L. Bellei Mussini, Propter adhorantium auctoritatem voluntate. Legittimazione, patronage e propaganda nelle Gesta Regum Anglorum di Guglielmo di Malmesbury, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. F. Roversi Monaco, Università di Bologna, XXV Ciclo).
L’oggetto di ricerca della presente tesi di dottorato è costituito dall’analisi dell’opera Gesta Regum Anglorum, del monaco benedettino Guglielmo di Malmesbury, all’interno della quale sono stati esplorati e verificati i temi di legittimazione, di patronage e di propaganda. L’opera, infatti, rimane senza un manifesto committente, ad eccezione di una primissima versione. Il titolo della tesi rivela fin da subito questo aspetto, giacché estrae un passaggio del prologo al I libro: «propter adhorantium auctoritatem voluntate», traducibile con «per le autorevoli esortazioni che ricevetti». Dopo un’analisi delle lettere dedicatorie premesse all’opera, si è ipotizzata la volontà dell’autore di dedicare le Gesta Regum Anglorum, nella loro versione definitiva, a Roberto conte di Gloucester, approfondendo in tal senso l’aspetto legittimatorio dell’opera e la possibilità che essa potesse servire come strumento per ottenere un patronage dal conte nei confronti dell’abbazia di Malmesbury. La seconda parte della tesi è incentrata sulla comparazione tra le due principali redazioni dell’opera – quella conclusa intorno al 1126/27 e quella rivista tra 1135 e 1140 – per analizzarne le modifiche, ipotizzandone la funzione come volta mitigare aspetti relativi ai principali antenati di Roberto di Gloucester (Guglielmo I e Guglielmo II). La terza parte della tesi si è concentrata sull’aspetto propagandistico dell’opera in favore del monastero di appartenenza di Guglielmo (Malmesbury) e soprattutto in favore del clero regolare, nella dicotomia che caratterizzò questo e il clero secolare durante gli anni in cui l’autore viveva. Nell’ultima parte della tesi, è stato ripreso l’aspetto legittimatorio delle Gesta Regum, tentando di fornire un’analisi delle tre raffigurazioni dei sovrani normanni d’Inghilterra, che punteggiano i tre libri finali dell’opera.
[Source : http://amsdottorato.unibo.it/6580/ ]
Maria Rosaria Falcone, Amalfi nei secoli XII-XIII, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. G. Vitolo, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II)
La tesi consiste nella continuazione del lavoro fatto agli inizi degli anni Settanta del secolo scorso da Ulrich Schwarz, il quale ha ricostruito gli archivi degli enti ecclesiastici e dei monasteri amalfitani limitatamente alla documentazione dei secoli IX-XI, sulla base della quale ha ripercorso le vicende del ducato dalle origini fino al 1100, quando ormai esso era già da tempo inserito nel Ducato di Puglia e Calabria fondato da Roberto il Guiscardo. La trattazione è ora concentrata sui due secoli seguenti, che videro l’affermazione definitiva della presenza normanna nel Ducato di Amalfi, l’inserimento dello stesso nel Regno di Sicilia creato nel 1130 da Ruggero II e quindi il passaggio, prima, alla dinastia sveva e poi a quella angioina fino alla morte di Carlo II d’Angiò nel 1309: due secoli di fondamentale importanza per la storia del Mezzogiorno e di Amalfi sia dal punto di vista dell’assetto politico-amministrativo centrale e periferico sia per quanto riguarda i nuovi equilibri che si vennero formando all’interno del ducato (come entità territoriale e non più politica) in seguito alla perdita del preminente ruolo politico da parte di Amalfi e all’affermazione di Ravello e Scala, che insieme a Lettere e a Capri erano diocesi suffraganee della sede arcivescovile amalfitana. Il punto di partenza è stato una ricognizione sistematica delle fonti disponibili, in maggioranza edite ma nelle sedi più disparate, di cui è stato fatto un repertorio sistematico sulla base dei regesti, suddivisi per archivi di provenienza: Archivio di Santa Maria di Fontanella (1100-1269), con documentazione proveniente dagli archivi dei monasteri dei SS. Cirico e Giulitta di Atrani, S. Tommaso Apostolo, S. Angelo de Mare; Archivio di Santa Maria Dominarum (1270-1308); Archivio di S. Lorenzo del Piano (1100-1308); Archivio vescovile di Ravello (1101-1308); Archivio arcivescovile di Amalfi (1103-1308). La tesi è corredata da una Appendice documentaria con 11 documenti inediti del secolo XII, rinvenuti nell’Archivio della Badia di Cava de’ Tirreni: documenti che costituiscono un incremento non irrilevante della documentazione amalfitana originale, dopo che nel 1943 è andata distrutta tutta quella dei monasteri soppressi agli inizi dell’Ottocento, conservata nell’Archivio di Stato di Napoli. Sia essi sia i regesti dei documenti editi saranno messi a disposizione degli studiosi online sul portale internazionale Monasterium.Net, gestito da ICARus (International Center for Archival Research), un vasto consorzio di molteplici archivi e università europee, coordinato da Manfred Thaller dell’Università di Colonia, il fondatore delle Digital Humanities in Europa e il primo ad aver effettuato riflessioni sui documenti storici digitalizzati.
