Archives de catégorie : 2011

Auger Barbara, La représentation des bateaux en Europe entre le VIIIe et le XIIIe siècle

Auger Barbara, La représentation des bateaux en Europe entre le VIIIe et le XIIIe siècle, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. P. Walter, Université Stendhal-Grenoble 3)

Résumé/abstract :

L’étude de la représentation des bateaux en Europe du Nord-Ouest ne se limite pas à la seule question iconographique et pose pour l’objectif la compréhension de l’humain dans son acte représentatif. Aussi la problématique s’intéresse-t-elle à la modalité perceptive et sa mise en culture. Comprendre la représentation des bateaux durant le Moyen Age nord-européen s’attache ainsi à définir la verbalisation de l’objet technologique qu’est le navire, les modes de productions visuelles et les schémas mentaux qui lestent chacune des images tant mentales que visuelles d’un sens culturel. Il s’agit de donner une définition anthropologique de l’image du bateau restituée à son contexte de développement et d’ainsi rétablir l’intentionnalité créatrice de chacun des auteurs. Image d’un processus créatif en cours, le bateau mythologique pose donc les questions d’un comportement humain fondamental, aussi est-il important de baser cette analyse sur un questionnement épistémologique. Il s’agit de véritablement d’appréhender le mouvement créatif humain. Cette thèse est un bateau.

Ships representation in North-West Europe between the VIIIth and the XIIId century.
Studying the representation of ships in Nord-West Europe is not limited to the sole iconographic question, but aims to understand the human in its act of representation. To do so, this thesis asks the question of the human perception and its cultural result. In this perspective, a particular interest has been given to the words used by the populations to name the ship as a technological object, to the boat-shaped productions and images, and to the mental patterns behind each type of representation. In a nutshell, the thesis aims to give an anthropological definition of these particular images, by studying the production contexte and the author’s intentionality. Image of a creative process, the mythological ship asks the questions of a fondamental human behavior, which implies a deeper epistemological analysis. Questioning the image of a ship is questioning the creative movement. This thesis is a boat.

Thompson Thea Sophia, Tradition, audiences, and agents

Thompson Thea Sophia, Tradition, audiences, and agents : new approaches towards social interpretations of naturalistic human images from medieval Scandinavia, c. AD 500-1200, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. C. M. Hills, Université de Cambridge)

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=2&uin=uk.bl.ethos.609336]

Arboe Sonne Lasse, Vikingetidens Thor-Kult : Historiske Studier i Vikingetidens Religion

Arboe Sonne Lasse, Vikingetidens Thor-Kult : Historiske Studier i Vikingetidens Religion, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (Université de Copenhague)

Résumé/abstract :

Thor-kult i vikingetiden præsenterer den første, samlede kritiske gennemgang af kildematerialet til dyrkelsen af Thor i vikingetiden siden Henry Petersens disputats Om Nordboernes Gudedyrkelse og Gudetro i Hedenold fra 1876. Monografien gennemgår de samtidige skriftlige, arkæologiske og ikonografiske kilder, der omtaler eller kan knyttes til dyrkelsen af Thor. Kilderne omfatter myter om Thor, stednavne, hvor navnet Thor indgår, samt den norrøne middelalderlitteratur fra 1200- og 1300-tallet.

Lasse Sonne klarlægger de regionale forskelle i dyrkelsen af Thor og påviser, at entydige vidnesbyrd for dyrkelsen af Thor i Norden ikke foreligger før 900-tallet. På trods af den sene datering kan Thor-dyrkelsen imidlertid ikke sættes i relation til en reaktion imod den missionerende Kristendom. Det er et væsentligt resultat i monografien, at identifikationen af de arkæologiske miniaturehamre med Thors hammer, Mjølner, ikke længere kan opretholdes.Forfatterens konklusioner tydeliggør, at vikingetidens førkristne religion ikke var en fast, uforanderlig størrelse, men en religion, der ændrede sig løbende over tid og sted i de trehundrede år, som vikingetiden varede. Samtidig viser han, at ældre tolkninger af kildematerialet til vikingetidens religion, der gentages i håndbøgerne til perioden, ofte bygger på antagelser og præmisser, der ikke længere er holdbare. Bogen er således relevant for historiske, arkæologiske og religionshistoriske studier af vikingetidens religion.

