De Roo Tessa Frances, The Viking sea from A to B : charting the nautical routes from Scandinavia in the early Viking Age, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (University of Cambridge)
Marie Bisson, Une édition numérique structurée à l’aide de la text encoding initiative des textes montois de dom Thomas LeRoy : établissement critique des textes, recherches sur les sources, présentation littéraire et historique
Compte rendu de la soutenance de thèse par Stéphane Lecouteux, responsable de la bibliothèque patrimoniale d’Avranches, membre associé au Centre Michel de Boüard – CRAHAM (UMR 6273 CNRS/Unicaen).
Le 7 décembre 2015, à l’université de Caen Normandie, Marie Bisson a soutenu sa thèse de doctorat intitulée « Une édition numérique structurée à l’aide de la Text Encoding Initiative des textes montois de dom Thomas Le Roy : établissement critique des textes, recherches sur les sources, présentation littéraire et historique », devant un jury composé de M. Benoît-Michel Tock, professeur d’histoire du Moyen Âge à l’université de Strasbourg (président du jury) ; M. Matthew Driscoll, senior lecturer in Old Norse philology, Arnamagnæan Institute (rapporteur) ; M. Daniel-Odon Hurel, directeur de recherche au laboratoire d’étude des monothéismes (rapporteur) ; Mme Catherine Jacquemard, professeur de latin à l’université de Caen Normandie (directrice de thèse) ; Mme Véronique Gazeau, professeur d’histoire médiévale à l’université de Caen Normandie (codirectrice de thèse) ; M. Frédéric Duval, professeur de philologie romane à l’École nationale des chartes (examinateur).
Le président du jury ouvre la séance à 14H00 et invite la doctorante à présenter les résultats de ses travaux.
Continuer la lecture de Marie Bisson, Une édition numérique structurée à l’aide de la text encoding initiative des textes montois de dom Thomas Le Roy : établissement critique des textes, recherches sur les sources, présentation littéraire et historique
Francesco Di Bartolo, Abitati rupestri e città fortificate nella Sicilia occidentale dai bizantini ai normanni, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. G. Vespignani, Università di Bologna)
La ricerca effettuata, analizza in modo razionale ma contestualmente divulgativo, le dinamiche insediative che hanno caratterizzato il paesaggio della Sicilia occidentale dall’occupazione bizantina al dominio da parte dei Normanni ( 535-1194 d.C. circa ). Il volume presenta una chiara raccolta dei documenti e delle fonti letterarie che riguarda gli abitati rurali ed i borghi incastellati della Sicilia occidentale e pone l’interesse sia per la cultura materiale che per la gestione ed organizzazione del territorio. Attraverso i risultati delle attestazioni documentarie, unite alle ricerche archeologiche ( effettuate nel territorio preso in esame sia in passato che nel corso degli ultimi anni ) viene redatto un elenco dei siti archeologici e dei resti monumentali ( aggiornato fino al 2013-14 ) in funzione della tutela, conservazione e valorizzazione del paesaggio. Sulla base dei documenti rinvenuti e delle varie fonti prese in esame ( letterarie, archeologiche, monumentali, toponomastiche ) vengono effettuate alcune considerazioni sull’insediamento sparso, sull’incastellamento, sulle istituzioni e sulla formazione delle civitates. L’indagine svolta, attraverso cui sono stati individuati i documenti e le fonti, comprende anche una parziale ricostruzione topografica dei principali centri abitativi indagati. Per alcune sporadiche strutture medievali, talvolta raffigurate in fortuite stampe del XVI-XVII secolo, è stato possibile, in aggiunta, eseguire un rilievo architettonico. La descrizione degli abitati rurali e dei siti fortificati, infine, è arricchita da una serie di schede in cui vengono evidenziati i siti archeologici, i resti monumentali ed i reperti più interessanti del periodo bizantino, arabo e normanno-svevo della Sicilia occidentale.
