Archives de catégorie : 2014

Fairbairn Henry, The Nature and Limits of the Money Economy in Late Anglo-Saxon and Early Norman England

Fairbairn Henry, The Nature and Limits of the Money Economy in Late Anglo-Saxon and Early Norman England, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. S. Baxter, P. Heather, King’s College London)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis will address a question which is fundamental to our understanding of the period: was there a money economy in Anglo-Saxon and early Norman England? This question has been asked often enough before, but currently the literature does not afford a satisfactory answer, principally because the relevant historical and numismatic evidence has never been systematically assembled and analysed. The object of my research will be to make good this gap. It will seek to establish how, by whom, and in what circumstances coins were − and were not − used in England between the reigns of King Athelstan and King Henry I (924−1135).

The thesis will build on substantial secondary literature on the early English economy. However, what this literature lacks is a comprehensive analysis of the documentary evidence which reveals how money was actually used and what it could and could not buy. One major strand of this thesis will be to examine this material systematically to demonstrate the value of monetary equivalents and small-scale transactions in the period before 1135. Secondly, there is abundant numismatic material in the form of single coin finds and coin hoards, which affords more specific evidence of how money was actually used. The other major element of my thesis will therefore be to assemble,collate and analyse this material, in order to facilitate more precise and penetrating analysis of such finds. The combination of approaches proposed here will make possible to form a more precise understanding of how money was used throughout the social spectrum of English society, from the peasantry to the upper ranks of the nobility, throughout a period of momentous political change.

[Source : https://kclpure.kcl.ac.uk/portal/en/theses/the-nature-and-limits-of-the-money-economy-in-late-anglosaxon-and-early-norman-england(d49eb1c0-8bd7-4c72-8aab-917a60137c8e).html]

Jean-Baptiste Vincent, Les monastères cisterciens de Normandie

Jean-Baptiste Vincent, Les monastères cisterciens de Normandie : conception, organisation et évolution

Thèse soutenue le 1er décembre 2014, sous la direction d’Anne-Marie Flambard Héricher

Cette étude s’appuie autant sur les sources historiques que sur les sources archéologiques. Selon l’état actuel des monuments et de la topographie du site, j’oriente les problématiques adéquates pour leurs études (topographie, archéologie du bâti, hydraulique du site…). Ma zone de recherche s’étend sur cinq départements : Calvados, Eure, Manche, Orne et Seine-Maritime et prend en compte les fondations cisterciennes rattachées à cîteaux durant le Moyen Âge. Je préconise donc une étude topographique afin de réaliser des plans parfois inexistants de la totalité des enclos abbatiaux et de représenter les réseaux hydrauliques conservés dans le paysage. cette recherche apporte des éléments nouveaux sur l’implantation cistercienne, comme l’aménagement du territoire afin de faciliter une vie autarcique et la planification d’un espace en accord avec la règle de saint Benoît. La topographie est complétée, quand les conditions de terrains le permettent, par une prospection géophysique afin de localiser précisément les bâtiments conventuels, quand ils ont disparu. Enfin, pour certaines abbayes encore bien conservées, une étude de bâti est réalisée afin de comprendre l’organisation spatiale, le style architectural et l’évolution des bâtiments jusqu’à la révolution française.

Stéphanie Dervin, Typochronologie de la céramique bas-normande de la fin du XIIe siècle au milieu du XIVe siècle

Stéphanie Dervin, Typochronologie de la céramique bas-normande de la fin du XIIe siècle au milieu du XIVe siècle : étude des lots des châteaux de Caen, Falaise et de l’hôpital de Sées

Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014 (Université de Rouen) sous la direction d’Anne-Marie Flambard Héricher

