Archives de catégorie : Manuscrits et bibliothèques

La tradition textuelle du Compendium philosophie : une illustration des échanges culturels dans le monde monastique et scolaire anglais

La tradition textuelle du Compendium philosophie : 
une illustration des échanges culturels 
dans le monde monastique et scolaire anglais

The textual tradition of the Compendium philosophie : 
an illustration of cultural exchanges 
in the English monastic and school world

Emmanuelle KUHRY

Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes, UPR 841, Paris
emmanuelle.kuhry@irht.cnrs.fr

http://www.unicaen.fr/mrsh/craham/revue/tabularia/print.php?dossier=dossier12&file=04kuhry.xml

Résumé :
Le texte de la Compilatio de libris naturalibus Aristotelis ou Compendium philosophie nous est transmis aujourd’hui par 37 manuscrits connus, dont sept sont conservés sur le sol anglais. Parmi ces sept, trois sont les témoins d’une version du texte que nous qualifions d’« anglaise », car elle se trouve exclusivement de main anglaise et dans des témoins conservés en Angleterre. Cet article entend étudier les rapports de cette version anglaise avec les autres versions du texte, au nombre de trois, ainsi que l’apport de l’un de ses témoins pour la connaissance des pratiques de lecture et d’annotation.

Mots-clés : encyclopédies médiévales, tradition manuscrite, Compendium philosophie, Angleterre, marginalia

Abstract:
We know the text of the Compilatio de libris naturalibus Aristotelis or Compendium philosophie through 37 manuscript witnesses, of which seven belong to English libraries. Three of the seven bear a version of the text which is to be called “English” because it is found only in English manuscripts and of English hand. In this article, we will study the links between this English version and the three other versions of the text, as well as the enlightment brought by one of the witnesses of this version for the knowledge of reading and annotation practices.

Keywords: medieval encyclopedias, manuscript tradition, Compendium philosophie, England, marginalia

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66 Manuscripts from the Arnamagnæan Collection

2015, 248 pp., hb
159 illustrations
ISBN 978-87-635-4264-7

http://www.mtp.hum.ku.dk/details.asp?eln=203654

This volume commemorates the three-hundred-fiftieth anniversary of the birth of the Icelandic scholar and antiquarian Árni Magnússon, who served as secretary of the Royal Archives and professor of Danish antiquities at the University of Copenhagen, in addition to building the most important collection of early Scandinavian manuscripts in existence.

The book presents descriptions of sixty-six manuscripts from the collection, one for each year of Magnússon’s life, complemented by high-quality color photographs, a comprehensive introduction to Magnússon’s life, and a chapter on book production in the medieval period.

Published in collaboration with the Arnamagnæan Institute at the Department of Nordic Research, Copenhagen and the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies, Reykjavík.

M.J. Driscoll is senior lecturer in Old Norse philology at the University of Copenhagen and head of the Arnamagnæan Institute.

Svanhildur Óskarsdóttir is head of the Manuscript Department at the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies in Reykjavík, Iceland.

History Books in the Anglo-Norman World Conference

22-23 May 2015
Trinity College Dublin

Call for Papers

Amongst the key sources for medieval history are the manuscripts in which medieval writers recorded their views of the past. These documents provide historians with more information than simply their textual content. The layout, decoration, script and annotations often provide insights into why a work was copied and how it was used. The twelfth century saw a boom in historical writing dealing with the recent past and stretching back to the biblical narrative. New chronicles and annals were produced, together with accounts of the histories of particular peoples, nations and places. This two-day conference will bring together scholars working on Anglo-Norman history books from a range of disciplinary perspectives to discuss the many ways in which these books can be read. The focus will be on works produced in areas controlled by the king of England between c.1066 and c.1300.

Topics covered might include, but are not limited to:

– The creation, circulation and reception of manuscripts containing material about history
– The organisation, layout and combination of texts within manuscripts dealing with history
– The use of decoration in historical manuscripts
– The contexts in which historical manuscripts were used and preserved
– The role of manuscripts in determining historical records and shaping attitudes to the past

Abstracts of no more that 300 words for papers of 20 minutes should be sent to Laura Cleaver at cleaverl@tcd.ie by the 12th September 2014.
This conference is organised as part of the ‘History Books in the Anglo-Norman World’ research project, which is funded by a Marie Curie Actions Grant (2011-15).