[Source : http://amsdottorato.unibo.it/6785/ ]
Karlsson Catarina, Förlorat järn — Det medeltida jordbrukets behov och förbrukning av järn och stål [Lost Iron – requirement and consumption of iron and steel in agriculture in medieval Sweden], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet)
Lost Iron – requirement and consumption of iron and steel in agriculture in medieval Sweden This study aims at an estimation of the amount of iron required for agriculture during the Middle Ages in Sweden. To calculate this we need to know which implements were used, their weights and how they were subjected to wear. Research on wear has been very scarce but it is of great importance to measure how much iron that was needed to replace what was taken away by constant wear, i.e. on shares for ploughs and ards. To achieve this a new method was devised. The method is based on previous research by Grith Lerche, with additional analyses and calculations. The method presented and used is called Wear Calculation Method and consists of five steps. Step 1: Study of medieval agricultural implements, their shape and weight. Step 2: Metallurgical analysis of selected implements, to answer questions about materials and how they were processed. Step 3: Experimental Archaeology: Manufacture of replicas of the implements analyzed in step 2. Step 4: Experimental Archaeology: ard ploughing and haymaking with replicas of ard shares and scythes for the purpose of measuring wear. Step 5: Analysis of the wear experiment, results and calculations of consumption of iron and steel in medieval agriculture. The experimental part of the thesis focuses on ard shares and scythes, since the ard and the scythe were the main implements for ploughing and haymaking during the Middle Ages in Sweden. These experiments were carried out during two seasons at Östra Järvafältet, north of Stockholm, Sweden. I have measured wear on the ard shares in grams per kilometer. But more relevant and often more compatible with data from written sources is a measure of how many grams that are worn off per hectare or any other given unit of land. The wear is approximated at 100 grams of iron and steel per ploughed hectare (10 000 m2), in conditions similar to the situation when the replicas were used. I chose to do my analyses on two different spatial levels, the farm and the county. The results prove that ard ploughing means much heavier wear on the implements compared to haymaking. Generally you needed an annual addition of slightly over 1 kg of iron to plough the fields of a normal-sized farm in Uppland. Thus we may estimate the total amount of iron required in Uppland to replace the wear caused by ploughing to 8,4 ton a year. These results show that iron and steel production were of great importance for the High Medieval economic expansion and modernization, where increased iron production and consumption as well as simultaneous expansion of arable land were vital. Between the end of the first millennium and the mid-14th century, the population of Sweden approximately doubled in size, much like the rest of Europe. Iron was a most important third factor (in combination with an increased population and the cultivation of new land) in this expanding age, ca AD 1000–1300. Production and consumption of iron and steel increased sharply during this period and it reached every person, farm, meadow and field in the country. This is a sure sign of a very developed market and system for the distribution of iron and steel.
[Source : http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/11435/]
Svensson Ola, Nämnda ting men glömda. Ortnamn, landskap och rättsutövning [Named but forgotten things: Place-names, landscape and justice], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. G. Byrman, S. Nyström, Linnéuniversitetet)
The dissertation describes the names related to justice and places in the landscape where justice was administered, applying an interdisciplinary perspective with place names as the chief source material. One aim is to collect and describe place names in Skåne designating or indirectly associated with meeting places and districts of the court, and to study the named places. The study covers many different periods, but especially the Middle Ages and the transition from the Late Iron Age to the Middle Ages. The analysis raises questions such as: Was there continuity in judicial sites between prehistoric and historic times? How old are the hundreds (härader)? Is there a spatial link between judicial sites and other central functions such as cult, markets, or rulers’ estates? The work is permeated by material-based onomastic research in combination with current perspectives in text research, historical geography, and archaeology. Nine case studies are conducted to describe the interaction between place, linguistic expression, and meaning. The study demonstrates the existence of a large corpus of names reflecting the early administration of justice. Most of the many field names which contain ting ‘court’ and galge ‘gallows’ can be related to the actual administration of justice. The medieval sites where courts assembled and people were executed stand out in particular, but in many cases these have prehistoric roots. Both unbroken continuity and the reuse of earlier places of assembly may be assumed. Close to sites with names indicating the administration of justice there are also landscape features with names that grant epic and mythical status to the locale. The special quality of these places was handed down, incorporated in larger narratives, based on changing ideas and circumstances in different periods. The landscape of the hundred courts (häradsting) is archaic, magnificent and mythical, and shared, qualities that contributed to the maintenance and legitimation of judicial practice. A division into a general, public judicial sphere and a more limited and exclusive sphere can be seen. In the medieval exercise of justice this division is manifested in two different judicial districts – härad and birk – but the phenomenon can be traced back to the Late Iron Age. The study also problematizes a traditional image of the names of the hundreds.