Ce doctorat intitulé typochronologie de la céramique bas-normande de la fin du XIIe siècle au milieu du XIVe siècle a pour principal objectif d’élaborer un outil de comparaison pour les archéologues travaillant sur la céramique médiévale de Basse-Normandie et des régions limitrophes. Au vu du nombre de sites fouillés entrant dans cette fourchette chronologique, le choix des ensembles à utiliser, dans cette enquête, demandait une certaine exhaustivité. Les céramiques découvertes au château de Caen en 2005, du château de Falaise en 2008, et la nouvelle étude du lot de Sées découvert en 1994 ont permis l’acquisition de nouvelles données. Les résultats obtenus ont été confrontés aux différents lots anciens et permettent de proposer un catalogue des formes identifiées ainsi qu’un catalogue synthétique des groupes techniques obtenus par observation macroscopique des pâtes. La hiérarchisation dans le temps de ces informations souffre d’un manque de données et ne peut être réalisée qu’à partir d’une zone géographique restreinte : la plaine de Caen. L’étude archéométrique, basée sur l’analyse chimique des céramiques, conduit à proposer des aires de production identifiées ou probables à ces formes et ces pâtes. L’identification des productions est une étape nécessaire à la compréhension de l’organisation des aires d’ateliers dans la région. Les évolutions observées entre la fin du XIIe siècle et le milieu du XIVe siècle illustrent les transformations qui ont lieu dans la société avant la guerre de Cent Ans. L’analyse périodisée et spatialisées des données amène à une cartographie des aires de diffusion de ces productions et nous révèle un pan de l’économie régionale.

Raich Susan, The sea in the Anglo-Norman realm, c.1050-1189

Raich Susan, The sea in the Anglo-Norman realm, c.1050-1189, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. E. van Houts, University of Cambridge)

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.hist.cam.ac.uk/directory/sar70@cam.ac.uk]

Roach Daniel, Narrative strategy in the Historia ecclesiastica of Orderic Vitalis

Roach Daniel, Narrative strategy in the Historia ecclesiastica of Orderic Vitalis, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. S. Barton, University of Exeter)

Résumé/abstract :

The Historia ecclesiastica of Orderic Vitalis is widely regarded as one of the most important examples of Norman historical writing. Written between c.1114 and 1141 at the monastery of Saint-Evroult on the southern frontier of Normandy, its thirteen books have a broad geographic scope, mixing events within the cloister with those taking place in Normandy, England, France, Spain, southern Italy and the Latin East. This thesis examines the question of why Orderic wrote the Historia. It employs close textual analysis to explore the way in which the purpose of the work is reflected in its content. Each of its four chapters focuses on a major part of the narrative. Chapter 1 examines the textual interplay between Saint-Evroult and southern Italy in books III to VII and challenges the notion that Orderic began the work with a narrow geographical horizon which only expanded in the later books. Chapters 2 and 3 are twin chapters on book IX of the Historia, Orderic’s account of the First Crusade. Chapter 2 argues that Orderic punctuated the narrative of book IX, which was based on the Historia Ierosolimitana of Baldric of Bourgueil, with numerous additional passages that deliberately anchored the story in the history of Saint-Evroult. Chapter 3 suggests that book IX was a wholesale reworking of Baldric’s account in which Orderic actively and carefully edited the text in order to ensure that it was suitable for incorporation into the Historia. Chapter 4, the final chapter, examines the effect of the reign of Henry I on Saint-Evroult in the final books of the Historia, books X to XIII. This chapter reveals the ways in which the history of Saint-Evroult and its network of associated houses was interwoven throughout the larger events of the reign of Henry I. It concludes with an examination of the impact of Henry’s death on the final book of the Historia, book XIII, resulting in the burning of the town of Saint-Evroult and instability at the end of Orderic’s life. This analysis reveals the extent to which the Historia ecclesiastica is concerned with the history of Saint-Evroult and its monks, patrons, heroes and enemies. The narrative expands outwards to include important material on distant geographical regions, but it consistently returns to the rich history of the monastery to recount numerous different aspects of its past, indicating that such material constitutes the beating heart of the Historia as a whole.

