ch. 7), chronology (Ch. 8), and distribution and manufacture (Ch. 9). These themes are drawn together in Chapter 10, which offers an interpretation of the significance of Scandinavian and Anglo-Scandinavian metalwork. The conclusion outlines the contribution of this research and emphasises the value of brooches as a source of information for Scandinavian activity and influence.

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Volume extrait de la thèse/ book published:

Jane F. Kershaw, Viking Identities, Scandinavian Jewellery in England, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.

Résumé/Abstract :

Viking Identities is the first detailed archaeological study of Viking-Age Scandinavian-style female dress items from England. Based on primary archival and archaeological research, including the analysis of hundreds of recent metal-detector finds, it presents evidence for over 500 brooches and pendants worn by women in the late ninth and tenth centuries. Jane F. Kershaw argues that these finds add an entirely new dimension to the limited existing archaeological evidence for Scandinavian activity in the British Isles and make possible a substantial reassessment of the Viking settlements.

Kershaw offers an interpretation of the significance of the jewellery in a broader, historical context. The jewellery highlights locations of settlement not commonly associated with the Vikings. In contrast to claims of high levels of cultural assimilation, the jewellery suggests that incoming groups maintained a distinct Scandinavian identity which was sometimes appropriated by the indigenous population. Kershaw also addresses one of the great unanswered questions in the study of Viking-Age settlements: what about the women? The interpretation of the jewellery challenges traditional perceptions of Viking conquest as an all-male affair and brings into focus a population group which has, until now, been almost invisible. Kershaw describes the objects and explores a number of themes related to their contemporary use, including their date, distribution, and function in costume. This body of material – unknown 30 years ago – is introduced to a public audience for the first time. Including many object images and maps, the study provides a practical guide to the identification of Scandinavian metalwork.

Comptes rendus du livre tiré de la thèse/Reviews :

– Colleen Batey, Book reviewed : « Jane F. Kershaw, Viking Identities, Scandinavian Jewellery in England (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013) », Networks and Neighbours, vol. 2, no. 2, 2014, pp. 381-384.

– Victoria Whitworth, Book reviewed : « Jane F. Kershaw, Viking Identities, Scandinavian Jewellery in England (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013) », Early Medieval Europe, vol. 22, no. 3, 2014, pp. 376–378.

– Nancy L. Wicker, Book reviewed : « Jane F. Kershaw, Viking Identities, Scandinavian Jewellery in England (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013) », Cambridge Archaeological Journal, vol. 23, no. 03, 2013, pp. 561 – 562.

Jørgensen Roger, Production or trade? The supply of iron to North Norway during the Iron Age

Jørgensen Roger, Production or trade? The supply of iron to North Norway during the Iron Age, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (Université de Tromsø)

Résumé/absract :

Det er til nå funnet tre anlegg for produksjon av jern i Nord-Norge som er datert mellom 500 f.Kr. og 1200 e. Kr. Undersøkelser av anleggene på Flakstadvåg i Torsken k., på Hemmestad Nedre i Kvæfjord k. og på Rognlivatnet ved Misvær i Bodø k. dokumenterer at det har vært produsert jern i landsdelen helt fra jernalderens begynnelse. Anlegget på Hemmestad Nedre i Kvæfjorden er like gammelt som de eldste produksjonsanlegg som er funnet i Sør-Skandinavia og funnene viser at produksjonsteknologien var kjent i Nord-Norge omtrent på samme tidspunkt som de første jerngjenstandene ble tatt i bruk. Produksjon av jern fikk aldri noe større omfang i landsdelen noe som forklares ut fra samfunnets sosiale organisering. De nordnorske stormenn som gjennom jernalderen handlet med jernproduserende bosetninger i sør, hadde i Nord-Norge tilgang på varer som var ettertraktet både i Sør-Skandinavia og på kontinentet. Deres innflytelse og makt var til dels basert på handel med jern og de hadde ingen interesse i at det ble produsert jern lokalt. Dermed ble det ikke utviklet noen varige, teknologiske tradisjoner basert på lokal jernproduksjon før de statseide selskapene ble etablert tidlig på 1900-tallet.

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Malmros Rikke, Vikingernes syn på militær og samfund belyst gennem skjoldenes fyrstedigtning

Malmros Rikke, Vikingernes syn på militær og samfund belyst gennem skjoldenes fyrstedigtning, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (Université d’Aarhus)

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Johanna Katrin Friðriksdóttir, Women, bodies, words and power

Johanna Katrin Friðriksdóttir, Women, bodies, words and power : Women in old Norse literature, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. C. Larrington, Université d’Oxford)

Résumé/abstract :

My doctoral thesis (2010) analysed women and power in Old Norse literature. In medieval Icelandic secular prose, female characters function as literary vehicles to engage with some of the most contested values of the period, revealing the preoccupations, desires and anxieties of its authors and audiences; chief amongst these concerns women’s access to and employment of power, and men’s vulnerability. Old Norse sources offer their audiences many discrete and varied female images: women of various social and economic positions and racial origins. Many of them conflict with the stereotypes prevalent in past scholarly discourse which, mainly because of its often selective approach to the extant evidence, has largely failed to perceive the richness and heterogeneity of female images and the multiplicity of their meanings. In this thesis an extensive and diverse gallery of female images from a wide range of secular prose texts will be analysed, demonstrating how varied and complex these female literary characters can be, how they develop over time, and how different genres which existed side by side, as well as individual texts within genres, offer different perspectives on the same problems. Many of the female characters in Old Norse literature can be seen as surprisingly powerful, and the ways in which they gain agency, whether by speech or actions, will be mapped out. These strategies may or may not be socially sanctioned. The thesis explores the roles available to women, how they negotiate these roles within the restraints of patriarchy and when they are seen to transgress normative boundaries, often being depicted as monstrous in these circumstances. The picture which emerges is not a simple dichotomy; it allows for ambiguity and subversion in itself by arguing for the monstrous ‘Other’ as a category which represents human qualities that are rejected and abjected but can never be made to disappear. In short, the thesis deals with questions of female power and uncovers how the texts represent women as agents.