Reading Augustine’s Confessions in Normandy in the 11th and 12th Centuries

Lire Les Confessions de saint Augustin en Normandie aux XIe et XIIe siècles

Lauren MANCIA (Department of History, Brooklyn College, New York)

http://www.unicaen.fr/mrsh/craham/revue/tabularia/print.php?dossier=dossier12&file=03mancia.xml

Abstract:
Scholars such as Pierre Courcelle have observed an intensification in interest in Augustine’s Confessionsin medieval Europe after the 11th century. This intensification was manifested in Normandy in two ways: first, in the early 11th century, Abbot John of Fécamp drew extensively from Augustine’s Confessions in his own Confessio Theologica; and second, book lists and extant manuscripts from the Norman monastic world show a marked increase in the number of copies of Confessions in Normandy by end of the 12th century. This article offers, for the first time, both an analysis of how John of Fécamp used Augustine’s work in his own Confessio and an interpretation of the manuscript evidence for the diffusion ofConfessions in Normandy. This study hopes to demonstrate how an analysis of contemporary intellectual interpretations of texts in Normandy can be used alongside paleographical examination of surviving copies to uncover both the ways in which and the reasons for which books circulated among the monastic houses.

Keywords: John of Fécamp, Confessions, St. Augustine of Hippo, monastic manuscript culture, monastic contemplation, 11th-century, 12th-century, Confessio Theologica, monasticism, Paris, BnF, ms lat. 1916

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Écrire à l’ombre des cathédrales

Écrire à l’ombre des cathédrales

Pratiques de l’écrit en milieu cathédral (espace anglo-normand et France de l’Ouest – XIe-XIIIe siècle)

Colloque international Cerisy-la-Salle (Manche), 8-12 juin 2016

Responsables : Grégory Combalbert et Chantal Senséby

Ces trente dernières années, les pratiques de l’écrit ont été au cœur des préoccupations des chercheurs. De multiples rencontres scientifiques et de nombreuses publications leur ont été consacrées. L’écrit, particulièrement les actes de la pratique, leur processus de production et de transcription, ont bénéficié d’approches variées, souvent novatrices, toujours stimulantes. Il s’agissait tantôt de mieux cerner un « objet diplomatique » (cartulaire, pancarte, actes pontificaux…), tantôt de déterminer la pluralité de ses fonctions (« actes comme expression du pouvoir », comme instrument d’une construction mémorielle…) ; il s’agissait aussi de comprendre les processus d’élaboration des écrits, le recours à des formulaires, la mise en œuvre de procédés tels que le remploi, l’emprunt… Le propos était encore de saisir la constitution et le fonctionnement des lieux où s’élaborent ces productions (scriptoria d’église cathédrale, de chapitre régulier ou d’abbaye, chancelleries princières ou pontificales), d’observer les professionnels de l’écrit au travail (scribes, notaires…). À côté de l’écrit monastique, qui a fait ces dernières années l’objet de travaux importants et fera très prochainement celui de plusieurs colloques, des études ont été dédiées à l’écrit cathédral, surtout épiscopal, particulièrement dans le Nord de la France actuelle (Arras, Thérouanne, Cambrai). Plusieurs recueils d’actes épiscopaux, plus rarement canoniaux, ont été publiés ou sont sur le point de l’être, tant pour les espaces orientaux (Metz) que septentrionaux (Laon, Arras, Reims, Noyon-Tournai) et occidentaux (Bretagne).

Continuer la lecture de Écrire à l’ombre des cathédrales

Lecouteux Stéphane, La bibliothèque médiévale de l’abbaye de la Sainte-Trinité de Fécamp

Lecouteux Stéphane, La bibliothèque médiévale de l’abbaye de la Sainte-Trinité de Fécamp, thèse soutenue en 2015, (dir. C. Jacquemard, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie – co-directeur : A.-M. Turcan-Verkerk, EPHE/IRHT)

Résumé/abstract :

Parvenir à définir le contenu d’une bibliothèque médiévale disséminée à travers l’Europe, c’est tenter de reconstituer intellectuellement la mémoire d’une communauté et un patrimoine culturel aujourd’hui difficilement perceptible, tout en gardant les manuscrits dans leurs lieux de conservation actuels. Mais c’est aussi un moyen efficace pour valoriser et faire connaître, à la fois auprès des spécialistes et du grand public, un patrimoine historique exceptionnel. Le cas de Fécamp est d’autant plus intéressant que ce monastère bénédictin a tenu une place de choix parmi les centres intellectuels et de pouvoir du Moyen Âge : proche du palais ducal et premier établissement normand réformé selon la règle de saint Benoît par Guillaume de Volpiano vers l’an Mil, l’abbaye, pourvue d’un scriptorium très actif, fut le point de départ d’un grand nombre de restaurations monastiques ultérieures en Normandie ; sa grandeur était reconnue bien au-delà des frontières du duché (comme en témoignent par exemple Dudon de Saint-Quentin, Raoul Glaber ou Baudri de Bourgueil), mais aussi hors du continent, puisque les liens artistiques, culturels et intellectuels avec l’Angleterre, avant et après la conquête de 1066, s’avèrent à la fois nombreux et bien attestés.

