Archives de catégorie : Identité et altérité / Identity and otherness

Friðriksdóttir Jóhanna Katrín, Women in Old Norse literature: bodies, words, and power

Friðriksdóttir Jóhanna Katrín, Women in Old Norse literature: bodies, words, and power, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, XIV-192 p. ISBN: 978-0-230-12042-6

Compte rendu par/Review by : Craig R. Davis

The Medieval Review

Date : 14 Feb 2014

The primary focus of feminist literary criticism over the past few decades has been on the question of “agency,” that is, the autonomy or control authors depict fictional women as having over their own bodies, as well as the power of these characters to influence domestic or political affairs through speech and action. The medieval tradition of Old Norse poetry and prose, preserved mainly in Icelandic manuscripts, provides a full range of variously empowered female figures relevant to such study: young girls and grown women, housewives and queens, “good girls” and pioneer matriarchs, witches and “bitches”–plus goddesses, norns, sybils, valkyries, giantesses, she-beasts, shape-shifters, even manly women and womanly men, cross-dressers and transgendered. In the terms popularized by Judith Butler in Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (1990), the “performance” of sexual identity is what characters do in Old Norse-Icelandic literature and very few of them are portrayed as oblivious to the gendered implications of their words and deeds. Jóhanna Katrín Friðriksdóttir’s contribution in this book is to demonstrate the diversity and nuance of the expression of sexual identity in Icelandic secular prose narratives and the multiplicity of situations in which it is brought to bear.

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Pons-Sanz Sara Maria, The lexical effects of Anglo-Scandinavian linguistic contact on Old English

Pons-Sanz Sara Maria, The lexical effects of Anglo-Scandinavian linguistic contact on Old English, Turnhout, Brepols (Studies in the Early Middle Ages, vol. 1), 2013, XV-589 p. ISBN: 978-2-503-53471-8

Compte rendu par/Review by : Roberta Frank

The Medieval Review

Date : 2 May 2014

This study looks with exquisite care at the more than three hundred terms attested during the Anglo-Saxon period for which Norse derivation has been claimed. It analyzes their chronological and dialectal distribution (to the extent that this is possible), and probes the semantic and stylistic relationships between these terms and their native equivalents. Pons-Sanz’s rigorous skepticism (“is the evidence strong enough?”) means that few lexical items get through her interrogation unbattered and unbowed. Some words are rejected altogether as probably of native origin (e.g., OE cal “kale,” OE wrang “wrong, injustice”), one new word from Cnut’s laws is added. The author has a gift for clarity of presentation, from her exemplary introduction through nineteen sets of tables and four appendices (the first listing all Norse-derived terms attested in Old English texts, the second, of 67 pages, Old English texts recording Norse-derived terms). This volume is a solid contribution to the study of cultural contact between English and Norse speakers during the long Viking Age.

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James Moore, The Norman aristocracy in the long eleventh century : three case studies

James Moore, The Norman aristocracy in the long eleventh century : three case studies, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université d’Oxford)

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Lacey Benjamin, Identification and self-understanding in the 12th-century north of England

Lacey Benjamin, Constructing communities: identification and self-understanding in the 12th-century north of England, (dir. A. Power, M. Staub, University of Sheffield)

En cours depuis 2009/In preparation since 2009

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examines the links that gave people a sense of identification with local communities. Much of this is based on the religious institutions in the area, looking at how they constructed their pasts, imagined their surroundings and thought about ritual and saints’ cults in order to create a suitable image of who they were. In doing this, they often incorporated the local laity, which may have led to these institutions underpinning local ‘communal’ feeling beyond the immediate monastic group. This would have been strengthened through tenurial/patronage networks which included lay and monastic lands. My work aims to do more than just look at the communities that formed; I also hope to examine how these processes affected the relationship between the individual and the collective.