[Source : https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/handle/10871/15477]

Harris Eilidh, Depictions of sainthood in Anglo-Norman hagiography

Harris Eilidh, Depictions of sainthood in Anglo-Norman hagiography, thèse soutenue en 2014, (dir. J. Hudson, K. Fenton, University of St Andrews)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examines the depiction of saintly figures within the Latin vitae of twelfth-century England (1066–c.1215). It tests the extent to which these depictions are homogeneous and examines what factors may have shaped representations. Analysis focuses on vitae of twelfth-century saints, a sample of texts that have not previously been examined as a corpus in this way. By encompassing a range of different types of saint, authors and contexts, utilising this corpus allows a comparative examination of how different facets of sainthood could be expressed in hagiography. The textual analysis at the heart of this study aims to unpick individual texts’ ideals of saintly behaviour. Whilst hagiographers functioned within a well-established genre, considering a wide range of saints’ vitae allows scrutiny of the impact of context in shaping depictions. It will be argued that these portrayals of saintly figures demonstrate thematic harmony which is tempered by individuality and context to form recognisable and yet distinctive depictions of sainthood. The analysis is structured around four common hagiographical themes, each worthy of detailed examination: Outer Appearance, Sexuality and Chastity, Food and Fasting, and Death. Chapter 1 investigates how saintly figures are described in terms of physical appearance, deportment and demeanour, and clothing. Chapter 2 focuses upon sexuality, exploring the manifestations of chastity and virginity within the Lives and testing how this might vary from saint to saint and between the sexes. Chapter 3 examines food and food abstention, previously under-represented in secondary literature on twelfth-century hagiography and on male saints. The thesis ends with a consideration of death, a surprisingly understudied theme in Anglophone scholarship. By examining the process of dying and the moment of mortality, this chapter will fill an important analytical vacuum between lived sanctity and sanctity in death.

[Source : https://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/handle/10023/6315]

Barnwell Timothy, Missionaries and changing views of ‘the Other’ from the 9th to 12th centuries

Barnwell Timothy, Missionaries and changing views of ‘the Other’ from the 9th to 12th centuries, thèse soutenue en 2014, (dir. I. Wood, University of Leeds)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis explores the varying ways in which otherness was imagined and constructed in two clusters of medieval missionary texts: Rimbert’s Vita Anskarii and Adam of Bremen’s Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, from the archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen; and Bruno of Querfurt’s Passio Sancti Adalberti episcopi et martyris, Vita vel passio Benedicti et Iohannis sociorumque suorum and Epistola ad Heinricum Regem. Missionaries and the authors who described their work were uniquely concerned with those who lay beyond the geographical, political and spiritual boundaries of Christendom. Accordingly, they provide our principal sources for understanding how such groups were represented. In the first instance, this thesis is concerned with descriptions of groups physically located outside the Carolingian, Ottonian, and Salian Empires, particularly in the Scandinavian and Slavic worlds. But given the fluidity and interconnectedness of early medieval identities, it also encompasses representations of marginalised groups within Christendom such as slaves, women, heretics, Jews and political enemies. Following a brief introduction, the thesis begins by setting out the theoretical foundations of an understanding of otherness based on the expectation of variety. This forms a response to the totalising claims of many recent discussions of otherness. This is followed by a close analysis of each text, beginning with the Hamburg-Bremen material, before moving on to Bruno of Querfurt’s works. The aim is to reflect the peculiar dynamics of each work and, consequently, discussions of these authors’ literary and exegetical concerns form a substantial part of this study. Their presentation of groups within Christendom has also been emphasised; sometimes the other was closer to home. The thesis concludes by emphasising the conceptual variety revealed in each work. Key themes can be identified, but the presentation of otherness in all of these texts is far more diverse and conceptually fragmented than is usually appreciated in existing scholarship.