Nos recherches sur la bibliothèque bénédictine de Fécamp, publiées en 2007 dans la revue Tabularia, ont permis de mettre en évidence l’existence de six phases de dispersion du fonds depuis les Guerres de Religion (seconde moitié du XVIe siècle) jusqu’à la Révolution (fin du XVIIIe siècle). Un travail d’investigation sur les possesseurs de livres fécampois ainsi que sur l’histoire de leurs collections a rendu possible la reconstitution du cheminement de quelques deux cents manuscrits depuis leur bibliothèque monastique de provenance jusqu’à leur lieu de conservation actuel. Comme pour un grand nombre d’autres bibliothèques médiévales, le fonds de l’abbaye de Fécamp se trouve désormais disséminé à travers la France et l’Europe. A ce jour, pas moins de dix bibliothèques publiques et privées ont été identifiées comme possédant des codices provenant de la Trinité. La majeure partie des manuscrits est aujourd’hui conservée en France, dans trois villes (à Rouen, à Paris et à Fécamp), mais dans six établissements distincts. Plusieurs autres bibliothèques européennes possèdent des manuscrits provenant de Fécamp : au Vatican, en Allemagne (à Berlin), en Suisse (à Berne), aux Pays-Bas (à Leyde) et en Angleterre (à Salisbury).

Continuer la lecture de Lecouteux Stéphane, La bibliothèque médiévale de l’abbaye de la Sainte-Trinité de Fécamp

History Books in the Anglo-Norman World c.1100-c.1300

History Books in the Anglo-Norman World c.1100-c.1300

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Laura Cleaver (cleaverl@tcd.ie)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

Trinity College Dublin

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries history (interpreted as both the recent past and a period stretching back to include the biblical narrative) seems to have become a major interest for both the educated elite and a growing audience who accessed ideas through vernacular texts. New chronicles and annals were produced, together with accounts of the histories of particular peoples, nations and subjects. At the same time, history was explored through images in books and other media. Much historical writing in this period dealt with issues of conquest and identity, which were often allied to geography, ethnicity or particular institutions. The ‘History Books’ project, funded by the Marie Curie Programme (FP7), will examine surviving medieval manuscripts in order to investigate the writing of history in areas controlled by the Anglo-Norman Empire, concentrating on the period 1100-1300. In particular the project will explore the use of images in the presentation of history in books and beyond.

[Lien/Link : https://www.tcd.ie/History_of_Art/research/history-books.php]

Karlsen Espen (éd.), Latin manuscripts of medieval Norway: studies in memory of Lilli Gjerløw

Karlsen Espen (éd.), Latin manuscripts of medieval Norway: studies in memory of Lilli Gjerløw, Oslo, Novus Press, 2013, 424 p. ISBN: 978-82-7099-722-0

Compte rendu par/Review by : Jenny Jochens

The Medieval Review

Date : 10 Mar 2014

This large and beautiful book takes an important step into a new discipline: the study of fragments of medieval manuscripts. Available in all Scandinavian countries, this resource is particularly abundant in Norway. The volume is also a festschrift to honor Lilli Gjerløw, the outstanding pioneer in this field who died at the age of 88 in 1998 and to whom I shall return. It is well know that England played a large role in the Christianization of Norway. Arriving in the ninth century, English missionaries succeeded in converting numerous numbers of the population and establishing churches. Missionaries and monks celebrated services in Latin using the liturgy they knew from home and requiring books that were brought from England. Eventually Norwegians themselves learned to procure manuscripts from abroad and to employ scribes who were taught by English professionals established in the country. Like other medieval countries, Norway in this way came to possess sizeable libraries attached to churches and monasteries that contained enduring parchment manuscripts written mainly in Latin but later also in Old Norse. In the beginning these books contained the liturgy required in the services, so that changes adopted by the international church can be followed in their texts. As Christianity became firmly established, Norwegians progressed into Patristic writings as well as the classic medieval authors whose texts they also acquired or copied.