[Source : http://www.fedoa.unina.it/9936/ ]
Antonella Undiemi, Per un corpus delle epigrafi età normanna (secoli X-XII), Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. N. Giovè, F. De Rubeis, Université de Padoue)
The object of this research concerns the realization of a corpus of Latin epigraphs which were produced in northern France, England and southern Italy (specifically in Apulia and Sicily), that is in the main areas involved in the Norman expansion in Europe between X and XII century. The thesis consists of two parts developed into two volumes: the first one contains considerations emerged from the analysis of inscriptions, while the second one is the catalogue of sources. The first volume provides the historical context within which the epigraphic sources were produced, taking account of cultural aspects; it describes the corpus considering the different typologies of inscriptions and finally it dedicates a significant part to the writing, focusing on the paleographical analysis of epigraphs. The corpus collects 114 records: 43 in northern France, 26 in England and 45 in southern Italy. In order to analyze the inscriptions, it has been followed the methodology used for the latest volume of the Inscriptiones Medii Aevi Italiae (IMAI).
[Source : http://www.dart-europe.eu/full.php?id=1088452]
PDF : http://paduaresearch.cab.unipd.it/7005/2/antonella_undiemi_tesiII.pdf
Koch Madsen Christian, Pastoral Settlement. Farming and Hierarchy in Norse Vatnahverfi, South Greenland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (Université de Copenhague)
Norse farmers settled Greenland around AD 1000. They established two settlements, where the southernmost – the Eastern Settlement – was the largest and lasted until ca. AD 1450, where after it was depopulated for unknown reasons. Through an archaeological study of one of the Eastern Settlement’s core areas – ‘Vatnahverfi’ – this dissertation analyses and discusses how the settlement was organized and changed throughout time. New precision surveys of 157 sites and 1308 individual ruins show that the dispersed settlement was organized after strongly hierarchical patterns. The Norse pastoral farming system relied on extensive land use practices organized around shielings, and apparently after unique Greenlandic patterns. A population estimate based on these settlement patterns implies an average population in Vatnahverfi of only ca. 225-550 people, and an average maximum population of ca. 1400-1940 in the whole of the Eastern Settlement. New and old 14C-dates show that the settlement expanded in two phases: the best agricultural areas were quickly occupied around AD 1000, more marginal areas about a century later. The settlement reached a maximum between AD 1100-1200, where after it quickly contracted and power was centralized on fewer manors. Already by AD 1250 the settlement was again concentrated on those areas that had initially been settled, and after AD 1350 even these areas witnessed a decline in land use. Although climatic deterioration towards the ‘Little Ice Age’ undoubtedly made it harder to be a farmer in South Greenland, this study implies that low population densities – and a very unequal access to resources and options – was perhaps the major problem facing the Norse and ultimately a key reason for the abandonment of the settlements.