Lavender Philip Thomas, Whatever Happened to Illuga saga Gríðarfóstra ? Origin, Transmission and Reception of a Fornaldarsaga, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (Université de Copenhague)
Never heard of Illuga saga Gríðarfóstra? You’re not alone. Alongside the canon of world literary treasures there lies a shady world of forgotten and abandoned texts. The focus of my doctoral research has been the revindication of one such work, not simply because humanities research revels in the excavation of recondite relics of yesteryear, but also because behind every currently unpopular work there can lie a prehistory of untold entertainment and edification. Illuga saga Gríðarfóstra tells the story of a viking hero and his encounter with a lewd and troublesome trollwoman in the far north. It is found in 37 manuscript witnesses, but also in a number of other literary and textual formats. The relationships between these various formats – a passage from Saxo Grammaticus’ Gesta Danorum, Faroese ballads, Swedish ‘Stormaktstiden’ academic interventions and post-medieval Icelandic rímur – will be adumbrated and their production contexts analyzed in an attempt to account for how past audiences interacted with this quirky saga. The result hopefully provides a partial blueprint for the salvaging of similar literary flotsam and jetsam.
Kedwards Dale, Cartography and Culture in Medieval Iceland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (Université d’York)
While previous studies of the medieval Icelandic world maps have tended to be cursorily descriptive, and focus on their roles as representatives of the geographical information available to medieval Icelanders, this thesis directs attention towards their manuscript contexts. Rather than narrowly approaching the maps as vehicles for geographical information, the chapters assembled in this thesis explore their relevance to other areas: pan-European histories of astronomy and the computus (chapters 1 and 2), Icelandic literary history (chapter 4), and the history of the Icelandic Commonwealth (chapter 5). Ultimately, this thesis attempts to rehabilitate the Icelandic maps as sources for the cultural history of medieval Iceland, and demonstrates that they connect with more textual worlds than has previously been supposed. Chapter 1 presents an examination of the Icelandic hemispherical world map, preserved in two manuscripts: the encyclopaedic fragments in Copenhagen’s Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf marks AM 736 I 4to (c. 1300) and AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). I demonstrate that this map’s primary function was to illustrate the configurations of the sun and moon responsible for variations in tidal range. Chapter 2 presents an examination of the Icelandic zonal map, preserved in the large illustrated encyclopaedia in Reykjavík’s Stofnun Árna Magnússonar with the shelf mark GkS 1812 I 4to (1315-c. 1400). This map also shows the structure of the ocean and the mechanisms responsible for the tides. These two chapters restore these maps to their manuscript contexts, and demonstrate that they sustain a complex suite of relationships with the items preserved alongside them. Chapter 3 concerns the relationship between the two world maps preserved in Reykjavík, Stofnun Árna Magnússonar, GkS 1812 III 4to (c. 1225-50). Although these two maps are preserved on the recto and verso of the same manuscript folio, the relationship between them has not hitherto been examined. The two chapters that follow concern different aspects of these paired maps, and foreground their implications for Icelandic national identity at the time of their production. Chapter 4 concerns their depiction of Europe, with a particular focus on Iceland. Chapter 5 concerns the relationship between the two maps and a register of forty highborn Icelandic priests preserved alongside them, and calls attention to the secular uses to which maps might have been put in thirteenth-century Iceland.
[Source : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/8489/]
Arley David Hugh, The whirling wheel: the male construction of empowered female identities in Old Norse myth and legend, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (Université de Durham)
This thesis examines the body of medieval literature associated with Old Norse myth and legend. Though this is a diffuse corpus produced over a long span of time and from a wide geographical area, it is possible to establish connections between texts and to highlight certain recurring narrative patterns that are deeply entrenched in this literary tradition. The specific focus of the present study is to analyse the narrative patterns that characterise the interactions between male and female figures.
It has long been understood that female figures tend to occupy carefully defined social roles in this body of literature, and much work has been done in assessing these. This thesis takes the unique approach of investigating whether these roles can be viewed, not as a product of the mentality of the writers of this literary material, but rather as a product of male characters within the literary narratives themselves. The investigation poses the question of whether men can be seen, through their words, thoughts, and actions, to be responsible for creating female identities. Intimately connected to the concept of identity creation is the idea of power: this thesis will argue that most male attempts to redefine female identity is motivated by a desire to acquire, control, negate, or otherwise alter, the powers possessed by females. Quite often, because fallible males demonstrate an imperfect understanding of female power, there can be a marked disparity between the abilities certain women are thought to possess, and those they actually do. The thesis will examine a large selection of supernatural female figures, across a broad range of literature, ultimately to suggest that the male creation of female power is deeply entrenched in narrative patterns observable in many different contexts.
