Archives de catégorie : Fait religieux / Religion

Cohen Nicholas, Patristic analogues in Anselm of Canterbury’s Cur Deus Homo

Cohen Nicholas, Patristic analogues in Anselm of Canterbury’s Cur Deus Homo, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. S.F. Brown, Boston College)

Résumé/abstract :

The Cur Deus Homo (CDH) of Anselm of Canterbury is one of the most well-known and yet controversial works in the Anselmian corpus. Anselm’s audacious effort to prove the necessity of the Incarnation has been met with varying levels of skepticism and critique in the intervening centuries. Critics of Anselm have taken aim particularly at the language that Anselm used in the CDH, commonly asserting that the key terms of the argument were derived primarily from the feudal society that surrounded Anselm as he wrote. The contention is then usually made that Anselm’s usage of such terminology betrays a mindset so entangled in feudalism as to render the whole work ineffective as a work of Christian theology. Only in recent years have serious efforts been made to examine the theological roots of Anselm’s thought process in the CDH. In this work, I examine the language that has been so maligned in recent years and I build on recent trends in Anselm scholarship to argue that his language is not so much feudal as it is scriptural and patristic. By analyzing Anselm’s use of « honor, » « justice, » « debt » and « satisfaction, » I argue that Anselm was more concerned with maintaining consistency with his own work and with scriptural and patristic sources than with the feudal or juridical nature of his social context. I conclude by highlighting the ways in which Anselm accomplished his stated purpose in the CDH and provided a unique perspective on the Incarnation and Atonement that stands on its own as a turning point in the history of Christian theology.

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Niblaeus Erik Gunnar, German influence on religious practice in Scandinavia, c. 1050-1150

Niblaeus Erik Gunnar, German influence on religious practice in Scandinavia, c. 1050-1150, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. J.L. Nelson, King’s College London)

Résumé/abstract :

The thesis is concerned with the later stages of Christianisation of Scandinavia, following the missionary period, when the church was consolidated and given secure foundations for worship and pastoral care, including the building and equipment of thousands of local churches, and the creation of a lasting diocesan structure. It argues that the German influence during this period, while often taken for granted, deserves to be investigated in more detail, and has been underplayed in recent scholarship. It is divided into five chapters, the first three more general in scope, concerned with the whole of Scandinavia, the last two more specific studies organised according to geographical area. Chapter one is introductory. Chapter two considers in general and comparative terms the importance of liturgy and books in the process of Scandinavian Christianisation. Chapter three is a consideration of the German interest in Scandinavia as it developed from the eleventh to the twelfth century, first in secular terms, second in religious terms, including a discussion of the clergy with German affiliations who held office in Scandinavia. It also includes an investigation of the clerical ideals of the principal narrative primary source to the period, Adam of Bremen’s History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. Chapters four and five deal with questions of the introduction of German liturgy and German books into the churches of Denmark and Sweden respectively.

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Munns John M., The cross of Christ and Anglo-Norman religious imagination

Munns John M., The cross of Christ and Anglo-Norman religious imagination, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. P. Binski, University of Cambridge)

Résumé/abstract :

This study explores the ideas and images of the cross of Christ – intellectual, devotional, ethical, liturgical and artistic – in England between the Norman invasion and the beginning of the thirteenth century. The first chapter considers the influence of Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), both in the articulation of the first systemic exposition of the atonement and in the development of affective devotional practice. Chapter Two will relate these, in turn, to two other late eleventh-century developments that were nurtured in the Anglo-Norman cultural milieu: the defence of the doctrine of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist and the appearance of Trinitarian imagery in which the sacrificial offering of Christ on the cross is depicted as an eternal part of the divine life. Chapter Three will follow these developments into the twelfth century and explore their relationships to Cistercian spirituality and eremitic vocation.

