Archives de catégorie : 2012

Turner Valerie Erica, Location, form and function in Shetland’s prehistoric field systems

Turner Valerie Erica, Location, form and function in Shetland’s prehistoric field systems, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. I. A. Simpson, S. Winterbottom, W. P. Adderley, Université de Stirling)

Résumé/abstract :
Shetland boasts exceptionally well-preserved, but largely overlooked, field systems spanning a period of approximately 4000 years (Neolithic/Bronze Age – Viking/Norse). These have the potential to vastly increase our understanding of past agricultural practices and life styles. This study uses topographical survey, Shape Analysis, GIS, soil survey and micromorphology to answer questions relating to their location, form and function/management, pioneering the use of new tools and testing current models. An holistic landscape approach to the field systems is developed and tested against a multi-period site. Previously unknown types and periods of field systems are identified through survey and shape analysis, tools demonstrated to be valuable in refining the emerging model of field classification. GIS has illuminated pre-, during and post- construction factors influencing boundary form. New insights into location arise from the survey and GIS. Soils work has demonstrated that existing models of soil management over-simplify a complex situation, that thin acidic soils retain cultural information and that accretion was important to the sustainability of these peaty soils. While soils were sustainable over extended periods, the cultural inheritance of managed land appears to be limited. This thesis therefore presents the most holistic and comprehensive understanding of Shetland field systems which has so far been attempted.

Telldahl Ylva, Working Animals and Skeletal Lesions

Telldahl Ylva, Working Animals and Skeletal Lesions : Paleopathology of Cattle and Horse in Iron Age and Medieval Öland, Sweden, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. J. Storå, Université de Stockholm)

Résumé/abstract :
Central to this thesis is the relationship between animal husbandry practices and the associated pathological conditions. Since bone elements from the extremities are subjected to abnormal load when animals are put to hard work this research aims to go further and interpret the prevalence of varying lesions and their connection with animal husbandry by using methods such as osteometric analysis, conventional radiograpic and bone mineral study, as well as incorporated molecular analysis.The results show that approximately 15% of the cattle extremities at Eketorp ringfort had some kind of skeletal lesion. Cattle metatarsals exhibited a higher frequency of lesions than metacarpals. Skeletal lesions connected to draught use were more frequently recorded on bone elements from male than from female cattle. The anterior phalanges 1-2 had a higher occurence of lesions than the posterior elements. In addition, there was a significant correlation between larger sized animals and lesions. Osteological measurements were also investigated using molecular sex identification. Several measurements in both fragmented and complete metapodials proved useful in separating cows from oxen or bulls.Conventional radiographics were used on cattle metapodials from Eketorp ringfort to investigate the age structure in slaughtered cattle over 3 years of age. In phase III more male cattle were slaughtered before 8 years of age which could reflect the character of the site. The bone density analysis showed that modern cattle metapodials had higher values than the archaeological specimens which made intepretation of post-depositional changes problematic. The molecular analysis did not show any selected breed or specific type of animal. All but two of the Eketorp cattle belonged to haplogroup Y2 which is common in Southern Europe. The Y1 haplogroup (one in phase II and one in phase III) is common in Western and Northern Europe. The results point to that the Ölandic cattle population was homogeneous over time. The results from thirty-four bone elements show that twenty-five bones belonged to animals with red or light coat coloration and nine of uncertain, possibly partly black colour.

Marani Tommaso, Leiðarvísir : its genre and sources with particular reference to the description of Rome

Marani Tommaso, Leiðarvísir : its genre and sources with particular reference to the description of Rome, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (Université de Durham)

Résumé/abstract :
This thesis examines Leiðarvísir, a medieval itinerary from Iceland to the Holy Land. The itinerary indicates stops and distances, but is also rich in significant information on the places along the route. Leiðarvísir has been attributed to the twelfth-century Abbot Nikulás of the Benedictine abbey of Munkaþverá in Iceland and the text has been considered to be a travel account based on the direct experiences gained by the abbot during a journey. An analysis, however, of all the datable termini present in the itinerary demonstrates that the attribution of the whole itinerary to Nikulás cannot be maintained. Having taken into consideration the most relevant criteria and definitions required to categorise a text as ‘travel writing’ and as a ‘travel account’, this thesis will then show that Leiðarvísir does not share any of the distinguishing genre features typical of a travel account, and that it should rather be classified as an impersonal guide. Finally, the thesis focuses on the description of Rome in Leiðarvísir, putting it in the context of other medieval descriptions of Rome. Not only does this contextualization make evident that the description of Rome is largely based on written sources, but it also proves that some of its details are incompatible with a twelfth-century dating and with its attribution to Nikulás. It emerges that Leiðarvísir is a work composed by an erudite scholar using written sources, and that it was probably successively enriched and updated with relevant information by one or more later scribes.