[Source : http://www.nabohome.org/postgraduates/theses/ckm/]
Grabowski Radoslaw, Cereal husbandry and settlement : Expanding archaeobotanical perspectives on the southern Scandinavian Iron Age, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. K. Viklund, Umeå universitet)
The here presented PhD project explores the phenomenon of cereal cultivation during the Iron Age (c. 500 BC – AD 1100) in southern Scandinavia. The main body of the thesis consists of four articles. These were written with the aim to identify chronological, geographical, theoretical and methodological gaps in current research, to develop, apply and evaluate approaches to how new knowledge on Iron Age cereal cultivation can be attained, and to assess the interaction between archaeobotany and other specialisms currently used in settlement archaeology. The introduction section of the thesis also contains a historical overview of archaeobotanical research on cereal cultivation in southern Scandinavia. The first article is a compilation and summary of all available previously performed archaeobotanical investigations in southern Sweden. This data is compared and discussed in relation to similar publications in Denmark and smaller scale compilations previously published in Sweden. The main result of the study is an updated and enhanced understanding of the main developments in the investigation area and a deepened knowledge of local development chronologies and trajectories in different parts of southern Sweden. The second article is a methodological presentation of a multiproxy analysis combining plant macrofossil analysis, phosphate analysis, magnetic susceptibility analysis and measurement of soil organic matter by loss on ignition. The applicability of the method for identification and delineation of space functions on southern Scandinavian Iron Age sites is discussed and illustrated by two case studies from the Danish site of Gedved Vest. Particular focus is placed on exploration of the use of the functional analysis for assessment of taphonomic and operational contexts of carbonised plant macrofossil assemblages. The third article aims at presenting an Iron Age cereal cultivation history for east-central Jutland, an area identified at the outset of the project as under-represented in archaeobotanical studies. The article combines data from depth analyses of material from the sites of Gedved Vest and Kristinebjerg Øst (analysed with the methods and theory presented in the second article) with a compilation of previously performed archaeobotanical analyses from east-central Jutland. The main results of the study are that developments in the study area appear to follow a chronology similar to that previously observed on Funen rather than the rest of the peninsula. Rye cultivation is furthermore discussed as more dynamic and flexible than previously presented in Scandinavian archaeobotanical literature. The fourth and final article leaves archaeobotany as the main topic. It focuses instead on evaluating, theorising and expanding the multiproxy method presented in the second article by a thorough comparison of the botanical, geochemical and geophysical methods to other techniques of functional analysis currently used in archaeology. These techniques include studies of artefact distributions, assessments of spatial relations between settlement features, and studies of the structural details of dwellings and other constructions. The main result is that there is a correspondence between the functional indications provided by botanical, geochemical and geophysical methods and techniques used in mainstream archaeology. The comparison furthermore shows that a combination of the two data sets allows for more highly resolved functional interpretations than if they are used separately. The main conclusion of the PhD thesis, based on the discussions in all four articles, is that archaeobotanical questions commonly necessitate the assessment of non-botanical archaeological material. The comparison of archaeobotanical data to other segments of the archaeological record does, however, enable the use of the former as an archaeological resource for addressing non-botanical questions. The increased understanding of (mainly settlement) site dynamics resulting from this integration of methods allows archaeobotanists to address increasingly complex botanical questions. Increased and more structured integration between archaeobotany and other specialisms operating within the framework of settlement archaeology is therefore argued to be the preferred approach to performing both high quality archaeobotany and settlement archaeology.
[Source : http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A709582&dswid=6684]
Petty Christina, Warp Weighted Looms : Then and Now Anglo-Saxon and Viking Archaeological Evidence and Modern Practitioners, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. G. Owen-Crocker, M. Hind, Université de Manchester)
This thesis examines the warp weighted loom during the Anglo-Saxon and Viking eras in England through archaeological, linguistic, and art evidence, supported by similar information about the loom from Northern Continental Europe. Some evidence from other parts of the world where this specific type of loom was used is also included for clarity. In order to further understanding of the possible functioning and abilities of the loom, modern individuals with experience weaving with this early medieval technology were sought out to answer a questionnaire. The analysis of data gathered is supported with evidence from interviews of some of the respondents. The weavers who answered the questionnaire were primarily associated with the living history or re-enactment movements; therefore a history of these movements and their goals is also included. An analysis of the responses to the questionnaire, including thoughts about how these answers might advance academic understanding of the loom, completes the thesis.