[Source : http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/history/research/students/ben_lacey]

Kilpi Hanna, The role of lesser aristocratic women in 12th-century England

Kilpi Hanna, The role of lesser aristocratic women in 12th-century England, (dir. S. Marritt, J. Smith, University of Glasgow)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

My thesis examines the place of lesser aristocratic women in twelfth-century England. Lesser aristocratic women have often been overlooked in modern historiography because it has often been assumed that there is very little evidence of them. Instead, the experiences of all women have been seen as represented in the more substantial evidence of elite secular and religious women. My thesis questions this by focusing on lesser aristocratic women in England, particularly Oxfordshire, Suffolk, and Yorkshire, for which charters provided the main material.

[Source : http://www.gla.ac.uk/schools/humanities/research/students/hannakilpi/index.html]

Gonzalez Lillian Cespedes, The representation of Norse women in medieval textual sources

Gonzalez Lillian Cespedes, The representation of Norse women in medieval textual sources and modern visual media, (dir. E. Woodacre, R. Lavelle, University of Winchester)

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/representation-norse-women-medieval-textual-sources-and-modern-visual]

Dunn Hayley, Genetics, archaeology and the impact of the Viking diaspora on the Isle of Man

Dunn Hayley, A clash of cultures? Genetics, archaeology and the impact of the Viking diaspora on the Isle of Man, (dir. S. James, M. Jobling, University of Leicester)

En cours depuis 2010/In preparation since 2010

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/clash-cultures-genetics-archaeology-and-impact-viking-diaspora-isle-man]

Kerrith Davies, Winning the West : the creation of lower Normandy, c.889-c.1087

Kerrith Davies, Winning the West : the creation of lower Normandy, c.889-c.1087, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (Université d’Oxford)

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Barnwell Timothy, Missionaries and changing views of ‘the Other’ from the 9th to 12th centuries

Barnwell Timothy, Missionaries and changing views of ‘the Other’ from the 9th to 12th centuries, thèse soutenue en 2014, (dir. I. Wood, University of Leeds)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis explores the varying ways in which otherness was imagined and constructed in two clusters of medieval missionary texts: Rimbert’s Vita Anskarii and Adam of Bremen’s Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, from the archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen; and Bruno of Querfurt’s Passio Sancti Adalberti episcopi et martyris, Vita vel passio Benedicti et Iohannis sociorumque suorum and Epistola ad Heinricum Regem. Missionaries and the authors who described their work were uniquely concerned with those who lay beyond the geographical, political and spiritual boundaries of Christendom. Accordingly, they provide our principal sources for understanding how such groups were represented. In the first instance, this thesis is concerned with descriptions of groups physically located outside the Carolingian, Ottonian, and Salian Empires, particularly in the Scandinavian and Slavic worlds. But given the fluidity and interconnectedness of early medieval identities, it also encompasses representations of marginalised groups within Christendom such as slaves, women, heretics, Jews and political enemies. Following a brief introduction, the thesis begins by setting out the theoretical foundations of an understanding of otherness based on the expectation of variety. This forms a response to the totalising claims of many recent discussions of otherness. This is followed by a close analysis of each text, beginning with the Hamburg-Bremen material, before moving on to Bruno of Querfurt’s works. The aim is to reflect the peculiar dynamics of each work and, consequently, discussions of these authors’ literary and exegetical concerns form a substantial part of this study. Their presentation of groups within Christendom has also been emphasised; sometimes the other was closer to home. The thesis concludes by emphasising the conceptual variety revealed in each work. Key themes can be identified, but the presentation of otherness in all of these texts is far more diverse and conceptually fragmented than is usually appreciated in existing scholarship.

[Source : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/8741/]

Cooke Siobhan, Characterising human-animal relations in Viking Age Scotland

Cooke Siobhan, Characterising human-animal relations in Viking Age Scotland: a reassessment of the archaeological record, (dir. J. Downes, M. Macleod, University of the Highlands and Islands)

En cours depuis 2012/In preparation since 2012

Résumé/abstract :

This study aims to characterise the nature of human-animal relations in Scotland during the Viking Age, particularly the use of animals in the creation, manipulation and confirmation of human identity. My research also aims to identify regional difference and to determine the factors affecting the construction of human-animal relations at local level.

