Archives de catégorie : 2013

Bäckvall Maja, Skriva fel och läsa rätt?

Bäckvall Maja, Skriva fel och läsa rätt? Eddiska dikter i Uppsalaeddan ur ett avsändar- och mottagarperspektiv, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. H. Williams, Heimir Pálsson, P. Henrikson, Université d’Uppsala)

Résumé/abstract :
This dissertation focuses on the eddic poetry in the Codex Upsaliensis DG 11 4to, the Uppsala Edda. The manuscript has long been considered too far removed from the assumed original of the text to be of much use to editors, with the result that it was largely neglected by philologists during the last century. The eddic poetry in DG 11 differs in many instances from the other main manuscripts, and this study aims to examine these variants from the point of view of the 14th century scribe and reader of the manuscript. The dissertation’s framework comes close to what is known as New or Material Philology, but since the focus is more on the abstract than the material sides of the manuscript, the study’s theoretical framework is tentatively called descriptive reception philology.In all, 57 stanzas of eddic poetry are examined. The study does not include variation in names or metrics other than alliteration, which means that 10 stanzas consisting almost entirely of names have been excluded. The remaining 57 stanzas contain 137 variants that DG 11 shares with half or fewer of the other manuscripts. These variants are analysed with the aim of deciding whether they were consciously written by the scribe and to what extent the reader could have understood them. Consciously produced variants are said to belong to the sender witness, and if they were probably understood, they are also placed in the receiver witness. Variants not immediately understood by the readers are called incongruities and need to be reinterpreted in order to become part of the receiver witness. If they cannot be interpreted, they are categorised as actual errors.The analysis shows that the vast majority of deviating variants belong to both the sender and receiver witnesses. There are also indications that the eddic poetry was in part quoted from a different exemplar than the prose, an exemplar containing versions of the poems not otherwise known today. Rather than being regarded as confused and incomprehensible, DG 11’s eddic poetry was accepted as the version known by the manuscript’s contemporary users.

Traill Vanessa, The social and political networks of the Anglo-Norman aristocracy

Traill Vanessa, The social and political networks of the Anglo-Norman aristocracy: the Clare, Giffard & Tosny kin-groups, c.940 to c.1200, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. S. Marritt, University of Glasgow)

Over the last twenty years, the analysis of social networks has become an increasingly significant tool for sociologists, anthropologists and historians alike. Network analysis has not yet, however, been adopted extensively by historians of ducal Normandy or the Anglo-Norman realm. Although there has been some useful work on specific families or political groups, these have tended to artificially isolate networks from one another and from their broader social milieux. It has become clear that these problems can only be addressed by both inter and intra network analysis over a broader time frame, and that those networks themselves must also be conceived in broad terms. This thesis therefore considers three aristocratic kin-groups of significant contemporary and subsequent importance; the Clares, Giffards, and Tosnys, and includes both their cadet branches and their in-laws. All three groups are examined in terms of their kinship structures, their roles as lords and vassals, and their relationships to the church. While much of the material is Anglo-Norman, the chronological range extends from c.940 to c.1200. The aim has been to produce a fuller picture of how all three great family enterprises were constituted, developed, interacted with one another and were embedded within society, and to acknowledge that no man, and indeed, no kin-group, is an island entire of itself.

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Winkler Emily, Royal responsibility in post-conquest invasion narratives

Winkler Emily, Royal responsibility in post-conquest invasion narratives, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. L. Ashe, C. Wickham, University of Oxford)

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

Rivchak Kirill, The Anglo-Danish elite in the power structure of early medieval England (1016-1066)

Rivchak Kirill, Англо-датская правящая элита в структуре власти раннесредневековой Англии (1016–1066 гг.) [The Anglo-Danish elite in the power structure of early medieval England (1016-1066)], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. N. I. Basovskaya, Université d’État des sciences humaines de Russie)

Mooney Dawn Elise, The use and control of wood resources in Viking Age and medieval Iceland

Mooney Dawn Elise, The use and control of wood resources in Viking Age and medieval Iceland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. K. Milek, A. Cameron, Université d’Aberdeen)

