Archives de catégorie : Langues et onomastique / Language and onomastics

Nikolas Gunn, Contact and Christianisation: Reassessing Purported English Loanwords in Old Norse

Nikolas Gunn, Contact and Christianisation: Reassessing Purported English Loanwords in Old Norse, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université d’York)

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Megan Tiddeman, Money talks : Anglo-Norman, Italian and English language contact in medieval merchant documents, c1200-c1450

Megan Tiddeman, Money talks : Anglo-Norman, Italian and English language contact in medieval merchant documents, c1200-c1450, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université d’ Aberystwyth)

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Alasdair C. Whyte, Settlement-names and society : analysis of the medieval districts of Forsa and Moloros in the parish of Torosay, Mull

Alasdair C. Whyte, Settlement-names and society : analysis of the medieval districts of Forsa and Moloros in the parish of Torosay, Mull, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université de Glasgow)

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Sofia Evemalm, Theory and practice in the coining and transmission of place-names : a study of the Norse and Gaelic anthropo-toponyms of Lewis

Sofia Evemalm, Theory and practice in the coining and transmission of place-names : a study of the Norse and Gaelic anthropo-toponyms of Lewis, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2018 (Université de Glasgow)

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Alessandro Palumbo, Skriftsystem i förändring: en grafematisk och paleografisk studie av de svenska medeltida runinskrifterna

Alessandro Palumbo, Skriftsystem i förändring: en grafematisk och paleografisk studie av de svenska medeltida runinskrifterna, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2018 (Université d’Uppsala)

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Petrulevich Alexandra, Ortnamnsanpassning som process: En undersökning av vendiska ortnamn och ortnamnsvarianter i Knýtlinga saga

Petrulevich Alexandra, Ortnamnsanpassning som process: En undersökning av vendiska ortnamn och ortnamnsvarianter i Knýtlinga saga, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (Uppsala universitet)

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Reading and interpreting runic inscriptions: the theory and method of runology

Responsables du projet/Project leaders :

James E. Knirk (j.e.knirk@khm.uio.no)

Établissements principaux/Main institutions :

Kulturhistorisk museum, Oslo University

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

Runology concerns fundamentally the analysis of runes as writing symbols, the examination of runic objects and reading of runic inscriptions, particularly new finds, and the interpretation of runic texts. It is a field of study experiencing growth and development. Unfortunately, the field suffers from the lack of a clearly formulated theoretical platform and methodological approach. The research project will concern itself with the formulation of the theoretical and methodological foundation of runic research.

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Svensson Ola, Nämnda ting men glömda. Ortnamn, landskap och rättsutövning

Svensson Ola, Nämnda ting men glömda. Ortnamn, landskap och rättsutövning  [Named but forgotten things: Place-names, landscape and justice], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. G. Byrman, S. Nyström, Linnéuniversitetet)

Résumé/abstract :

The dissertation describes the names related to justice and places in the landscape where justice was administered, applying an interdisciplinary perspective with place names as the chief source material. One aim is to collect and describe place names in Skåne designating or indirectly associated with meeting places and districts of the court, and to study the named places. The study covers many different periods, but especially the Middle Ages and the transition from the Late Iron Age to the Middle Ages. The analysis raises questions such as: Was there continuity in judicial sites between prehistoric and historic times? How old are the hundreds (härader)? Is there a spatial link between judicial sites and other central functions such as cult, markets, or rulers’ estates? The work is permeated by material-based onomastic research in combination with current perspectives in text research, historical geography, and archaeology. Nine case studies are conducted to describe the interaction between place, linguistic expression, and meaning. The study demonstrates the existence of a large corpus of names reflecting the early administration of justice. Most of the many field names which contain ting ‘court’ and galge ‘gallows’ can be related to the actual administration of justice. The medieval sites where courts assembled and people were executed stand out in particular, but in many cases these have prehistoric roots. Both unbroken continuity and the reuse of earlier places of assembly may be assumed. Close to sites with names indicating the administration of justice there are also landscape features with names that grant epic and mythical status to the locale. The special quality of these places was handed down, incorporated in larger narratives, based on changing ideas and circumstances in different periods. The landscape of the hundred courts (häradsting) is archaic, magnificent and mythical, and shared, qualities that contributed to the maintenance and legitimation of judicial practice. A division into a general, public judicial sphere and a more limited and exclusive sphere can be seen. In the medieval exercise of justice this division is manifested in two different judicial districts – härad and birk – but the phenomenon can be traced back to the Late Iron Age. The study also problematizes a traditional image of the names of the hundreds.

[Source : http://lnu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A858241&dswid=-3585]

Des « Varègues » sur écorce de bouleau ?

Alexander Musin, Institut pour l’Histoire de la Culture Matérielle, Académie des Sciences de Russie, Saint-Pétersbourg

La campagne de fouilles réalisée à Novgorod la Grande (Russie) en 2015 a apporté quatre documents sur écorce de bouleau des XIIIe-XIVe siècles dont l’un mentionne le mot « varègue ». Le Récit des Temps Passés, la première Chronique russe, identifie généralement sous ce terme, des Scandinaves et, surtout pour les XIe-XIIe siècles, des Suédois. Le document trouvé dans les couches du XIIIe siècle a reçu le numéro 1064 dans la collection de cette série documentaire issue des fouilles de Novgorod, qui comptait, à la fin de la campagne de 2015, 1067 documents sur écorce de bouleau. Il a été rédigé en vieux slavon comme tous les textes de ce genre. À la suite d’une liste de dettes mal conservée figure une liste de sept noms avec parfois des surnoms à l’accusatif, parmi lesquels OSIPE VAREGE, c’est-à-dire « Joseph Varègue ».