[Source : http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/11057/]
Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (dir. K. O’Conor, NUI Galway)
The Anglo-Norman occupation of Cork permanently altered the physical and societal landscape of the city, and its immediate surrounding area. Over the course of nearly a century and a half, a small but functioning harbour became the premier Anglo-Norman port on the south-west coast of Ireland, and the earlier settlement transitioned from a small Hiberno-Norse trading community and nearby monastic nucleus into a socially- and architecturally-diverse urban centre. This process of urbanisation was a deliberate action on the part of the Anglo-Normans to ‘civilise’ their new colony in the late 12th century, and by the late 13th and early 14th centuries, the thriving town of Cork was a testament to the successful realization of this goal. There has been extensive archaeological investigation within the city, which has uncovered significant evidence of Cork’s urban medieval development. To date, the results of these excavations have not been academically assessed as a compound entity. This study is the first attempt to establish a cohesive archaeological and historical understanding of the impact of Anglo-Norman occupation on the social morphology of Cork’s earliest urban inhabitants. It is, effectively, the first integrated interpretation of all available archaeological data from the Anglo-Norman period in Cork. Using an approach which integrates historical and archaeological evidence to define exact temporal parameters, the present writer has interrogated all available excavation data as part of a high-resolution study of the social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork. This has resulted in a new understanding of some long-held perceptions of the period between c.1171 and c.1315 in the city. This research has challenged previous historical interpretations of the impact of the Anglo-Norman occupation on the existing Hiberno-Norse inhabitants, and re-defined their role as useful participants in the economy of the Anglo-Norman city. Evidence of at least four social strata within the town has been identified, and new information on the quality of life enjoyed by the lower-ranking craft-workers and artisans of the period is put forward. Phases of economic migration within the city have been recognized, as has physical evidence of the elite members of society at this time. Life-ways, both individual and familial, have been deciphered from the data in order to enrich, and personalize, this account of the social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork.
Colclough Samantha Jane, Image and reality in medieval weaponry and warfare : Wales c.1100-c.1450, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (Bangor University)
Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available.
[Source : http://e.bangor.ac.uk/5430/]
Worth Liliana, « Exile-and-return » in medieval vernacular texts of England and Spain 1170-1250, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. L. Ashe, G. Hazbun, D. Hook, Université d’Oxford)
The motif of ‘exile-and-return’ is found in works from a wide range of periods and linguistic traditions. The standard narrative pattern depicts the return of wrongfully exiled heroes or peoples to their former abode or their establishment of a superior home, which signals a restoration of order. The appeal of the pattern lies in its association with undue loss, rightful recovery and the universal vindication of the protagonist. Though by no means confined to any one period or region, the particular narrative pattern of the exile-and-return motif is prevalent in vernacular texts of England and Spain around 1170–1250. This is the subject of the thesis. The following research engages with scholarship on Anglo-Norman romances and their characteristic use of exile-and-return that sets them apart from continental French romances, by highlighting the widespread employment of this narrative pattern in Spanish poetic works during the same period. The prevalence of the pattern in both literatures is linked to analogous interaction with continental French works, the relationship between the texts and their political contexts, and a common responses to wider ecclesiastical reforms. A broader aim is to draw attention to further, unacknowledged similarities between contemporary texts from these different linguistic traditions, as failure to take into account the wider, multilingual literary contexts of this period leads to incomplete arguments. The methodology is grounded in close reading of four main texts selected for their exemplarity, with some consideration of the historical context and contemporary intertexts : the Romance of Horn, the Cantar de mio Cid, Gui de Warewic and the Poema de Fernán González. A range of intertexts are considered alongside in order to elucidate the particular concerns and distinctive use of exile-and-return in the main works.