Résumé/abstract :
This project investigates the use of wood in Iceland during the Viking and Early Medieval Periods, and discusses the control and management of wood resources and their variation over space and time. Previous palaeoenvironmental studies and historical sources had suggested that after the colonisation of Iceland around AD 870, the Norse settlers cleared the native Icelandic birch woodland to make way for hay fields, and used the timber for fuel and construction, rapidly reducing the woodland cover from its original 18-40% to the 1% present today. This investigation, which compares archaeological evidence to information about wood resources given in historical sources, reassesses these traditional models and interprets the decline of Icelandic woodland in relation to the utilisation and control of wood resources on the island, to understand the relationships between sites in terms of wood procurement, control and sharing. Wood anatomical analysis is used to assign taxonomic identifications to wooden artefacts and charred and mineralised wood remains from ten study sites across Iceland, allowing the origin of these assemblages to be identified as native wood, driftwood or imported wood. Understanding the distribution of non-native woods is essential to the understanding of how wood resources were shared and controlled on the island. The results show that despite the decline of the native woodlands, wood continued to be used as fuel and in artefact production and the construction of buildings and boats throughout the Medieval Period, and that the control of access to these resources was key to their continued availability. This project integrates for the first time archaeological, environmental and historical evidence, resulting in a holistic view of wood use during Viking Age and Medieval Iceland, and provides an important contribution to the understanding of natural resource use and human-environment interactions in the North Atlantic region.

Raffield Ben, Landscapes of conflict and control

Raffield Ben, Landscapes of conflict and control : creating an archaeological atlas of Scandinavian occupied England, AD 878-954, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. N. Price, G. Noble, Université d’Aberdeen)

Résumé/abstract :
This study re-analyses and re-interprets the Scandinavian occupation of England during the period AD 878-954, which has hitherto been dominated by traditional interpretations based on partial and at times unreliable historical sources. Interpretations of the area commonly referred to as the ‘Danelaw’ largely focus on the role of the City of York and the ‘Five Boroughs’ of Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham and Stamford. The reliance on inevitably sparse Anglo-Saxon texts, whilst providing a chronological framework within which to work, has “streamlined” history, producing only a partial picture of the period. Many aspects of this traditional history have been challenged in recent years. Indeed, even terminology traditionally used, such as the word ‘Danelaw’, has been subject to investigation and revision. Our archaeological knowledge, however, has not always been applied to these advances and a number of long-established interpretational models and frameworks remain unmodified or unchallenged. This project addresses the Scandinavian occupation through the study of conflict, warfare and power in Viking Age England. A wide range of data was studied, with the integration of this into GIS allowing evidence to not only be analysed within individual topographic contexts, but also on a landscape-wide scale. The study not only provides a re-analysis of the Viking Age English landscape, but highlights new and exciting bodies of evidence from which future research may derive. The data revealed that whilst some aspects of conflict, such as battle, are thus far not represented archaeologically, territorial consolidation, socio-political and religious changes within a context of endemic warfare can be identified. The study suggests a number of potential avenues of research through which our knowledge of the Viking Age might be augmented.

Pins Cyril (de), Hending ok kenning. Les théories linguistiques dans l’Islande médiévale (XIIe-XIVe. s.)

Pins Cyril (de), Hending ok kenning. Les théories linguistiques dans l’Islande médiévale (XIIe-XIVe. s.) – Lecture du cortex Wormianus, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. I. Rosier-Catach, Université Paris Diderot)