Love Jeffrey Scott, The reception of Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks from the Middle Ages to the seventeenth century

Love Jeffrey Scott, The reception of Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks from the Middle Ages to the seventeenth century, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (Université de Cambridge)

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=4&uin=uk.bl.ethos.610566]

Lodén Sofia, Le chevalier courtois à la rencontre de la Suède médiévale

Lodén Sofia, Le chevalier courtois à la rencontre de la Suède médiévale, Du Chevalier au lion à Herr Ivan, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. A. Bengtsson, M. Gally, P. Förnegård, Université de Stockholm)

Résumé/abstract :
This dissertation investigates the links between Chrétien de Troyes’ romance Le Chevalier au lion from the late twelfth century and the Old Swedish text Herr Ivan, written at the behest of Queen Eufemia of Norway at the beginning of the fourteenth century. The study has two parts. The first sets out to determine the sources of the Swedish text: Was Le Chevalier au lion really the source text of Herr Ivan? The second part raises the question of what happened to the courtly ideals that characterize the French romance when they were transferred into Swedish.The analysis of the question concerning the sources of Herr Ivan confirms that Le Chevalier au lion was the translator’s main source, while the Old Norse version Ívens saga, from the middle of the thirteenth century, was used as a secondary source. The relationship between Le Chevalier au lion, Ívens saga and Herr Ivan is examined through a comparison of the three texts: the choice of verse or prose, the role of prologues and epilogues, and the use of the voice of a narrator and of direct and indirect discourse. Four specific passages are compared at a micro-level.By comparing Herr Ivan to its sources, it becomes clear that the Swedish translator wanted to stress certain courtly ideals by presenting a distinct and coherent interpretation of what Chrétien de Troyes refers to as courtoisie. This indicates that the function of the text was to present a set of ideological and aesthetic values. The analysis of the transmission of courtly ideals takes its point of departure in the uses of the French word courtois and the Swedish equivalent hövisker. As a next step, three elements intimately linked to courtliness are examined: aventure, gaieté and honneur. Also the different roles played by the lion are highlighted. Finally, it is shown how the courtly ideals of Herr Ivan can be read in the light of the other Old Swedish texts written at the behest of Queen Eufemia: Hertig Fredrik av Normandie and Flores och Blanzeflor.

Fujimoto Tamiko, Recherche sur l’écrit documentaire au Moyen Âge

Fujimoto Tamiko, Recherche sur l’écrit documentaire au Moyen Âge : le
cartulaire de l’abbaye Saint-Étienne de Caen
, Thèse de doctorat soutenue le 21 décembre 2012, (dir. V. Gazeau, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie)

Compte rendu par Grégory Combalbert (24/01/2013) sur le forum de Tabularia

Le vendredi 21 décembre 2012, à l’Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Tamiko Fujimoto a soutenu sa thèse de doctorat intitulée « Recherche sur l’écrit documentaire au Moyen Âge. Édition et commentaire du cartulaire de l’abbaye Saint-Étienne de Caen (XIIe siècle) », devant un jury composé de Pierre Bauduin, professeur d’histoire médiévale à l’Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, président du jury ; Laurent Morelle, directeur d’études à l’École Pratique des Hautes Études, rapporteur ; Benoît-Michel Tock, professeur d’histoire médiévale à l’Université de Strasbourg, rapporteur ; David Bates, professorial fellow, University of East-Anglia et Véronique Gazeau, professeur d’histoire médiévale à l’Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, directrice de la thèse.

Continuer la lecture de Fujimoto Tamiko, Recherche sur l’écrit documentaire au Moyen Âge