Deshayes Gilles, Le cellier médiéval en Normandie orientale : contribution à l’étude des utilisations, implantations et architectures des caves et celliers dans la Normandie orientale du second Moyen Âge, principalement dans les établissements monastiques, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. A.-M. Flambard Héricher, Université de Rouen)
Au cours du second Moyen Age, de nombreux celliers ont été construits, agrandis ou transformés en Normandie orientale. Le cellier est un espace économique polyvalent, fréquenté régulièrement, destiné à stocker, conserver et protéger des biens matériels (surtout des fûts de vin). Introduite par une analyse de la sémantique médiévale du cellier et de la cave, la recherche a été axée sur leurs utilisations, implantations et architectures, au travers de la documentation écrite, iconographique et archéologique. Les relevés et études monographiques ont surtout renseigné des résidences seigneuriales, plus particulièrement les abbayes. À l’échelle d’une région les angles d’approche du sujet fournissent une vision d’ensemble des celliers maçonnés, souvent voûtés, et au sein des activités qui leur sont associées, des chantiers de construction aux utilisations du quotidien. La diversité des sites et des paysages engendre celles des usages des celliers, de leur dimensions et de leurs modes de gestion (vignobles, résidences, quartiers urbains). Pratiques, contenus et contenants ont pu évoluer au cours de la période, témoins de la lente et partielle disparition des celliers peu encaissés au profit de caves profondes et parfois souterraines. L’usage et le paysage dictent l’implantation opportuniste ou contrainte du cellier, proche d’espaces associés. Les plans, élévations, voûtes, ouvertures, matériaux et techniques de construction caractérisent les vestiges et constituent des éléments de datation. Pendant deux siècles, les celliers quadrangulaires furent secondés par les « caves à cellules », abondantes dans la moitié sud-est de la région et dans une grande variété de sites ruraux.
During the second period of the Middle Ages, many cellars in Eastern Normandy were built, enlarged or transformed. The cellar is an economic space of various uses, regularly visited, used to store, keep and shelter goods (mostly barrels for wine). Based upon an analysis of the semantics concerning cellars, vaults and basements in the medieval times, the research deals with the cellar’s use, situations and architectures found in written, iconographic and archeological documents. Exhaustive plotting and studies mainly concern seigniorial residences, especially abbeys. At a regional scale, the different points expounded give a global view on stonework cellars, often vaulted, and amidst their usual activities ranging from the building sites to everyday life use. The variety of sites and landscapes generate diverse uses, sizes and types of administration (vineyard, residence, urban areas). According to the evolution of habits, containers and contents, some cellars that weren’t very deep slowly disapeared and were replaced by deeper, and sometimes underground cellars. The use and the environment determined the obvious or most convenient location of the cellar, close to other spaces associated to it. Plans, elevations, vaults, means of access, materials and techniques of building are characteristic of each ruin and enable its datation. For two centuries, the square cellars were replaced by « partitioned cellars », quite numerous in half of the South-East area and in a great variety of rural sites.
[Source : http://www.theses.fr/2015ROUEL001]
Humbert Benoit, La circulation des biens et des hommes dans la Rus’ ancienne et l’impact des Scandinaves sur le développement de la Rus’ d’après l’historiographie (IXe-XIIe siècle). Apport des sources scandinaves et perspectives comparées avec les fondations scandinaves occidentales : Normandie et iles anglo-saxonnes, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. Constantin Zuckerman, École Pratique des Hautes Etudes).
La pénétration des Scandinaves en Russie, qui s’insère dans ce vaste mouvement d’échanges qui entre les VIIIe et XIIe siècles fait circuler hommes et biens au sein de ces régions, apparaît à bien des égards comme un stimulant économique et politique d’importance dans l’émergence d’organisations politiques et sociales qui aboutirent au développement de centres proto-urbains d’importance et du premier État russe.
Aude Painchault, Les châteaux normands dans l’œuvre d’Orderic Vital et leurs traces archéologiques
Compte rendu de la soutenance de thèse par Micaël Allainguillaume, Adrien Dubois et Jean-Baptiste Vincent
Le mardi 13 janvier 2015, à l’Université de Rouen, Aude Painchault a soutenu sa thèse de doctorat intitulée « Les châteaux normands dans l’œuvre d’Orderic Vital et leurs traces archéologiques », devant un jury composé de Gérard Giuliato, professeur d’histoire et d’archéologie médiévale, université de Lorraine, président du jury ; David Bates, professeur d’histoire médiévale, East Anglia University, rapporteur ; Philippe Racinet, professeur d’histoire et d’archéologie médiévale, université de Picardie, Jules Verne, rapporteur ; Véronique Gazeau, professeur d’histoire médiévale, université de Caen Basse-Normandie et Anne-Marie Flambard Héricher, professeur émérite d’histoire et d’archéologie médiévale, université de Rouen, directrice de la thèse.
Aude Painchault (université de Rouen), Les châteaux normands dans l’œuvre d’Orderic Vital et leurs traces archéologiques
Thèse de doctorat soutenue le mardi 13 janvier 2015 sous la direction d’Anne-Marie Flambard Héricher.