In Part Two the remaining artistic evidence will provide the starting point for an art-historical exploration of the image of the crucified Christ. Chapters Four and Five survey the public image, representations in wall-painting, sculpture and metalwork and the use of the cross in liturgy and church furnishing. Chapter Six will consider the depiction of the passion and crucifixion in manuscript illumination, particularly in the ten substantial pictorial life-cycles of Christ to survive from twelfth-century England.

Part Three focuses on the period between the death of Thomas Becket in 1170 and the first decades of the thirteenth century. In Chapter Seven, Becket’s nurture of both ‘Anselmian’ devotion and an increasingly active cross-centred Christo-mimetic ethic will be demonstrated, and the subsequent rise in enthusiasm for pilgrimage and passion relics explored. The final chapter focuses on English engagement with the crusades and the Holy Land.

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Nordvig Mathias, Of Fire and Water : The Old Norse Mythical Worldview in an Eco-Mythological Perspective

Nordvig Mathias, Of Fire and Water : The Old Norse Mythical Worldview in an Eco-Mythological Perspective, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. P. Hermann, Agnes Siggerdur Arnórsdóttir, T. Gunnell, Université d’Aarhus)

Résumé/abstract :

What is the constitution of the Old Norse worldview according to the literary mythological sources in terms of man’s relationship with nature? What is the relationship between the conceptual categories of culture and nature, or civilized and wild (byggð and óbyggð, innangarðs and útangarðs) as it is expressed in the æsir’s dealings with the surrounding world in the myth of Þórr’s Fishing Expedition, the Creation Myth, and the myth of the Mead of Poetry in the Edda version? How do the actions of the gods in these narratives express man’s mythical notions of his relationship with the land and sea in the Scandinavian and North Atlantic ecosystems?

To answer this question we must first establish what is meant by the term ‘worldview,’ because this is not at all clear or consistent in Old Norse scholarship. The term is used widely by scholars of different disciplines, from literature and religion to archaeology. The subject has grown in popularity over the past forty decades, and the term ‘worldview’ has become commonplace in scholarship. It often supplants the term ‘cosmology’ in the context of Old Norse mythology in interdisciplinary discussion, or in the juxtaposition of paganism and Christianity. It may also be used to describe a popular understanding of Old Norse religion and mythology contrary to a dogmatic or authoritative one. In other instances, the term is applied by some scholars as a designation for a social ideology that is essentially unconsciously implemented in society and individual life.
The term ‘worldview’ is diffuse and originates in the German philosophical term Weltanschauung as it is used by, among others, Dilthey, Jaspers, and Scheler, to denote an overall comprehension of the world by an individual or a people. This all-encompassing understanding of the world synthesizes, generalizes, and transcends the scientific as well as the non-scientific perception of reality and prescribes social conduct, values, and explanations for the surrounding world. This is a very broad definition and it is thus no wonder that the term finds many uses in Old Norse scholarship. Because of the lack of clarity regarding the term ‘worldview’ and its application, the above question, when paired with the fact that there are no verifiably concrete first-hand sources for the pre-Christian worldview of Scandinavia, brings with it two other important questions, namely:

1) If the literature of Old Norse mythology contains a specific worldview, what is the internal relationship between these texts? And;

2) What is the external relationship of the mythology to the surrounding world?

Thilderkvist Johan Gustaf Mattias, Ritual bones or common waste

Thilderkvist Johan Gustaf Mattias, Ritual bones or common waste : a study of early medieval bone deposits in Northern Europe, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (Université de Groningen)