[Source : https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/uk-ac-man-scw:229035]
Crockatt Ian, Poetry, accuracy and truth : translating the Old Norse skaldic verse of Ro̜gnvaldr Kali Kolsson, Earl of Orkney, 1135-1158, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (Université d’Aberdeen)
This thesis analyses my attempt to make engaging English language literary translations of complex Old Norse skaldic poetry, translations which convey significant elements of the form, sound patterns and referential reach of the originals. The primary focus is on the lausavísur (loose, or single verses) of Rǫgnvaldr jarl Kali Kolsson, Earl of Orkney from 1135 until 1158. It argues that translations of poetry should find equivalents not just for the semantic sense of the originals, but for the accumulated significance of all the factors that make it poetry. In developing this argument I suggest that the word ‘meaning’ when applied to poetry is reductive, and introduce a new terminology based on the terms ‘sense’, ‘contextual sense’, ‘significance’ and ‘accumulated significance’. Because the thesis is an amalgam of my work with both Creative Writing and Old Norse Studies, Old Norse terms and names are used whenever possible, reinforcing my understanding that translation is a meeting of two voices, personalities and cultures. The aim is to make visible, and audible, the voices drawn on and I therefore focus in Chapter three on my own poetic voice as well as Rǫgnvaldr’s. Chapter Two discusses the origins, structure and development of Old Norse verse, and analysis of the dróttkvætt [court poetry] verse-form is continued in greater detail in Chapter Four. There is also discussion in Chapter Four of kennings and of Conceptual Metaphor Theory. Chapter Five focuses on historical understandings of the theory and practice of translation. This includes a comparative analysis of translations of skaldic poetry into English from the eighteenth century to the present day, and culminates in the development of a classification of translation types as applied to skaldic poetry. Chapter Six considers the history of the translation of Rǫgnvaldr’s lausavísur, and analyses some of the assumptions and practice issues underlying my own translations of his work as set out in Chapter Seven.
[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=40&uin=uk.bl.ethos.635969]
Knight Dayanna, Identity construction and maintenance in the North Atlantic c. AD800-1250, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. C.P. Loveluck, A.G. Poulter, Université de Nottingham)
This study is a multivalent investigation of Scandinavian identity formation and cultural structures within the north Atlantic that looks specifically at the construction and maintenance of island identities circa AD800-1250. This not only includes consideration of the Norse settlers but also the effects of contact between the emerging island cultural identities and continental Europe. In order to do this zones of settlement have been defined to better compare the expansion of medieval Scandinavian populations in terms of microscale practices and interactions within family groups and the macroscale vectors of social, economic and political change. It employs a wide variety of material that makes use of aspects of both prehistoric and historic sources. The variety of enabling conditions ultimately provided for a time the circumstances necessary for the long-term success of a number of the settlements established during this period. The evidence is considered in as subjective manner as possible with the sources available also reflecting the conditions of initial region excavation and publication.
[Source : http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/14078/]
Stein Samantha, Understanding Torksey, Lincolnshire : a Geoarchaeological and Landscape Approach to a Viking Overwintering Camp, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (Université de Sheffield)
Viking overwintering camps of late 9th century England have been excluded from most recent dialogues regarding Viking Age England. Although overwintering camps are directly mentioned in historical records such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, these sites have remained archaeologically elusive. The recent identification of the Viking overwintering camp at Torksey, now under investigation by the Torksey Project, has provided a key opportunity to fill the gap in the current literature about the relation between environment, landscape, and Viking winter camps. This thesis uses geoarchaeological techniques, including palynology, sediment analysis, and optically stimulated luminescence to determine that the location was defined by a waterlogged landscape with aeolian sediments. The landscape evaluation has identified sites within the surrounding area that would have been integral in shaping the physical and political form and long-term effects of the winter camp, including a royal estate, a burhdyke associated with Torksey, an intermittently active canal at the Foss Dyke, and historical documents linking the site with the Mercian royal family. The methods employed during this have produced results that definitively demonstrate that the character of the environment was largely responsible for the Viking’s choice of site for their overwintering at Torksey, and how the early medieval population would have interacted with the environment in the Lower Trent Valley.
[Source : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/9616/]
Duncan Dale Roderick Thomas, Berserkir : a re-examination of the phenomenon in literature and life, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. J. Jesch, Université de Nottingham)
This thesis discusses whether berserkir really went berserk. It proposes revised paradigms for berserkir as they existed in the Viking Age and as depicted in Old Norse literature. It clarifies the Viking Age berserkr as an elite warrior whose practices have a function in warfare and ritual life rather than as an example of aberrant behaviour, and considers how usage of PDE ‘berserk’ may affect the framing of research questions about berserkir through analysis of depictions in modern popular culture. The analysis shows how berserksgangr has received greater attention than it warrants with the emphasis being on how berserkir went berserk. A critical review of Old Norse literature shows that berserkir do not go berserk, and suggests that berserksgangr was a calculated form of posturing and a ritual activity designed to bolster the courage of the berserkr.