Résumé/abstract :
Cette thèse examine les traités contenus dans le Codex Wormianus (vers 1350), la plus importante collection de textes linguistiques en norrois, afin d’étudier les théories linguistiques entre le Xlle et le XIVe siècle, en Islande. Le manuscrit contient l’Edda de Snorri Sturluson (déb. Xllle), un traité poétique en quatre parties traitant de mythologie, de métrique et de la kenning. Quatre traités grammaticaux (Xlle-XIVe) traitent d’écriture, de poésie et de figures. Nous montrons que le norrois devint pour lui-même objet d’analyse à partir de deux questions, celle de l’enseignement et de la conservation de l’art poétique scaldique d’une part, et celle de l’écriture d’autre part. Ces deux questions furent introduites dans l’île après la christianisation, avec l’arrivée de la technique manuscrite et des textes latins. L’altérité du latin offrit l’occasion au norrois de réfléchir sur lui-même, avec originalité d’abord, dans le Premier Traité Grammatical et l’Edda. Mais la confrontation avec le latin fit tomber le norrois sous l’influence du latin et de ses concepts : les derniers textes de la période, le Troisième Traité Grammatical en partie, et surtout le Quatrième Traité Grammatical se donnent à lire comme des traductions-adaptations de Donat, Priscien, Evrard de Béthune et Alexandre de Villedieu, et de leurs gloses. La poésie cessa d’être le point de départ de l’analyse, les scaldes les autorités linguistiques, au profit du clerc latinisant. Ces théories apparaissent comme une tentative de conserver vivants les sons et la tradition poétique du norrois, avant une soumission savante au latin, et demeurent notre seul témoin de la phonétique et de la poétique norroises.

Adolf Friðriksson, La place du mort. Les tombes vikings dans le paysage culturel islandais

Adolf Friðriksson, La place du mort. Les tombes vikings dans le paysage culturel islandais, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. J.-M. Maillefer, Université Paris IV-Sorbonne)

Résumé/abstract :

La place du mort est une étude topographique des sépultures païennes de l’âge de fer en Islande. Le but de ce travail est d’étudier la localisation des tombes et d’en déterminer le sens. Les résultats se fondent sur une révision critique de toutes les données disponibles en matière de site funéraire en Islande, et sur la fouille de chaque sépulture répertoriée. Les données obtenues permettent l’élaboration d’un modèle de localisation des tombes qui les situe a) loin des fermes, mais près des frontières et des routes, b) à proximité des fermes et à une courte distance de leur zone d’activité principale et c) au carrefour entre la route principale et l’allée menant au corps de ferme. Ces résultats ont été testés et confirmés par d’autres explorations de terrain et des fouilles récentes. La comparaison des tombes situées en a) et en b) met en évidence une différence intéressante : près des fermes, les tombes sont souvent orientées nord-sud, les sépultures sont en petit nombre et d’une variété limitée, et la population des défunts est majoritairement constituée d’hommes adultes ou âgés. Les tombes éloignées des fermes quant à elles sont le plus souvent orientées est-ouest, présentent une variété plus importante de biens funéraires, et contiennent des hommes et des femmes de tous âges. Les spécificités topographiques sont interprétées comme reflétant les différentes étapes du processus de la colonisation humaine de l’Islande, qui a eu lieu à la fin du IXe siècle : au stade initial, les sépultures sont placées près de l‘unique endroit important aux yeux des premiers colons : leur habitation. Puis la croissance de l’immigration entraîne de nouvelles règles, dont l’élaboration de frontières entre les propriétés agricoles, frontières signifiées entre autres par les cimetières qui y sont établis. Vers la fin de la colonisation, les démarcations sont nettes et convenues. Les frontières sont désinvesties et les lieux d’importance sont alors déplacés aux carrefours entre route principale et allée conduisant au nouveaux corps de ferme construits au sein d’établissements prééxistants.

La place du mort is a topographical study of pagan burials from the late Iron Age in Iceland. The aim of this work is to investigate where burials are located, and explain the reason behind the choice of place. The results are based on a critical revision of all available data on known burial sites in Iceland, and a survey of each site in the field. The main results are presented as a model of burial location, which shows that graves were placed either a) away from farmhouses, on boundaries and by roads, or b) close to farms, and a short distance outside the main activity area of the farm, or c) at the crossroads between the main road and the home lane leading to the farm. These results were tested – and confirmed – by further field survey and excavation. When the details of each grave at the two extreme locations were compared, and interesting difference became apparent: At locations near farms, the graves are frequently orientated N-S, the grave-goods are in small numbers and of a limited variety, and the population are predominantly adult or old men. The graves far away from the farm, are most often oriented E-W, there is a greater number and a greater variety of gravegoods, and there are male and female graves of people of all ages.The differences between locations are explained as different stages of the process of the human colonisation of Iceland which occurred in the late 9th century : at the initial stage, burials were located near to the only significant place of the first settlers, the habitation. With growing immigration, people establish boundaries between farms by placing cemeteries there. Towards the end of the colonisation, where boundaries have been agreed upon, the most significant location shifts again, from boundaries, to the junction between the main road and the home track, leading to the farm which has been located between two already established settlements.