Résumé/abstract :
The aim of the thesis is to test different methods in order to formulate a methodological framework for approaching the identification of ritual deposits of animal bones in settlements. For this purpose four Early Medieval case study-sites were chosen: Dongjum and Leeuwarden, two artificial dwelling mounds situated in the then undiked salt marches of the Northern Netherlands, Midlaren, an inland settlement in Drenthe, and finally Uppåkra, a central place in the south of Sweden. The bone fragments from the four materials were analysed in a five step process that included the steps definition, description, identification, interpretation and explanation. In the 4 materials 20 deposits were identified as special and of these 17 were interpreted as ritual. These deposits were discussed and explained further with the help of various archaeological, ethnographic and historical sources. Despite the fact that a number of methods were applied for identifying special deposits among bone materials and the main conclusion is that no single, or even a set of methods stood out as a flawless tool for identifying ritual deposits. The results of the analysis instead lead to a methodological framework for understanding individual deposits based on a holistic perspective where all information should be regarded as potentially valuable. This does not imply that the researcher should get bogged down in incredibly detailed studies. Rather it suggests openness in the approach, to take various methods into consideration and to avoid simplification.

Hållans Ann-Mari, Fornminnen : det förflutnas roll i det förkristna och kristna Mälardalen

Hållans Ann-Mari, Fornminnen : det förflutnas roll i det förkristna och kristna Mälardalen, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. A. Andrén, Université de Lund)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examine how farm-dwellers in the Mälaren region during the late Iron Age and early Middle Ages created, transferred, and preserved memory by deliberately placing new houses and graves on the houses and graves of previous generations. Focus is on memory as a social phenomenon and culture-specific resource created by these deliberate practices. The culture-specific element is oral culture. Place is an important part of the contextualization of social memory. The pre-Christian and early Christian farm has a special quality that is so self-evident that it is seldom highligh¬ted – the presence of the graves within its territory. This distinguishes that farm from those where the dead were buried in a graveyard. My theoretical framework is that of memory theory. In focus is human agency, formal and ritualized practice, and structured and constructed reality. All the media then available for memory construction are taken into consideration: formal and ritual acts such as ‘super-imposing’; material remains such as graves and buildings; sites on different scale levels in the landscape, such as farms with grave-fields and yards; narratives such as the Icelandic sagas. The source material consists of more than 300 archaeological excavations of grave-fields and settlements conducted in the Mälaren valley. The analysis include four sub-studies of superimpositions: grave on grave, house on house, grave on house, and house on grave. It takes into account possible variations in the scope and expression of the superimpositions because of the chronological, geographical, and social context. One of the more significant results is that the superimpositions showed very deliberate patterns, implying that the practices were very conscious. In the synthesis superimposition practices are considered as historical entities, and as functions of a possible historical culture in different eras. Down the ages, from the Migration Period up to and including the early Middle Ages, major regional changes in society have steered the contemporaneous perceptions of history. This means new social, ideological, and cultural context, which in its turn created the need for new memories.
I vår egen tid finns ett stort intresse för släktforskning och historia hos många. Men man tänker sällan på att även människor i gångna tider kunnat blicka tillbaka på sitt förflutna och fundera på sin egen plats i släktleden. Vad var de ville minnas och hur mindes de i en tid utan skriv- och läskunnighet? Det är frågor som ställs i avhandlingen och där svaren söks i de lämningar som grävts fram från järnåldern vid många arkeologiska undersökningar i Mälardalen. En inblick i detta ger oss en större förståelse för det förflutnas roll och betydelse i såväl dåtid som vår egen tid. I avhandlingen visas hur människor på gårdar under järnåldern i Mälardalen ”byggde” minnen genom att medvetet placera nya gravar och hus på tidigare generationers gravar och hus.

Rety-Letouzey Catherine, Écrits et gestion du temporel dans une grande abbaye de femmes anglo-normande : la Sainte-Trinité de Caen (XIe-XIIIe siècle)

Rety-Letouzey Catherine, Écrits et gestion du temporel dans une grande abbaye de femmes anglo-normande : la Sainte-Trinité de Caen (XIe-XIIIe siècle), Thèse de doctorat soutenue  en 2011 (dir. Laurent Feller, Université de Paris I ; David Bates, University of East Anglia)

Résumé/abstract :