[Source : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/8741/]

Kudriavtsev Andrei A., Les serrures et clés dans la culture matérielle de Novgorod médiévale

Kudriavtsev Andrei A., Les serrures et clés dans la culture matérielle de Novgorod médiévale (Андрей Алексеевич Кудрявцев,  диссертация на  соискание ученой степени кандидатаисторических наук  на тему Замки и ключи в материальной культуре средневекового Новгорода ), thèse de  doctorat soutenue le 16 décembre 2014, dir. P. Gaidukov, Moscou, Institut d’archéologie de l’ Académie des Sciences de Russie

 Accéder au texte de la thèse/ download the text :

http://archaeolog.ru/?id=13

vol.1 : http://archaeolog.ru/media/dissovet/diss_Kudryavtsev_1.pdf

vol. 2: http://archaeolog.ru/media/dissovet/diss_Kudryavtsev_2.pdf

 

Rozier Charlie, The importance of writing institutional history in the Anglo-Norman realm, c.1060-c.1142

Rozier Charlie, The importance of writing institutional history in the Anglo-Norman realm, c.1060-c.1142, with special reference to Eadmer’s Historia Novorum, Symeon of Durham’s Libellus de exordio, and the Historia Ecclesiastica of Orderic Vitalis, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. G. Gasper, R. Gameson, University of Durham)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examines the place of the past within the lives and works of three notable Anglo-Norman authors of history: Eadmer of Canterbury, Symeon of Durham, and Orderic Vitalis of the monastery of Saint-Évroul in Normandy. The first half of the twelfth century witnessed an unprecedented flowering of historical writing in England and Normandy. Scholarly interest and debate surrounding the historical texts produced in this context, and in particular the reasons for their composition, has grown significantly in recent years. This thesis examines the place of Eadmer’s, Symeon’s and Orderic’s historical writings within the wider corpus of works which they are known to have studied and composed, according to surviving manuscript evidence. Particular attention is placed on: their engagement with wider themes of learning such as exegesis and theology, Latin poetry and computistical studies; their participation in the organisation of monastic and ecclesiastical life, including record-keeping, revision and care of book-collections and their role as monastic cantors; and their experiences of training in and engagement with historical studies and resultant self-identification as authors of history. This thesis will argue that although all three authors had access to a concise framework through which medieval audiences understood the nature and purposes of historical studies (as shown in chapters three and four) the exact character and intended purposes of their historical texts was in fact heavily dependent on the degree to which each author interacted with the wider textual culture of contemporary Benedictine studies (as outlined in chapters five, six and seven). Conclusions will observe that the three examples considered demonstrate the multifaceted nature of historical studies in the medieval period, and especially the overlap between the various sub-genres of history, such as narrative text, annal, chronicle, and hagiography, and also reveal the resonances of the past within almost every aspect of monastic life and studies in the period.

[Source : http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/9461/]

O’Rourke Samuel, Episcopal power in Anglo-Norman England, 1066-1135

O’Rourke Samuel, Episcopal power in Anglo-Norman England, 1066-1135, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (University of East Anglia)

Résumé/abstract :

The thesis presents an empirical view of episcopal power in England from 1066 to 1135. For simplicity’s sake, ‘power’ is defined as efficacy, or the ability to achieve one’s ends. No formal distinction is made here between ‘power’ and ‘authority’. The bulk of the thesis (Chapters 3-5) consists of three case studies: the first examines the political relationship between bishops, the papacy and the kings of England; the second looks at episcopal landholding; and the third considers disputes between bishoprics and abbeys. These case studies start by asking what bishops did: what their political goals were and the extent to which they achieved them. They then ask how bishops did what they did: what resources bishops deployed; why certain actions were possible; why certain strategies were or were not successful. By doing this it is possible to determine the nature of the power which bishops exercised. Three conclusions emerge: firstly, that episcopal power was highly dependent on royal power in this period; secondly, that the basis of episcopal power was often intangible (ideology or personality), rather than material (land or money); and thirdly, that episcopal power was inherently limited, in that bishops sometimes had very little freedom of action. Chapters 1 and 2 are not case studies. They are concerned with ideals of episcopal power. Chapter 1 shows that ideals of episcopal conduct and episcopal power (as expressed in contemporary hagiography) changed in eleventh-century England. It attempts to link these changes to historical developments in this period. Chapter 2 shows that these changing ideals were reflected in the narrative sources for the episcopate of Anglo-Norman England, but not in the reality of episcopal conduct, and that historians have often been misled by these narrative sources, reproducing a model of episcopal power which was little more than a monastic fantasy.