It shows how the medieval concept of berserkir was more nuanced and less negative than is usually believed, as demonstrated by the contemporaneous existence in narratives of berserkir as king’s men, hall challengers, hólmgöngumenn, Viking raiders and Christian champions, and by the presence of men with the byname berserkr in fourteenth-century documents. Old Norse literature is related to pre-Viking Age evidence to show that warriors wearing wolfskins existed and can be related to berserkir, thus making it possible to produce models for Viking Age and medieval concepts of berserkir.
The modern view of berserkir is analysed and shows that frenzy is the dominant attribute, despite going berserk not being a useful attribute in Viking Age warfare which relied upon men holding a line steady rather than charging individually.
The thesis concludes that ON berserkr may be best translated as PDE ‘champion’, while PDE ‘berserker’ describes the type of uncontrollable warrior most commonly envisaged when discussing berserkir.
[Source : http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/28819/]
Stahl Pierre-Brice, Étude sur le Vafþrúðnismál et le genre de l’énigme, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. Jean-Marie Husser, Université de Strasbourg)
Le poème Vafþrúðnismál présente la rencontre entre deux figures mythologiques, Vafþrúðnir et Óðinn, qui s’affrontent dans une joute verbale. Une lecture attentive du texte conduit à la conclusion que le dieu, dans les questions qu’il adresse au géant. L’analyse de la nature de l’interaction apporte ainsi une nouvelle compréhension du texte et permet d’expliquer plusieurs aspects du poème, jugés jusqu’à présent problématiques. L’étude montre qu’il n’y a aucune injustice dans la distribution des questions ou dans la dernière énigme, comme on l’a traditionnellement interprété, mais que tous deux répondent à une logique bien précise du texte. A travers cette fiction littéraire, le poème transmet sous une forme ludique un savoir traditionnel au moyen d’un genre particulier : la joute d’énigmes.
The poem Vafþrúðnismál presents the meeting of two mythological figures, Vafþrúðnir and Óðinn, who compete in a verbal duel. A close study of the text leads to the conclusion that the god is not seeking any knowledge with his questions to the giant. Therefore, the analysis of the nature of the interaction provides a new understanding of the poem and explains several aspects that have, until now, been perceived as problematic. This study shows that there is no injustice regarding the distribution of questions between the two protagonists, but that this follows a specific logic in the text. In the same way, the analysis of the final riddle reveals that it is not ‘unfair’, as it has traditionally been interpreted, but that it has a precise function in the text. Through this literary fiction, Vafþrúðnismál transmits – in a playful way – traditional knowledge, by means of a specific genre: riddling.
[Source : http://theses.unistra.fr/ori-oai-search/notice.html?id=2014STRAG038&printable=true]
McGlynn Sean Joseph, Blood Cries Afar: The Forgotten Invasion of England 1216, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. S. Barton, Université d’Exeter)
The intent behind Blood Cries Afar: The Forgotten Invasion of England 1216 was to be the first book to study the French invasion of England in 1216 and the first to offer a military narrative and analysis of its events. In completing the study, a clear understanding is conveyed of the course of fragmented and frequently confusing and neglected events. The large French expeditionary force that landed in England in May 1216 allied with baronial rebels against King John to divide the country for eighteen months. For a year the French occupied and ruled the richest one-third of England, including the capital, London (which remained in their hands for the entire duration of the occupation). At one point, as many as two-thirds of the English baronage recognised the French leader, Prince Louis (heir to the Capetian throne in France) as their monarch; King Alexander II of Scotland travelled to Dover to pay homage to him as King Louis I of England. The invasion was ended by military means, not political ones. The neglect of this major invasion event, which came close to being a second Norman Conquest, is a telling one. In part this is due to its events unfolding over the end of King John’s reign the start of and Henry III’s (as a minor), and also because it remains in the shadow of Magna Carta from a year earlier. Thus in the few places where the invasion has been investigated, its treatment has been partial, disjointed and brief. This book shows how it was that a succession of military events led to the point that the French were able to launch a full-scale invasion and how the invasion and subsequent occupation was defeated militarily. In so doing, it emphasizes strongly the primacy of military events over political and diplomatic ones, and offers a detailed analysis of campaigning in the early thirteenth century. It offers the most comprehensive account and analysis of a number of engagements, some of which have been almost completely neglected or overlooked entirely. The book also offers fresh insights, context and arguments on the following: Richard I’s and England’s foreign policy; the military leadership of King John; the first re-issue of Magna Carta; Louis’ campaign and planned last-stand; the fluidity of castle warfare; ravaging as a precision weapon; the impact on non-combatants and the role of atrocity; the importance of the invasion to nascent English identity. But most of all, its chief significance is that it offers the first, full-length and military study of events that dominated England from the sealing of Magna Carta in June 1215 to the end of the invasion in September 1217.