Cette thèse étudie les pratiques de gestion adoptées par les religieuses de La Trinité de Caen pour administrer leur vaste temporel anglo-normand durant les deux premiers siècles de l’histoire du monastère. Fondée vers 1059 par Guillaume le Conquérant et Mathilde de Flandres, l’Abbaye-aux-Dames a élaboré un cartulaire-censier (fin du XIIe siècle) et une série d’enquêtes (XIIe-XIIIe siècles) sans équivalent parmi les archives normandes, mais , qui s’insèrent Outre-Manche dans un corpus documentaire plus développé, bien connu et étudié. L’interrogation soulevée par la réalisation de ces documents dans cette abbaye normande constitue le point de départ de l’étude, qui explore la question des rapports entretenus entre compétences scripturaires et administratives, et qui tente de restituer les stratégies de gestion mises en place par les religieuses, et plus particulièrement leurs abbesses, durant les XIe-XIIIe siècles. Replacer cette documentation dans son contexte de production, celui d’une grande abbaye de femmes, dirigée par des abbesses puissantes et pleinement insérées dans l’univers des pratiques culturelles et administratives anglo-normandes, permet de mieux appréhender les enjeux de la réalisation des enquêtes et du cartulaire de l’Abbaye-aux-Dames. Comme tout grand seigneur ecclésiastique de cette époque, les abbesses de Caen témoignent d’une attention pointilleuse pour le respect de leurs prérogatives, mais aussi d’une conscience aiguë des réalités économiques, et d’une grande détermination dans leur démarche de préservation du temporel établi et organisé par la reine Mathilde, qui a souhaité être enterrée dans le chœur de l’église abbatiale.

Compte rendu par Isabelle Theiller sur le forum de Tabularia (08/12/2011)

Continuer la lecture de Rety-Letouzey Catherine, Écrits et gestion du temporel dans une grande abbaye de femmes anglo-normande : la Sainte-Trinité de Caen (XIe-XIIIe siècle)

Monikander Anne, Våld och vatten, Våtmarkskult vid Skedemosse under järnåldern

Monikander Anne, Våld och vatten, Våtmarkskult vid Skedemosse under järnåldern, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. I. Jansson, Université de Stockholm)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examines the wetland sacrifices that were performed in Northern Europe in the Iron Age. Skedemosse on central Öland is the largest wetland sacrifice in Sweden and was the site of a cult which sacrificed animals and humans. Between the late second century and well into the fifth century the place was also used for large sacrifices of military equipment. New radiocarbon dates has shown that the place functioned as a ritual place from the Pre Roman Iron Age and into the Late Viking Age.Both in the Iron Age and later wetlands seem to have been both venerated and feared and the thesis discusses why this came to be, and how it can be seen in the archaeological material.A smaller part of the sacrificial site of Skedemosse was selected for a closer study and it was possible to establish several depositions which appear to have been treated slightly different from each other.The investigations of the animal sacrifices have focused on the horses as they are the most common animal. The horse was an important mythological animal in the Iron Age and they were equally important in the cult. The horses in Skedemosse were eaten in ritual meals, and it is possible that some of them took part in ritual races along the ridge east of the former lake. Such races were called skeið and the name Skedemosse may be derived from this word.Skedemosse is also rare because the remains of ca 38 people have been found in it. Some of these people have suffered a violent death. They are compared to other bog bodies from northern Europe and the follow a similar pattern to those; In the Pre Roman Iron Age mainly women and children were sacrificed and after the first century AD mainly men ended up in the lake.

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Additions and Corrections to David S. Spear, The Personnel of the Norman Cathedrals during the Ducal Period, 911-1204 (London: Institute of Historical Research, 2006)

Additions and Corrections to David S. Spear, The Personnel of the Norman Cathedrals during the Ducal Period, 911-1204(London: Institute of Historical Research, 2006)

Addenda et Corrigenda de l’ouvrage The Personnel of the Norman Cathedrals during the Ducal Period, 911-1204 (Londres, Institute of Historical Research, 2006)

David S. SPEAR

[Ed.] This publication is an update, with additions and corrections, of the work published by D. Spear; the editorial board of Tabularia has chosen to preserve the editorial standards of the aforementioned work.