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Rozier Charlie, The importance of writing institutional history in the Anglo-Norman realm, c.1060-c.1142

Rozier Charlie, The importance of writing institutional history in the Anglo-Norman realm, c.1060-c.1142, with special reference to Eadmer’s Historia Novorum, Symeon of Durham’s Libellus de exordio, and the Historia Ecclesiastica of Orderic Vitalis, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. G. Gasper, R. Gameson, University of Durham)

Résumé/abstract :

This thesis examines the place of the past within the lives and works of three notable Anglo-Norman authors of history: Eadmer of Canterbury, Symeon of Durham, and Orderic Vitalis of the monastery of Saint-Évroul in Normandy. The first half of the twelfth century witnessed an unprecedented flowering of historical writing in England and Normandy. Scholarly interest and debate surrounding the historical texts produced in this context, and in particular the reasons for their composition, has grown significantly in recent years. This thesis examines the place of Eadmer’s, Symeon’s and Orderic’s historical writings within the wider corpus of works which they are known to have studied and composed, according to surviving manuscript evidence. Particular attention is placed on: their engagement with wider themes of learning such as exegesis and theology, Latin poetry and computistical studies; their participation in the organisation of monastic and ecclesiastical life, including record-keeping, revision and care of book-collections and their role as monastic cantors; and their experiences of training in and engagement with historical studies and resultant self-identification as authors of history. This thesis will argue that although all three authors had access to a concise framework through which medieval audiences understood the nature and purposes of historical studies (as shown in chapters three and four) the exact character and intended purposes of their historical texts was in fact heavily dependent on the degree to which each author interacted with the wider textual culture of contemporary Benedictine studies (as outlined in chapters five, six and seven). Conclusions will observe that the three examples considered demonstrate the multifaceted nature of historical studies in the medieval period, and especially the overlap between the various sub-genres of history, such as narrative text, annal, chronicle, and hagiography, and also reveal the resonances of the past within almost every aspect of monastic life and studies in the period.

[Source : http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/9461/]

Variance of Njáls saga

Variance of Njáls saga

Responsable du projet/Project leader : Svanhildur Óskarsdóttir (salta@hi.is)Établissement principal/Main institution : Stofnun Árna Magnússonar í íslenskum fræðum

Description :

The aim of the project is to examine the variance of Njáls saga from a linguistic, philological and literary perspective, both synchronically as regards the earliest manuscripts (which date from the 14th century), and diachronically by cataloguing changes that take place over time. Drawing on recent text-critical theories that emphasise the variance of the manuscript text, the project is focusing on neglected aspects of the Njála tradition such as the fragmentary medieval manuscripts and the little-studied manuscript Gráskinna, and the post-medieval manuscript tradition. In this way, the project seeks to show what the living tradition of Njáls saga was like at different stages of the saga’s transmission, what characterised the Njála text — and the material appearance of its manuscripts — at various junctures from the 14th century to the 19th century, and how these variations reflect the views and needs of scribes, patrons and users over time. Marked-up XML transcriptions of the medieval manuscript texts of the saga will form the basis for an electronic text archive of Njáls saga, a computer-assisted reconsideration of the Njála stemma published by Einar Ólafur Sveinsson in his 1953 monograph Studies in the Manuscript Tradition of Njálssaga (Reykjavík) and ultimately, a new digital edition of the saga.

The project is funded by Rannís (The Icelandic Research Fund) and is being conducted at the Stofnun Árna Magnússonar í íslenskum fræðum (The Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies) in Reykjavík, Iceland. The duration of the project is 3 years (2011-2013); the Principal Investigator is Dr Svanhildur Óskarsdóttir.

Zeiser Sarah, Latinity, manuscripts, and the rhetoric of conquest in late-eleventh-century Wales

Zeiser Sarah, Latinity, manuscripts, and the rhetoric of conquest in late-eleventh-century Wales, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. C. McKenna, Harvard University)

Résumé/abstract :