Thilderkvist Johan Gustaf Mattias, Ritual bones or common waste

Thilderkvist Johan Gustaf Mattias, Ritual bones or common waste : a study of early medieval bone deposits in Northern Europe, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (Université de Groningen)

Résumé/abstract :
The aim of the thesis is to test different methods in order to formulate a methodological framework for approaching the identification of ritual deposits of animal bones in settlements. For this purpose four Early Medieval case study-sites were chosen: Dongjum and Leeuwarden, two artificial dwelling mounds situated in the then undiked salt marches of the Northern Netherlands, Midlaren, an inland settlement in Drenthe, and finally Uppåkra, a central place in the south of Sweden. The bone fragments from the four materials were analysed in a five step process that included the steps definition, description, identification, interpretation and explanation. In the 4 materials 20 deposits were identified as special and of these 17 were interpreted as ritual. These deposits were discussed and explained further with the help of various archaeological, ethnographic and historical sources. Despite the fact that a number of methods were applied for identifying special deposits among bone materials and the main conclusion is that no single, or even a set of methods stood out as a flawless tool for identifying ritual deposits. The results of the analysis instead lead to a methodological framework for understanding individual deposits based on a holistic perspective where all information should be regarded as potentially valuable. This does not imply that the researcher should get bogged down in incredibly detailed studies. Rather it suggests openness in the approach, to take various methods into consideration and to avoid simplification.

Stern Marjolein, Runestone images and visual communication in Viking Age Scandinavia

Stern Marjolein, Runestone images and visual communication in Viking Age Scandinavia, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. J. Jais, C. Lee, Université de Nottingham)

Résumé/abstract :
The aim of this thesis is the visual analysis of the corpus of Viking Age Scandinavian memorial stones that are decorated with figural images. The thesis presents an overview of the different kinds of images and their interpretations. The analysis of the visual relationships between the images, ornamentation, crosses, and runic inscriptions identifies some tendencies in the visual hierarchy between these different design elements. The contents of the inscriptions on runestones with images are also analysed in relation to the type of image and compared to runestone inscriptions in general. The main outcome of this analysis is that there is a correlation between the occurrence of optional elements in the inscription and figural images in the decoration, but that only rarely is a particular type of image connected to specific inscription elements.

Parker Eleanor Catherine, Anglo-Scandinavian literature and the post-conquest period

Parker Eleanor Catherine, Anglo-Scandinavian literature and the post-conquest period, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. H. O’Donoghue, Université d’Oxford)

Résumé/abstract :
This thesis concerns narratives about Anglo-Scandinavian contact and literary traditions of Scandinavian origin which circulated in England in the post-conquest period. The argument of the thesis is that in the eleventh century, particularly during the reign of Cnut and his sons, literature was produced for a mixed Anglo-Danish audience which drew on shared cultural traditions, and that some elements of this largely oral literature can be traced in later English sources.  It is further argued that in certain parts of England, especially the East Midlands, an interest in Anglo-Scandinavian history continued for several centuries after the Viking Age and was manifested in the circulation of literary narratives dealing with Anglo-Scandinavian interaction, invasion and settlement.  The first chapter discusses some narratives about the reign of Cnut in later sources, including the Encomium Emmae Reginae, hagiographical texts by Goscelin and Osbern of Canterbury, and the Liber Eliensis; it is argued that they share certain thematic concerns with the literature known to have been produced at Cnut’s court.  The second chapter explores the literary reputation of the Danish Earl of Northumbria, Siward, and his son Waltheof in twelfth-century sources from the East Midlands and in thirteenth-century Norwegian and Icelandic histories.  The third chapter deals with an episode in the Middle English romance Guy of Warwick in which the hero helps to defeat a Danish invasion of England, and examines the romance’s references to a historical Danish right to rule in England.  The final chapter discusses the Middle English romance Havelok the Dane, and argues that the poet of Havelok, aware of the role of Danish settlement in the history of Lincolnshire, makes self-conscious use of stereotypes and literary tropes associated with Danes in order to offer an imaginative reconstruction of the history of Danish settlement in the area.