[NDLR] Cette publication constitue une mise à jour, avec additions et corrections, du volume publié par D. Spear ; la rédaction de Tabularia a choisi de conserver les normes éditoriales de l’ouvrage cité ci-dessus.



Vers l’Orient et vers l’Occident Regards croisés sur les dynamiques et les transferts culturels des Vikings à la Rous ancienne

P. Bauduin et A. Musin (dir.), Vers l’Orient et vers l’Occident : regards croisés sur les dynamiques et les transferts culturels des Vikings à la Rous ancienne, Presses universitaires de Caen, Publications du CRAHAM, 2014, 504 p., ISBN : 978-2-84133-499-5, 45 € (Eastwards and Westwards : Multiple Perspectives on the Dynamics and Cultural Transfers from the Vikings to the Early Rus’/ На Запад и на Восток : сравнительное исследование динамики культурного обмена. От викингов к Древней Руси)


Contact et information

Issu d’un projet de recherche franco-russe (CNRS-Académie des Sciences de Russie), ce volume présente les avancées de la recherche récentes sur les Vikings dans une perspective pluridisciplinaire et comparatiste largement ouverte à l’Europe orientale. Il confronte les vues de chercheurs de plusieurs disciplines travaillant sur différentes sources et qui se rattachent à des méthodologies ou à des traditions historiographiques diverses plus ou moins marquées idéologiquement.

L’ouvrage propose de réfléchir sur les dynamiques des échanges culturels analysées comme un processus d’interactions qui franchissent les groupes ethniques ou sociaux, les pays, les croyances et les pratiques religieuses, les générations, les genres. Il s’agit de s’interroger sur les particularités de ces processus et sur les transformations mutuelles des fondations scandinaves ainsi que des sociétés locales (franque, anglo-saxonne, slave, finnoise). Une large part est accordée aux acteurs de ces changements (élites, marchands, hommes d’Église, artisans, femmes, scaldes, historiographes….), ainsi qu’aux lieux ou aux espaces où celles-ci interviennent. La signification de la mémoire historique relative à la présence scandinave dans le passé régional ou national en Europe et l’impact mémoriel sur la formation des représentations de l’autre, des identités et des historiographies médiévales ou modernes sont également abordés. Le volume participe ainsi à une réflexion plus large sur les notions débattues d’acculturation, de transferts culturels, de middle ground dont l’intérêt heuristique dépasse largement le phénomène de l’expansion scandinave à l’époque viking.

The result of a Franco-Russian Research project (CNRS – Russian Academy of Sciences), this publication presents the latest advances of recent research on the Vikings in a multidisciplinary and comparative perspective across Eastern Europe. It confronts the views of researchers from several disciplines working on different sources which reflect diverse methodological or historiographical traditions that have been, to some extent, marked ideologically.

The volume proposes a reflection on the dynamics of cultural exchanges analysed as a process of interactions that have traversed ethnic or social groups, countries, religious beliefs and practices, generations, genders. Questions concerning the specificities of these processes and the reciprocal transformations of Scandinavian settlements and local societies (Frankish, Anglo-Saxon, Slavic, Finnish) are posed. A large part of the volume is devoted to the actors involved in these changes (elites, merchants, ecclesiastics, artisans, women, skalds, historiographers….), and the places or areas where they took place. The significance of historical memory in the European regional or national past concerning the Scandinavian presence and the impact of this memory on the creation of representations of the other, identities and medieval or modern historiography are equally discussed. This publication thus participates to the broader reflection on the notions discussed concerning acculturation, cultural transfers and the “middle ground” whose heuristic interest goes far beyond the phenomenon of Scandinavian expansion during the Viking era.