[Source : https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/handle/10871/18087]
Triquet Ismérie, Les manuscrits enluminés de la Grande Chronique de Normandie aux XIVe et XVe siècles, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. B. Boerner, D. Hüe, Université de Rennes 2)
A la fin du Moyen Age l’historiographie normande connaît un nouvel essor par la rédaction dans la seconde moitié du XIVe siècle de la Grande Chronique de Normandie. Le texte relate l’histoire du duché de Normandie et du monde anglo-Normand entre 911 et 1204. En 911 le chef viking Rollon recevait du roi de France Charles le Simple le territoire de Neustrie contre promesse de défendre ses frontières et de se convertir au catholicisme. Les Normands feront croître leur territoire au-Delà des limites de la Manche, initiant ainsi une nouvelle dynastie royale en Angleterre. La Normandie sera rattachée en 1204 à la couronne française de Philippe Auguste. Tardivement mis en image au XVe siècle, le texte sera illustré de scènes typologiques, traditionnellement utilisées dans les chroniques médiévales. Puis, se développerons des images plus complexes et narratives. Le but étant toujours la mise en exergue de la dynastie anglo-Normande. Produits durant ou juste après la guerre de Cent Ans, les manuscrits s’inscrivent dans un contexte tout à fait singulier. L’histoire normande sera utilisée à des fins politiques pour servir les prétentions des belligérants ou pour éduquer le lectorat médiéval. Largement diffusée dans le nord de la France l’illustration des manuscrits a permis la mise en place d’une tradition iconographique relative à la dynastie anglo-Normande dans trois grands centres artistiques : la Normandie, Paris et les Flandres. Enfin, le texte sera remanié et continué afin de poursuivre l’histoire normande jusqu’aux temps présents de la production. La Grande Chronique de Normandie a survécu à l’apparition de l’imprimerie tout en perdant toutefois sa récente tradition iconographique.
In the late Middle Ages, the writing of the GCN gave to the norman historiography a new growth in the second half of the 14th century. The text dealt with the history of the duchy of Normandy and the anglo-Norman world from 911 to 1204. In 911, the Viking chief Rollo received the territory of Neustrie from Charles the Simple, king of France, in exchange of the promise to defend the border and to become catholic. The Normans increased there territory over the Channel, thus they started a new dynasty in England. The Normandy has been attached to the french crown under the reign of Philippe Auguste. At a late stage, the text of the GCN has been illuminated with typologic scenes, traditionally used in medieval chronicles. Moreover, images became more and more complicated and narrative as well, whose purpose was still the highlighting of the anglo-Norman dynasty. The context of the making of the manuscripts is very specific in so far as they have been made during or shortly after the One Hundred Year War. The norman history will be used for the political interest of the belligerents as well as to educate the medieval readership. Widely spread in Northern France, the illuminated manuscripts permitted the settlement of an iconographic tradition related to the anglo-Norman dynasty in three great artistic centres : the Normandy, Paris and Flanders. Finally, the text has been changed and increased in order to go on the norman history till now. The GCN managed to go through the period of printing, therefore it lost its new iconography recently gained.