[Source : http://www.uhi.ac.uk/en/archaeology-institute/our-research/research-students/siobhan-cooke]

Afanasyev Ilya, National categories in twelfth-century England

Afanasyev Ilya , National categories in twelfth-century England, (dir. B. Thompson, University of Oxford)

En cours depuis 2012/In preparation since 2012

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.ohgn.org/profile/ilya-afanasyev/185]

Anderson Elizabeth, Establishing adult masculinity in the Angevin royal family, 1140-1200

Anderson Elizabeth, Establishing adult masculinity in the Angevin royal family, 1140-1200, (dir. K. Lewis, P. Cullum, University of Huddersfield)

En cours depuis 2010/In preparation since 2010

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/establishing-adult-masculinity-angevin-royal-family-1140-1200]

Backa Rachel, Religious roles of Norse women throughout the Viking age

Backa Rachel, Religious roles of Norse women throughout the Viking age, (dir. S. Brink, University of Aberdeen)

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/religious-roles-norse-women-throughout-viking-age]

The Orkney Viking Heritage Project

The Orkney Viking Heritage Project

Responsables du projet/Project leaders :

Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (ea315@cam.ac.uk), Donna Heddle (donna.heddle@orkney.uhi.ac.uk), Judith Jesch (judith.jesch@nottingham.ac.uk), Carolyne Larrington (carolyne.larrington@sjc.ox.ac.uk), Christina Lee (christina.lee@nottingham.ac.uk), Heather O’Donoghue (heather.odonoghue@linacre.ox.ac.uk), Judy Quinn (jeq20@cam.ac.uk)

Établissements principaux/Main institutions :

University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, University of Nottingham, University of the Highlands and Islands

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The Orkney Viking Heritage Project is a training programme for PhD students and early career researchers in the field of Old Norse-Icelandic and Viking Studies (ONIVS), which aims to extend academic research about the Viking diaspora and its tangible and non-tangible heritage in the British Isles. The Project addresses the evident skills gap in the Strategic Area of Heritage and engages with the Emerging Theme of Translating Cultures. It comprises a Preparatory Workshop in Oxford bringing together academics, young scholars and heritage professionals, and a Field School in Orkney providing hands-on experience of a heritage landscape, and will enable the translation of findings into accessible multi-media formats for public dissemination as exhibition resources. The theme of this year’s Midlands Viking Symposium is linked to the Project.

[Lien/Link : http://www.orkneyproject.org/]

Middlemass Rachel, Bodies of men: manhood and masculinity in England and northern France, c.1100-c.1250

Middlemass Rachel, Bodies of men: manhood and masculinity in England and northern France, c.1100-c.1250, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. R. Balzaretti, J. Barrow, University of Nottingham)

Résumé/abstract :

This study responds to a gap in the existing historiography of medieval men and masculinities around the relationships between corporeality, gender identity, group membership. and social inequality. It aims primarily to elucidate the significance of the physical body to medieval masculine ideals and its role in processes of social categorisation which privileged most men over most women, and some men over others. In particular. I focus here on the ways in which culturally specific – but surprisingly coherent – discourses about and narrative representations of the body were used to construct prototypical models of manhood. principally via claims of polarisation from and superiority to corporeally distinct “others’. The analysis presented here is undertaken within a framework which borrows from anthropological and sociological methodologies, incorporating a dual focus on the ‘natural’ or essential, as well as the socially-constructed and discursive facets of the body. The body is viewed throughout as playing a simultaneously representational and instrumental role in the construction of both individual and collective identities. It is understood here both as a vehicle for the expression of those identities and as an active agent in their production; both a product of the behavioural codes prescribed for men and a site for and resource in men’s alignment with or resistance to these codes. It is likewise accorded agency in the unequal attribution of social status to both individual male bodies and collectives thereof. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of multiple ‘capitals’, the body is treated as a cultural asset whose unequal distribution, like any other form of capital, is hypothesised here to have played a role in the institution and maintenance of deep social divisions between medieval men.

[Source : http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.595315]