[Source : https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/48695/]

Nancarrow Jane-Heloise, Ruins to re-use: Romano-British remains in post-Conquest literary and material culture

Nancarrow, Jane-Heloise, Ruins to re-use: Romano-British remains in post-Conquest literary and material culture, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. A. McClain, H. Fulton, University of York)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examines the re-use of Roman material culture in England following the Norman Conquest at St Albans, Chester, and Colchester. It argues that the material legacy of Roman Britain conveyed a sense of imperial authority, antiquity and longevity and an association with the early Christian church, which were appropriated to serve transitional Norman royal, elite, monastic and parochial interests in different architectural forms. Importantly, this thesis examines literary evidence describing the Roman past, Roman buildings, and even instances of re-use, which were produced at each town as part of the intellectual expansion of the twelfth century. This thesis comprises of two introductory chapters, followed by three central case study chapters, and culminates in a comparative discussion chapter which evaluates re-use in the context of competing socio-political interests following the Norman Conquest. It expands upon previous understandings of re-use by focusing on topography, building material and hidden reuse, in addition to the re-use of portable remains and decorative emulation. The aim of this thesis is to develop an interdisciplinary methodological and theoretical approach to examine re-use, in the knowledge that this yields a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon. In addition to literary and archaeological evidence, it draws theoretical perspectives from history, art history, and literary criticism. The underlying tenet of this thesis challenges the view that re-use was often unremarkable. Through an examination of multi-disciplinary evidence, it becomes clear that re-use was a complex, nuanced and, above all, meaningful part of the architectural endeavours of the Normans, and was used to secure their primacy at these towns and across their emerging nation.

[Source : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/5123/]

Long Ann-Marie, The relationship between Iceland and Norway, c.870-1100

Long Ann-Marie, The relationship between Iceland and Norway, c.870-1100, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. E. Johnston, University College Dublin)

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

Jones Peter, The sublime and the ridiculous: laughter, sovereignty, and sanctity at the court of Henry II (d.1189)

Jones Peter, The sublime and the ridiculous: laughter, sovereignty, and sanctity at the court of Henry II (d.1189), Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. B.M. Bedos-Rezak, New York University)

Résumé/abstract :

Laughter appears to have been an obsession for the writers surrounding the English king, Henry II (r.1154-89). They discussed the subject in a greater depth than had any other milieu of the period, produced an overflowing of satirical texts and theories, and, most of all, contributed challengingly original images of both laughing saints and kings. This dissertation explores the significance of laughter in both the writing and the politics of Henry’s court, with a particular focus on the innovative descriptions of the laughter of Thomas Becket (d.1170) and Henry II himself. Establishing, for the first time, the range of ways that laughter was conceptualized by twelfth-century thinkers, and delineating the fundamental narrative topoi through which texts from the period articulated laughter, I will provide a new assessment of the central place of laughter and humor in the political culture of the court. Reading Thomas’s and Henry’s laughter through these insights, I will then suggest an entirely new narrative of laughter’s Christianization, and will offer a fresh perspective on Henry II’s governmental strategy. Throughout, I will ultimately illuminate how laughter came to be considered, by the later twelfth century, as a truly sublime spiritual and political act. Yet I will argue that it did so at the cost of losing some of the ineffable power and awe that earlier writers imagined it to have.