[Source : http://www.theses.fr/2014REN20032]
Charpentier Ljungqvist Fredrik, Kungamakten och lagen : En jämförelse mellan Danmark, Norge och Sverige under högmedeltiden [Kingship and Law : A Comparison between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the High Middle Ages], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. O. Ferm, Université de Stockholm)
The dissertation is a comparative study of the expansion of law-regulated royal power in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden c. 1150–1350. The aim is to examine how the king’s judicial and military authority and functions, and their effect on the power position of the regional legal assembly and the church, is expressed and how it changed over time in the extant law material. The starting point is the pan-European consolidation of royal power in the High Middle Ages, and the dissertation considers international research on the medieval state formation process and its driving forces. The processual concepts of centralization, institutionalization, hierarchization, and territorialization occupy a central place in the analysis.
Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish laws all reflect a significant increase in royal power. A growing number of societal functions were vested in the increasingly institutionalized kingship, and there was a growth in its power resources. At the same time, it is possible to identify crucial inter-Scandinavian differences. A main finding is that the law-regulated royal power, in most respects, was strongest in Norway and weakest in Sweden. Another important conclusion is that executive royal power first emerged after the judicial and also legislative power had already to a large extent come under royal control.
It is demonstrated that Scandinavian kingship in the High Middle Ages was characterized by increasingly centralized and institutionalized territorially based power, with a greater monopoly on the use of legitimate force, and thereby strengthened the ongoing state formation process. The expansion of law-regulated royal power primarily concerned the judicial sphere and only secondarily the military and fiscal spheres. That state formation was driven by judicial development rather than militarization is also shown by the fact that Norway, despite having the least professionalized and resource-demanding armed forces, was the Scandinavian country with the most centralized and institutionalized royal power.
[Source : http://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A737397&dswid=3935]
Ladurée Jean-René, Les Cisterciens face à leur environnement spatial et humain : exemple des abbayes claravalliennes possessionnées dans le Bas-Maine (début XIIe – fin XVe siècle), Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. D. Pichot, Université de Rennes 2)
La présente étude a pour but d’exposer les spécificités du monachisme cistercien du Bas-Maine entre le XIIe et le XVe siècle au travers des exemples d’abbayes claravalliennes installées ou possessionnées dans cet espace de frange Il s’agit des abbayes de Clermont, Fontaine-Daniel, Rouez et Savigny. Les trois premières sont localisées dans le Maine et sont fondées par des barons entre la mi-XIIe et le début du XIIIe siècle. Un sort particulier est réservé à la dernière, Savigny, de par sa fondation précoce et son intégration à l’ordre cistercien en 1147, face aux autres abbayes créées par efflorescence. Le caractère conflictuel de la région (terrain d’oppositions régulières entre Angevins, Normands et Bretons), l’importance de l’érémitisme, y expliquent le retard de l’installation des moines cisterciens. Les critères de fondation d’une abbaye cistercienne sont passés en revue, tout comme l’ambiguïté de l’acte fondateur. La question des dépendances cisterciennes, au premier chef desquelles on relève le système des granges est évoqué tout comme les rapports de ces abbayes avec leur environnement humain (moines, convers, population, etc…) Enfin, l’auteur revient également sur l’empreinte laissée par les Cisterciens dans des domaines comme la mise en valeur de l’espace, le commerce ou l’usure. Chacun de ces éléments étant envisagé dans le cadre des principes des premiers Cisterciens et du rapport fonctionnel à la règle.
The present study’s aim is to present the specificities of Cistercian monasteries in the Lower Maine area between the 12th and 15ththe area i.e. the Abbey of Clermont, Fontaine-Daniel, Rouez et Savigny. The first three are located within the Maine province and were founded by barons between the mid-12th that it was established earlier and became part of the Cistercian order in 1147, as opposed to the other abbeys which were formed through efflorescence. The relatively late establishment of Cistercian Monks in the lower Maine is due to the fact that the area was the setting of frequent confrontations between Angevins, Normand and Bretons as well as to large number of hermits during this time period. In this paper I will examine the criteria necessary for the establishment of Cistercian Abbeys as well as the ambiguity of the founding act. I will also deal with Cistercian properties, above all the farm system, as well as the relationship between the abbeys and their human environment (monks, lay brothers, the population etc). Lastly, the author will explore the traces left by the Cistercians in areas such as the usage and development of the land, commerce and usary. Each of these elements is examined within the framework of the principals of the first Cistercians and the functional relationship to the rule.
[Source : http://www.theses.fr/2014REN20026]