Sigríður Beck, I kungens frånvaro

Sigríður Beck, I kungens frånvaro. Formeringen av en isländsk aristokrati 1271–1387, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. T. Lindkvist, Auður G. Magnúsdóttir, Jón Viðar Sigurðsson, Université d’Islande)

Résumé/abstract :

Icelandic society was transformed during the 13th century. There was no kingdom in Iceland until 1262/1264, when the Norwegian kingship annexed the country. Along with the kingship a new political system, with new rules and ways to acquire power, emerged. The purpose of this dissertation is to study how an Icelandic aristocracy developed in 1271–1387. This process is examined through four empirically generated themes: the new administration; the social structure of the aristocracy; the political culture; and the economic base. Mainly, the source material consists of Icelandic annals, diplomas and the Sagas of bishops: Árna saga Þorlákssonar and Lárentíus saga.
The Icelandic elite achieved a new power structure that derived from the kingship. The forming and consolidation of an aristocracy took place during the 14th century. Three phases have been identified. The first was a contingency phase, when the old elite adapted to the new system while new men were starting to enter. The second phase was a forming phase. This lasted the entire century. The closure of the Icelandic aristocracy became more evident during the last decades of the 14th century. This closure was similar to what happened in the rest of Europe, where the aristocracy also was a mixture of an old elite and newcomers. Thus, the third phase was a stabilizing phase.
With a new way of legitimizing power society became more differentiated and hierarchical.
With staðamál the aristocracy’s traditional incomes ended since control over the local church institutions was partially lost to the diocese. Acquiring wealth through property and/or fishing replaced earlier systems. During the 13th century the tenant system (leiglendingssystem) developed and fish became increasingly important as a product for export. Even though the sources are scarce, it is obvious that the aristocracy acquired more properties. The consequence was a larger differentiation in society, where wealth accumulated in the hands of a few.

Pierce Elizabeth A., Identity at the far edge of the earth

Pierce Elizabeth A., Identity at the far edge of the earth : an examination of cultural identity manifested in the material culture of the North Atlantic, c. 1150-1450, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. C. E. Batey, Université de Glasgow)

Résumé/abstract :
Beginning in the late eighth century A.D., the Vikings of Scandinavia expanded westward, first to raid and later to settle and trade. By the 11th century, they inhabited territory extending into the North Atlantic, including the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland. These settlements were by no means monocultural and were located hundreds of miles away from the population centres of medieval Europe. In time, this distance and the relative isolation of the region contributed to the development of new cultural identities of the inhabitants. Unfortunately, the Middle Ages have not received as much attention as the Viking Age in the North Atlantic, and little has been written about identity in the North Atlantic aside from the underlying assumption that the people were Norwegian prior to forming their own local identities. This thesis aims to examine these identities over the entire North Atlantic region by studying the relationships between the island groups and questioning how the inhabitants used material culture to interact within a larger European, Christian milieu. Focussing on the period c. 1150-1450, this thesis approaches the cultural identity of these societies by evaluating the material culture and practices of the inhabitants using theoretical frameworks in identity, material culture, and island archaeology that have rarely, if ever, been applied in the medieval North Atlantic. Because of the wide geographical scope of this study, three case studies of artefact assemblages will be used: one each in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland. These assemblages will be analysed both for the style and form of the objects and for the domestic and overseas contacts they represent, using the British Isles and Norway as starting points because of their known contacts with the North Atlantic. Material culture can be manipulated in order to create identities that give the user certain social, political or economic advantages. Understanding the material choices made in the North Atlantic, such as church architecture, clothing, table wares and dress accessories, can help us to understand the identities these people sought to portray. Further, using the abovementioned theoretical approaches, this thesis attempts to understand why certain material choices were made and what advantages those people hoped to gain by using that material culture. It is hoped that this thesis will help to illustrate the role that material culture played in cultural identity of the North Atlantic settlements in the Middle Ages, and to promote further discussion of identity in the North Atlantic on a regional level in this period.

Marti Suzanne, An Analysis of the Old Norse and Middle English Translations of Le Conte Du Graal

Marti Suzanne, An Analysis of the Old Norse and Middle English Translations of Le Conte Du Graal, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. K. G. A. Johansson, Université d’Oslo)

Résumé/abstract :

Håkon Håkonsson fikk oversatt franske ridderromaner for å spre høviskhet til det norske hoffet på 1200-tallet. Med ridderne i litteraturen som forbilde, skulle Håkons følgesmenn lære å oppføre seg korrekt, for eksempel overfor kvinner og i duellsituasjoner. Dette viser Suzanne Marti i sin avhandling om Parcevals saga, den norrøne oversettelsen av den gammelfranske romanen Le Conte du Graal.