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Eriksen Stefka Gueorguieva, Writing and reading in medieval manuscript culture

Eriksen Stefka Gueorguieva, Writing and reading in medieval manuscript culture. The transmission of the story of Elye in Old French and Old Norse literary contexts, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. J. G. Jørgensen, Université d’Oslo)

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Goodrich Russell, Scandanavians and Settlement in the Eastern Irish Sea Region during the Viking Age

Goodrich Russell, Scandanavians and Settlement in the Eastern Irish Sea Region during the Viking Age, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. L. Huneycutt, Université du Missouri)

Résumé/abstract :

The Viking Age in England has long been a source of intellectual curiosity that has often been shrouded in obscurity. Although it is a known fact that the Viking Age (ca. 800-1100) included much activity in England, there is a great deal of debate concerning the nature of the interactions of the Scandinavians with the “native” Anglo-Saxons of England. In the northwest of England and southwest of Scotland is an area that is rich in Scandinavian artifacts and place-names, suggesting a substantial presence in the region. This is termed the Eastern Irish Sea Region, and it includes the more recent territorial designations of Cumberland, Westmorland and northern Lancashire in England, and the regions of Galloway and Dumfriesshire in Scotland, and the Isle of Man. This region make up a more or less uniform cultural area of the time period in question and is the focus of this study. It is almost certain that the region was small in importance compared to the larger and better known Scandinavian regions of York and Dublin, but it is nonetheless important, both as a transit point between them and as an economic producer in its own right. In addition to a considerable analysis of artifacts, the study incorporates a new element, namely the smelting and production of iron in the region, and particularly at the site of the Low Birker, Cumbria, where the author did some field research. Although the Low Birker Project has not been completed, it suggests a possible new chapter of Scandinavian inhabitation of the region, as well as a potential means of economic production.

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Goeres Erin Michelle, The King is dead, long live the King

Goeres Erin Michelle, The King is dead, long live the King : commemoration in skaldic verse of the Viking Age, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. H. O’Donoghue, Université d’Oxford)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examines the function of commemorative skaldic verse at the Viking-age court. The first chapter demonstrates that the commemoration of past kings could provide a prestigious genealogical record that was used to legitimize both pagan and early Christian rulers. In the ninth and early tenth centuries, poets crafted competing genealogies to assert the primacy of their patrons and of their patrons’ religions. The second chapter looks at the work of tenth-century poets who depict their rulers’ entrances into the afterlife. Such poets interrogate the role public speech and poetic discourse play in the commemoration of the king, especially during the political turmoil that follows his death. A discussion follows of the relationship between poets and their patrons in the tenth and eleventh centuries: although this relationship is often praised as one of mutual trust and reliance, the financial aspects of the relationship were often juxtaposed uneasily with expressions of emotional attachment. The death of the patron caused a crisis in these seemingly contradictory bonds between poet and patron. The final chapter demonstrates the dramatic development in the eleventh century of deeply emotional commemorative verse as poets become adopted into their patrons’ families through such Christian ceremonies as baptism and marriage. In these verses poets express their grief after the death of the king and record the performances of public mourning on the part of the kings’ followers. As the petty warlords of the Viking age adapted to medieval models of Christian kingship, the role of the skald changed too. Formerly serving as a propagandist and retainer in the king’s service, a skald documenting the lives of kings at the end of the Viking age could occupy an almost infinite number of roles, from kinsman and friend to advisor and hagiographer.

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Harlitz Erika, Urbana system och riksbildning i Skandinavien

Harlitz Erika, Urbana system och riksbildning i Skandinavien. En studie av Lödöses uppgång och fall ca 1050 – 1646  [Urban Systems and State Formation in Scandinavia: A Study of the Rise and Fall of the Town of Lödöse, c. 1050– 1646], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (Université de Göteborg)

Résumé/abstract :

The investigation and analysis of Lödöse’s political functions over a period of six hundred years has made it possible to follow and contextualize a town’s life cycle and development. Lödöse has been used as a case study which illuminates how and why a town emerged, developed and disappeared in medieval and early modern Scandinavia, in relation to the processes of state formation and urbanization. The theory applied is the Dynamic Urban Systems Theory. The position of a town within this theory is determined by the functions of the town, as well as the exclusivity of these functions. The influences of the Scandinavian state formation process on the town and the subsequent emergence of the river Göta Älv as the border of the realm have been ubiquitous during the evolution of Lödöse’s functions. The results of the dissertation have been reached by abandoning the interpretational framework offered by the borders of the Scandinavian national states and instead using the Glomma-Risveden region as a focal point. This way, it has been demonstrated that Lödöse was founded in the 11th century during the urbanization of the medieval eastern Norwegian region of Viken, and not as a power manifestation by the Swedish kings, as has been previously assumed. Due to the evolution of the border between the Norwegian and Swedish kingdoms, Lödöse in time became a part of the developing Swedish urban system. This system evolved and was shaped in such a way by the Swedish state that, by the early 17th century, Lödöse was rendered obsolete; therefore, the town ultimately lost its system position and was subsequently abandoned.

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Lamb Sally Elsie, Francia and Scandinavia in the early Viking Age, c.700-900

Lamb Sally Elsie, Francia and Scandinavia in the early Viking Age, c.700-900, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. R. D. McKitterick, Université de Cambridge)