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Treharne Elaine, Living through conquest: the politics of early English, 1020-1220

Treharne Elaine, Living through conquest: the politics of early English, 1020-1220, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, X-218 p. ISBN: 978-0-19-958526-7

Compte rendu par/Review by : Christopher A. Jones

The Medieval Review

Date : 6 Feb 2014

The fortunes of English between the later eleventh and early thirteenth centuries have enjoyed increased attention in recent decades, and no one has done more to energize this important area of research than Elaine Treharne. Many scholars of Old and earlier Middle English will be aware of her and others’ pioneering work on the topic, but its rewards and future promise still remain too little appreciated. The reason, in part, is that studies of English through the long twelfth century have often been highly specialized, with emphasis on linguistic and codicological detail. But other barriers, Treharne asserts, are institutional. The record of « late » and « transitional » Old English consists largely (but by no means exclusively) of anonymous adaptations of earlier homiletic prose by the likes of Aelfric and Archbishop Wulfstan, and these materials, usually perceived as derivative, tend to fall through the cracks of modern scholarship and curricula. Literary histories have therefore often dismissed as unoriginal and backward-looking a substantial body of English vernacular writing extant from the Norman Conquest down to the reigns of Henry II and his sons.

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Pons-Sanz Sara Maria, The lexical effects of Anglo-Scandinavian linguistic contact on Old English

Pons-Sanz Sara Maria, The lexical effects of Anglo-Scandinavian linguistic contact on Old English, Turnhout, Brepols (Studies in the Early Middle Ages, vol. 1), 2013, XV-589 p. ISBN: 978-2-503-53471-8

Compte rendu par/Review by : Roberta Frank

The Medieval Review

Date : 2 May 2014

This study looks with exquisite care at the more than three hundred terms attested during the Anglo-Saxon period for which Norse derivation has been claimed. It analyzes their chronological and dialectal distribution (to the extent that this is possible), and probes the semantic and stylistic relationships between these terms and their native equivalents. Pons-Sanz’s rigorous skepticism (« is the evidence strong enough? ») means that few lexical items get through her interrogation unbattered and unbowed. Some words are rejected altogether as probably of native origin (e.g., OE cal « kale, » OE wrang « wrong, injustice »), one new word from Cnut’s laws is added. The author has a gift for clarity of presentation, from her exemplary introduction through nineteen sets of tables and four appendices (the first listing all Norse-derived terms attested in Old English texts, the second, of 67 pages, Old English texts recording Norse-derived terms). This volume is a solid contribution to the study of cultural contact between English and Norse speakers during the long Viking Age.

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Gregory Rebecca, The minor and field-names of Thurgarton Wapentake, Nottinghamshire

Gregory Rebecca, The minor and field-names of Thurgarton Wapentake, Nottinghamshire, (dir. P. Cavill, J. Baker, University of Nottingham)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

My project involves collection and anaysis of minor names in Thurgarton Wapentake. I hope to be able to analyse these names in order to glean information about a number of different areas of interest including: the dialect of Nottinghamshire and naming elements specific to the region; the languages spoken in the area, with an emphasis on Scandinavian-infuenced vocabulary and pronunciation; land-use; and the process of enclosure and its effect on naming. My initial sources of data have been the Tithe and Enclosure Awards from the late 18th and early 19th centuries. However, I will also be making use of maps and documents from both earlier and later periods.

[Source : http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/research/groups/csva/research/doctoral-research.aspx]

Rye Eleanor, Dialect in the Viking-Age Scandinavian diaspora

Rye Eleanor, Dialect in the Viking-Age Scandinavian diaspora: the evidence of medieval minor names, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (University of Nottingham)

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Van Renterghem Aya, Runica Manuscripta

Van Renterghem Aya, Runica Manuscripta, (dir. J. Jesch, University of Nottingham)

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Résumé/abstract :

My research investigates the perception of runes and the runic alphabet by medieval scribes by examining their use of the script in manuscripts and the practice of copying manuscript runes between the ninth and the twelfth century. I include both Old Norse and Anglo-Saxon runes, analysing their appearance and possible connections in insular and continental manuscripts. I am interested in the runes within and outwith their respective traditions. I will therefore take a detailed look at the transition from epigraphical to manuscript runes, the spread of the runica manuscripta tradition, and the significance of finding both types of runes in the same manuscripts. With this study I hope to determine how runic material was perceived, why the medieval scribe or scholar felt the need to use a relatively uncommon or even archaic alphabet, and how this affects the idea of runic literacy.

[Source : http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/research/groups/csva/research/doctoral-research.aspx]

Ramandi Maria Teresa, Latin and Norse in medieval Icelandic culture

Ramandi Maria Teresa, Latin and Norse in medieval Icelandic culture: a comparative analysis of some translated saints’ lives, (dir. E. Rowe, University of Cambridge)

En cours depuis ?/In preparation since ?

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.asnc.cam.ac.uk/people/graduates.htm]