Vidal Teva, Houses and domestic life in the Viking Age and medieval period

Vidal Teva, Houses and domestic life in the Viking Age and medieval period : material perspectives from sagas and archaeology, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. J. Jesch, C. Lee, Université de Nottingham)

Résumé/abstract :
This thesis examines the representations of houses as physical structures in the Íslendingasögur with specific emphasis on the material aspect of housing culture in the Viking Age and medieval period, as well as the interactions between material culture and text. The Íslendingasögur were written in Iceland as of the thirteenth century, but look back onto the Viking Age (c. 800-1100 AD). Comparison with the archaeology of domestic space reveals that the house in the Íslendingasögur generally corresponds with medieval housing models, contemporary with the period of saga writing. However, there are also examples of structures which correspond to the models of the Viking Age. Descriptions of antiquated buildings are sometimes framed in statements that make explicit reference to the chronological separation between the Viking Age and the writer’s present time, suggesting a familiarity with the evolution of housing culture. Detailed analysis of buildings in the sagas reveals domestic space in its context of use, and demonstrates how the physical nature of the house and farm framed the productive and social activities that went on within. The materiality of domestic life has particular importance for the dispensing of hospitality. Demonstrations of domestic space in use also allow for a better understanding of the relationship between objects and language, and elucidate some difficulties in translation and academic usage both in archaeology and literary studies. Material culture can itself influence the processes of composition in oral/written narratives such as the sagas, by inspiring the formation of narrative episodes. The built environment can also provide a contextual framing for narratives, acting as a mnemonic device facilitating the preservation and transmission of saga narratives.

Ledger Paul M., Norse landnám and its impact on the vegetation of Vatnahverfi, Eastern Settlement, Greenland,

Ledger Paul M., Norse landnám and its impact on the vegetation of Vatnahverfi, Eastern Settlement, Greenland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (Université d’Aberdeen)

Résumé/abstract :

Norse landnám (initial settlement) in Greenland is dated to AD 985 and witnessed the introduction of pastoral farming to a landscape where people using settled agricultural systems had hitherto been absent. The Norse colony was centred on two locations: the Western (c. 64°N) and Eastern Settlements (c. 61°N), which historical, palaeoecological and archaeological data suggest were abandoned by the mid-14th and 15th centuries respectively. Vatnahverfi is an inland district of the Eastern Settlement that has been described as a rich, bountiful landscape and an excellent location for farming. This thesis presents an enquiry into the nature and impact of Norse land use in this inland region, and examines how it compares to patterns from more typical coastal farms. High-resolution pollen analysis, associated proxies and radiocarbon dating have produced eight detailed vegetation reconstructions of the pre-settlement landscape, vegetation and land-use changes consequent upon settlement, and the period following abandonment.
Prior to landnám, the inland valleys of Vatnahverfi supported Betula-Salix scrub and areas of Betula pubescens woodland. This vegetation cover thinned towards the coasts where open grasslands were more common. The presence of woodland in the interior indicates the availability of a key resource and late 10th to early 11th century dates for landnám point to the region having been a desirable settlement location. Data from pollen influx and coprophilous fungal spores associated with grazing animals, suggest a rich and productive cultural landscape. Poaceae pollen influx values, for instance, are often double those of farms elsewhere in the Eastern Settlement, implying higher hay yields that may have supported larger numbers of domesticates. Radiocarbon age-depth modelling of pollen sequences indicates that abandonment of farms in the region may have begun from the mid-13th century AD. This process likely culminated in the late 14th century when all the farms studied had fallen into disuse.

Rundberget Bernt, Jernets dunkle dimensjon. Jernvinna i sørlige Hedmark.