Corsi Maria, Elite networks and courtly culture in medieval Denmark

Corsi Maria, Elite networks and courtly culture in medieval Denmark: Denmark in Europe, 1st to 14th centuries, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. Sally N. Vaughn, University of Houston)

Résumé/abstract :

This dissertation advances the study of the cultural integration of Denmark with continental Europe in the Middle Ages. By approaching the question with a view to the longue durée, it argues that Danish aristocratic culture had been heavily influenced by trends on the Continent since at least the Roman Iron Age, so that when Denmark adopted European courtly culture, it did so simultaneously to its development in the rest of Europe. Because elite culture as it manifested itself in the Middle Ages was an amalgamation of that of Ancient Rome and the Geiuianic tribes, its origins in Denmark is sought in the interactions between the Danish territory and the Roman Empire. Elites in Denmark sought to emulate Roman culture as a marker of status, with pan-European elite networks facilitating the incorporation of Roman material items and social norms in Denmark, thus setting the pattern for later periods. These types of networks continued to play an important role in the interactions between Denmark and the successor kingdoms to the Roman Empire in the Early Middle Ages, leading to the development of an increasingly homogenized elite culture in Denmark and on the Continent. Danish elites drew on the material and ideological cultural models of their southern neighbors, using Frankish imports to signify status and power, much as Roman imports had been used earlier. The economic, diplomatic, and military ties that developed in the Early Middle Ages remained important conduits for the adoption of European aristocratic culture into the High Middle Ages, while the conversion to Christianity by the Danes enabled Danish elites to take part in the new educational networks associated with the rise of universities across Europe. All of these long-standing ties meant that the Danish aristocracy actively participated in the development of medieval courtly culture, including cavalry warfare and knighthood, courtly food consumption and feasting, and courtly dress and ornamentation, resulting in increased social differentiation between those who could take part in the new courtly culture and those who could not. Thus, Denmark was never outside of Europe, and when Danish elites adopted medieval chivalric and courtly culture, they did so contemporaneously with their counterparts in other parts of Europe.

[Source : https://repositories.tdl.org/uh-ir/handle/10657/726]

Bolognese Isabella, The monastery of Montevergine: its development and early history, 1118-1210

Bolognese, Isabella, The monastery of Montevergine: its development and early history, 1118-1210, (dir. G. Loud, University of Leeds)

This thesis examines the institutional and socio-economic development of the monastery of Montevergine during the twelfth century in the Kingdom of Sicily. Founded as a hermitage c. 1119 by the Italian hermit, William of Vercelli, Montevergine grew into a conventional Benedictine establishment by the end of the twelfth century. Over the course of the century, the religious community of Montevergine built an extensive land patrimony that went hand in hand with the growth of its pool of donors, and consequently caused the institutional identity and structure to evolve, and the monastery to increase its network of dependencies across its landholdings. This thesis aims to disentangle the events surrounding the monastery’s foundation, to explore its economic activities, and its relationships with its donors and the local lay community. The thesis is divided into two sections, the first taking a linear narrative approach to the study of Montevergine’s early development, and the second adopting a more thematic approach to the study of the economic, social, and institutional development of the monastery. Chapter 1 focusses on the foundation of Montevergine; Chapter 2 looks at its development during Norman rule of the Kingdom of Sicily; Chapter 3 follows its development during Hohenstaufen rule up to 1210; Chapter 4 surveys the geographical setting of Montevergine to provide a better understanding of its economic activities, which are the subject of Chapter 5. Chapter 6 explores the monastery’s relationships with the laity and the networks it built among the local lay community; Chapter 7 looks at the internal administrative and institutional development of Montevergine, while Chapter 8 analyses the expansion of its monastic network, focussing on a number of the monastery’s dependencies as case studies.

[Source : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/6500/]