Hennes analyse av referanser til kongemakt, ridderskap og religion avslører at den franske originalen ble oversatt til norrønt på en systematisk måte. Gjentatte endringer i oversettelsen fører til at kong Arthur og hans hoff er fremstilt mer positivt i den norrøne versjonen. Ferdighetene og prestasjonene til ridderen Parceval, og til og med hans motstandere, er dessuten lagt større vekt på enn i den franske originalen.

Dette tyder på at Håkon Håkonsson hadde en bevisst hensikt da han beordret oversettelsen av slik høvisk litteratur. Ridderromanene skulle ikke bare skape underholdning for hoffet, men også undervise i ridderlighet og sømmelig oppførsel. Sist men ikke minst kan vi se importen av fransk ridderlitteratur som en del av Håkons generelle ønske om å etterligne andre europeiske hoff. Med den nye litteraturen kunne han markedsføre høviske idealer og føydale strukturer, og dermed styrke sin egen maktposisjon.

Males Mikael, Mytologi i skaldedikt, skaldedikt i prosa

Males Mikael, Mytologi i skaldedikt, skaldedikt i prosa. En synkron analys av mytologiska referenser i medeltida norröna handskrifter, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. K. G. Johansson, Université d’Oslo)

Résumé/abstract :

I den populära föreställningen härskar Tor och Oden i Asgård, föremål för nordbornas dyrkan före kristendomens ankomst. Kanske har det en gång varit så, men det vet vi inte mycket om. Denna bild av hedendomen konstruerades under medeltiden och fortsätter att prägla vår förståelse av den norröna mytologin. I sin avhandling ger Mikael Males ett annat perspektiv.

Males studerar hur mytologin användes i den norröna skaldediktningen vid tiden för dess nedskrivande, på 1200- och 1300-talet. Till skillnad från de flesta ser han ingen motsättning mellan mytologin och kristendomen. Det fanns flera skäl för de kristna skrivarna att använda sig av mytologin, som på så sätt fortlevde och inlemmades i den kristna litteraturen. Hedendomen kunde anpassas för att likna kristendomen, för att visa Guds hand i världshistorien. Den kunde skildras som satanisk, men också neutralt och rentav positivt, till och med i mötet med kristendomen. Bruket av mytologi kunde också vara en fråga om stil. I skaldedikt hörde mytologiska inslag till den höga stilen, och de är därför vanliga även i lovdikter till Kristus och helgon.

Vi har inga nordiska texter från förkristen tid som handlar om de norröna gudarna. Först när den lärda skriftkulturen etablerades skrevs dikter och berättelser om dem ned. Modellen var Gamla Testamentet, förhistorien till det Nya Testamentets sanning. Föreställningen om en motsättning mellan norrön mytologi och kristendom är modern; medeltidens kristendom absorberade och anpassade främmande element efter sina behov.

Løkka Nanna, Steder og landskap i norrøn mytologi

Løkka Nanna, Steder og landskap i norrøn mytologi – En analyse av topografi og kosmologi i gudediktene av den eldre Edda, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. G. Steinsland, Université d’Oslo)

Résumé/abstract :

I avhandlingen Steder og landskap i norrøn mytologi ‒ en analyse av topografi og kosmologi i gudediktene av Den eldre Edda har Nanna Løkka undersøkt steder og landskap i den norrøne mytologien. Gjennom en systematisk undersøkelse av de mytologiske stedene har Løkka vist at disse utgjør meningsbærende størrelser som kan brukes i forståelsen av den førkristne mytologien. Blant annet viser studien at det er tingplassen som er det viktigste stedet i Åsgård, men gudeheimen kjennetegnes også av andre steder av samfunnsmessig, institusjonell karakter. Jotunheimene derimot mangler slike sosiale steder. Dermed synes skillet mellom det kollektive og det individuelle å være en av de viktigste forskjellene mellom de to heimene.

Undersøkelsen gir ny innsikt i det norrøne verdensbildet, for studien viser at dette hadde en monistisk karakter, i motsetning til en dualistisk. Det betyr at mytologiens omfattende beskjeftigelse med guder og jotner springer ut av en kosmologi, en verdenslære, der begge disse slektene var av avgjørende betydning. Jotnene bør ikke reduseres til onde eller dumme motstandere for gudene ‒ også jotnene har klare funksjoner i opprettholdelsen av verden. Åsgård og jotunheimene eksisterer i kraft av hverandre.