Rundberget Bernt, Jernets dunkle dimensjon. Jernvinna i sørlige Hedmark. Sentral økonomisk faktor og premiss for samfunnsutvikling c. AD 700 – 1300, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. C. Prescott, J. H. Larsen, Université d’Oslo)

Résumé/abstract :

I tidlig middelalder (ca. 950-1300 e. Kr.) pågikk det i Hedmarks skoger en jernutvinning uten sidestykke i norsk målestokk. Utallige spor etter en unik teknologi utviklet på 700-tallet vitner om en fordums virksomhet som involverte store deler av regionen. I avhandlingen trekker Rundberget frem dimensjonen som et nøkkelbegrep. Beregninger viser at så mye som 130 000 tonn jern kan ha blitt produsert i sen vikingtid og tidlig middelalder. Rundberget argumenterer for at dette jernet må ha vært et økonomisk fundament i samfunnsutviklingen fra høvding- til kongedømme. Synet bryter med historieforskningen som fremmer jordbruket som nærmest enerådende faktor for økonomisk utvikling i perioden.

Det avdekkes at det på 600-tallet ble etablert et høvdingsamfunn i Solør som utviklet en særegen metode for å utvinne jern i stor skala. Teknologien spredte seg nordover og omfattet på det største regionen fra Eidskog til Stor-Elvdal. Utvinningen ble på et tidspunkt underlagt kongen ved at han tok kontroll over distribusjon og handelsknutepunkter. I en periode på 250 år hadde kronen store inntekter gjennom handel med jern. På slutten av 1200-tallet kom det imidlertid til en rask nedgang og jernvinna var lagt død rett før 1300. Bortfallet sees i sammenheng med en feilslått overregional handelspolitikk, samtidig som det ble utviklet en storstilt masovnproduksjon i den svenske Bergslagen. Jernvinna i Hedmark ble dermed utkonkurrert på pris samtidig som handelsforbindelser og nettverk ble brutt. En æra i norsk jernvinnehistorie var over.

Hållans Ann-Mari, Fornminnen : det förflutnas roll i det förkristna och kristna Mälardalen

Hållans Ann-Mari, Fornminnen : det förflutnas roll i det förkristna och kristna Mälardalen, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. A. Andrén, Université de Lund)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examine how farm-dwellers in the Mälaren region during the late Iron Age and early Middle Ages created, transferred, and preserved memory by deliberately placing new houses and graves on the houses and graves of previous generations. Focus is on memory as a social phenomenon and culture-specific resource created by these deliberate practices. The culture-specific element is oral culture. Place is an important part of the contextualization of social memory. The pre-Christian and early Christian farm has a special quality that is so self-evident that it is seldom highligh¬ted – the presence of the graves within its territory. This distinguishes that farm from those where the dead were buried in a graveyard. My theoretical framework is that of memory theory. In focus is human agency, formal and ritualized practice, and structured and constructed reality. All the media then available for memory construction are taken into consideration: formal and ritual acts such as ‘super-imposing’; material remains such as graves and buildings; sites on different scale levels in the landscape, such as farms with grave-fields and yards; narratives such as the Icelandic sagas. The source material consists of more than 300 archaeological excavations of grave-fields and settlements conducted in the Mälaren valley. The analysis include four sub-studies of superimpositions: grave on grave, house on house, grave on house, and house on grave. It takes into account possible variations in the scope and expression of the superimpositions because of the chronological, geographical, and social context. One of the more significant results is that the superimpositions showed very deliberate patterns, implying that the practices were very conscious. In the synthesis superimposition practices are considered as historical entities, and as functions of a possible historical culture in different eras. Down the ages, from the Migration Period up to and including the early Middle Ages, major regional changes in society have steered the contemporaneous perceptions of history. This means new social, ideological, and cultural context, which in its turn created the need for new memories.
I vår egen tid finns ett stort intresse för släktforskning och historia hos många. Men man tänker sällan på att även människor i gångna tider kunnat blicka tillbaka på sitt förflutna och fundera på sin egen plats i släktleden. Vad var de ville minnas och hur mindes de i en tid utan skriv- och läskunnighet? Det är frågor som ställs i avhandlingen och där svaren söks i de lämningar som grävts fram från järnåldern vid många arkeologiska undersökningar i Mälardalen. En inblick i detta ger oss en större förståelse för det förflutnas roll och betydelse i såväl dåtid som vår egen tid. I avhandlingen visas hur människor på gårdar under järnåldern i Mälardalen ”byggde” minnen genom att medvetet placera nya gravar och hus på tidigare generationers gravar och hus.