I forskningen på norrøn mytologi er eddadiktenes opphav et viktig spørsmål. Løkkas undersøkelse viser også at diktene er formet over kosmologiske prinsipper som ikke hører hjemme i en kristen mentalitet, dermed styrkes hypotesen om at eddadiktene er formet over et førkristent tradisjonsmateriale.

Lansing Tereza, Post-medieval production, dissemination and reception of Hrólfs saga kraka

Lansing Tereza, Post-medieval production, dissemination and reception of Hrólfs saga kraka, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (Université de Copenhague)

Kleivane Elise, Reproduksjon av norrøne tekstar i seinmellomalderen

Kleivane Elise, Reproduksjon av norrøne tekstar i seinmellomalderen. Variasjon i « Eiríks saga Viðfǫrla », Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. J. G. Jørgensen, K.-J. Berge, Université d’Oslo)

Résumé/abstract :

I mellomalderen «eigde» ein forfattar ikkje det han skreiv på same måte som han gjer i dag. Når nokon kopierte ein tekst, var det ikkje eit ideal at kopien skulle vere heilt identisk med førelegget. Derimot var det eit ideal at kopien skulle vere ein betre versjon.

I avhandlinga Reproduksjon av norrøne tekstar i seinmellomalderen viser Elise Kleivane korleis skrivarane endra teksten når dei kopierte han. Ho viser òg fleire døme på kva dei gjorde for å tilpasse ein tekst til ein ny samanheng. Resultata viser at dei endra på ord og på stilen, men at innhaldet for det meste blei verande det same. Men små endringar kan likevel få store konsekvensar, og blant anna føre til ideologisk vriding av ein tekst.

Avhandlinga viser korleis éin saga, Eiríks saga víðfǫrla (Sagaen om Eirik den vidfarne), både kunne vere ei spennande forteljing om framande og eksotiske strøk, eit teologisk og kosmologisk lærdomsverk, og ei moralsk oppbyggjeleg forteljing.

Denne avhandlinga er eit lite bidrag til det store biletet av korleis tekstar blir kopierte og formidla vidare, i ulike delar av historia. Resultata er relevante for studium av korleis tekstar blei handsama i mellomalderen både i Norden og andre stader, men resultata viser òg parallellar til handsaming av tekstar i dag, i sær på internett.

Kjesrud Karoline, Lærdom og fornøyelse. Sagaer om helter på eventyr

Kjesrud Karoline, Lærdom og fornøyelse. Sagaer om helter på eventyr — et speilbilde av ideer og forestillinger fra senmiddelalderen på Island, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. T. Spurkland, Université d’Oslo)

Résumé/abstract :

De islandske riddersagaene var mer enn lettfordøyelig underholdning om bolde riddere og kjærlighet. I sin avhandling, Lærdom og fornøyelse, viser Kjesrud hvordan sagaene lærte leseren historie, geografi, naturvitenskap og religion.

Kjesrud har analysert det islandske manuskriptet Holm Perg 7 fol fra sent 1400-tall. Manuskriptet inneholder 11 fortellinger om europeiske helter og deres eventyrlige reiser over store geografiske områder.

I avhandlingen viser Kjesrud hvordan det er sammenheng mellom sagaenes narrative struktur og tekstens funksjon. En saga med enkel struktur har også en enkel funksjon. En saga med avansert struktur er spekket med lærdom.

Kjesrud viser hvordan sagaene gjenspeiler interesseområder som preget senmiddelaldersamfunnet på Island, og hvordan europeisk lærdomskultur gjennom sagaene ble gjort tilgjengelig i underholdende rammer.

Avhandlingen er del av forskningsprosjektet Translation, Transmission and Transformation. Old Norse Romantic Fiction and Scandinavian Vernacular Literacy 1200-1500.

Fishwick Stephanie Joanne, The representation of boundaries and borderlands in old English and old Norse literature

Fishwick Stephanie Joanne, The representation of boundaries and borderlands in old English and old Norse literature, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (Université d’Oxford)

Cöllen Sebastian, Der rätselhafte Gott

Cöllen Sebastian, Der rätselhafte Gott : Heimdallr im Licht altnordischer Vorstellungen von Ahnen und Ordnung, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. E. Hellman, T. Blomkvist, Université d’Uppsala)

Résumé/abstract :

This dissertation aims at a deeper understanding of the character of the Old West Norse god Heimdallr and of his function in the mythological traditions. The need for a new study of this god is indicated by the fact that the more than a century old description of him in the secondary literature as “the enigmatic god” is still standing. In contrast to much of the earlier research, the previous study attempts to examine the god primarily through the society in which the traditions pertaining to him were handed down. The category guiding the comparisons of the study is Heimdallr’s relatively early documented quality as an ancestor. The study shows that Heimdallr in pre-Christian time probably represented a more clearly definable and eminent figure than is often believed. In the traditions pertaining to him are, among other things, ideas on descent and order reflected.

Helmbrecht Michaela, Wirkmächtige Kommunikationsmedien

Helmbrecht Michaela, Wirkmächtige Kommunikationsmedien : Menschenbilder der Vendel- und Wikingerzeit und ihre Kontexte, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. B. Hårdh, Université de Lund)

Résumé/abstract :
This PhD thesis deals with anthropomorphic images from the Vendel and Viking Ages, their contexts and functions. The images are seen as means of communication with “effective power” or agency (« Wirkmächtigkeit »). They could have had a relationship of interaction or partial identity with what was represented, due to the fact that the Vendel and Viking Age societies were largely based on oral tradition. Using a semiotic approach, rules for the use of images can be deduced, and it can be differentiated between various levels of meanings. In a semiotic perspective, it is also the image-carrying object and the specific situation that contribute to the meanings of an image. The pictures are assigned to five groups: scenes, single figures, gestures and attributes, human-animal transformations, and heads/faces. These groups are subdivided into motif-groups and iconographic interpretations are discussed. Some important pictorial topics are journeys, battles, gender-specific actions, transformations between humans and animals, and binding. Only few motifs can be plausibly identified with narratives preserved in medieval texts. In the second part of the analysis, the image-carrying objects are discussed and compared with the written sources. The quantitatively largest groups are gold foil figures, components of clothing, and coins. Most motifs were used only on certain types of objects. Motifs and image carriers underwent changes during the Vendel and Viking Ages, especially in the decades before and around 800 A.D. Several motifs were transferred from the gold foil figures to pendants. Although the archaeological record and the information in the texts rarely correspond directly, the texts, too, contain distorted echoes of Vendel and Viking Age conceptions of the « Wirkmächtigkeit » of images, and their use in social strategies. Some situations of communication with and through pictures are discussed: the deposition of gold foil figures as an act of communication with “other worlds”; the material expression of gender identity in graves; the Gotlanders´ expression of their cultural identity and the role of anthropomorphic pictures at “central places”. The images were on the one hand media among the living, by conveying messages of wealth and visual complexity, which makes them active devices in social strategies. On the other hand, their Wirkmächtigkeit is also grounded in their artistic production, and in the relationship of mutual influence or partial identity of the image and the represented, so that the communication is also directed to “other worlds”.

Doolan J. C., « Geys morg heiti hafi pér gefit honum »

Doolan J. C., « Geys morg heiti hafi pér gefit honum » : the mutability of Óðinn as a literary device in Old Norse texts of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (Université de Cambridge)

Résumé/abstract :
This dissertation presents the thesis that the literary figure of Óðinn was an extremely useful artistic device for medieval Icelandic authors seeking to engage with their pagan heritage and to reconcile an interest in this cultural past with their own beliefs and experiences. An accurate definition of what constitutes the Odinic figure and its various uses is therefore highly valuable to a fuller understanding of the complex and dynamic relationship in Old Norse literature produced in the Christian present but reflecting on the pagan past. Part One examines source evidence for Óðinn, taking the numerous names for Óðinn as a method by which to categorise and understand him as a figure. These names are found overwhelmingly in Old Norse poetry and poetic treatises, providing information on the mythological attributes and guises of Óðinn. These sources (the poems of the Poetic Edda, Snorra Edda, including the additional pulur appended to Skáldskaparmál, and skaldic poems) comprise the most complete and earliest evidence of Old Norse mythology for modern scholars. Part One collates and analyses the names of Óðinn found in these sources to reach a definition of the ‘Odinic’ and its constituent parts which include: disguise; deception; moral and sexual ambiguity; and status as the father of gods and men, as patron of poetry and the giver of victory in battle. Part Two utilises the definitions as the basis of a comparative study into the manifestations of the Odinic figure found in Old Norse prose, in particular the narratives of Heimskringla and Flateyjarbók which each combine Old Norse myth, legend, and history in order to construct a chronological account of the Scandinavian peoples, encompassing and adapting the contradictory origin myths of the pagan and biblical traditions. Examination of the ways manuscript compilers use Óðinn for this purpose casts light on their world view and on Óðinn as means by which Icelandic Christian writers could explore and reconcile these seemingly disjunctive traditions in their literature.