This dissertation explores the complex interactions among written text, language choice, and political context in Wales in the late-eleventh and early-twelfth centuries. I argue that writers in medieval Wales created in both their literary compositions and their manuscripts intricate layers of protest and subversion in direct opposition to the authority of the Anglo-Norman political hegemony and the aggrandizing spread of the Canterbury-led church. These medieval literati exploited language and script as tools of definition. They privileged Welsh or Latin when their audience shifted, and they employed the change from early Insular script to the Caroline script of the Normans as not just a natural evolution in script development, but as a selective representation of mimicked authority. The family of Bishop Sulien at Llanbadarn Fawr has been the focal point of this study, as they were active during a time of Anglo-Norman intervention in their community that is reflected in the shifting script of their manuscripts and the apprehensive though proud tone of their compositions, which include the vitae of saints David and Padarn and the poetry of Ieuan and Rhygyfarch ap Sulien. My work provides a much-needed cohesive portrait of the multilingual medieval Welsh literary culture at the turn of the twelfth century. Questions of audience and authority come into play, particularly when considering the growing hybridity of learned communities during the Anglo-Norman infiltration of Wales. Manuscripts themselves are viewed as vehicles of identity, for the evolution of script and design offers clues as to the methods of compromise practiced by Welsh intellectuals. This compromise in the written word can be viewed as an embodiment of the Welsh desire and need to mediate fraught political boundaries, as they did using both the ‘nation’-defining Welsh language and the vehicular prestige language of Latin, resulting in an intertextual exploration of identity through the act of writing itself. Writing is a critical demonstration of Welsh authorship and agency in medieval Britain, and one that can be used to reflect upon notions of Welsh identity.

[Source : http://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/10288377]

Bäckvall Maja, Skriva fel och läsa rätt?

Bäckvall Maja, Skriva fel och läsa rätt? Eddiska dikter i Uppsalaeddan ur ett avsändar- och mottagarperspektiv, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2013, (dir. H. Williams, Heimir Pálsson, P. Henrikson, Université d’Uppsala)

Résumé/abstract :
This dissertation focuses on the eddic poetry in the Codex Upsaliensis DG 11 4to, the Uppsala Edda. The manuscript has long been considered too far removed from the assumed original of the text to be of much use to editors, with the result that it was largely neglected by philologists during the last century. The eddic poetry in DG 11 differs in many instances from the other main manuscripts, and this study aims to examine these variants from the point of view of the 14th century scribe and reader of the manuscript. The dissertation’s framework comes close to what is known as New or Material Philology, but since the focus is more on the abstract than the material sides of the manuscript, the study’s theoretical framework is tentatively called descriptive reception philology.In all, 57 stanzas of eddic poetry are examined. The study does not include variation in names or metrics other than alliteration, which means that 10 stanzas consisting almost entirely of names have been excluded. The remaining 57 stanzas contain 137 variants that DG 11 shares with half or fewer of the other manuscripts. These variants are analysed with the aim of deciding whether they were consciously written by the scribe and to what extent the reader could have understood them. Consciously produced variants are said to belong to the sender witness, and if they were probably understood, they are also placed in the receiver witness. Variants not immediately understood by the readers are called incongruities and need to be reinterpreted in order to become part of the receiver witness. If they cannot be interpreted, they are categorised as actual errors.The analysis shows that the vast majority of deviating variants belong to both the sender and receiver witnesses. There are also indications that the eddic poetry was in part quoted from a different exemplar than the prose, an exemplar containing versions of the poems not otherwise known today. Rather than being regarded as confused and incomprehensible, DG 11’s eddic poetry was accepted as the version known by the manuscript’s contemporary users.

Hufnagel Silvia, Sörla saga sterka – Studies in the Transmission of a fornaldarsaga

Hufnagel Silvia, Sörla saga sterka – Studies in the Transmission of a fornaldarsaga, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012, (dir. M. Driscoll, Université de Copenhague)

Résumé/abstract :

The present thesis investigates the transmission history of Sörla saga sterka, one of the younger fornaldarsögur. The methodological background to the study is the sociology of texts and material philology. The aim of the study is threefold: First, to trace the transmission history of the saga; second, to examine possible connections between the socio-economic background of scribes and commissioners and the material and textual aspects of the manuscripts they produced; and third, to prepare an electronic multi-text edition of Sörla saga sterka which presents the findings of this study. Underlying this research are XLM-encoded transcriptions of all extant texts, produced in accordance with the Guidelines proposed by the Text Encoding Initiative. A definition of the term ‘version’ is given, in keeping with which it is demostrated that Sörla saga sterka survives in three distinct versions which differ in length, level of detail and dramatic suspense, explanation of deeds or motivation, depiction of characters and even the narrative structure. Version A is contained in more manuscripts from the earlier eighteenth century, and version C rather more often in manuscripts from the latter half of the century. By the second half of the nineteenth century, however, version A had replaced version C, which is most likely due to the influence of printed editions. These printed editions did not bring about the end of the manuscript transmission of the saga, but in fact became part of that transmission. The manuscripts have been divided into two groups; scholarly and non-scholarly. The extent of textual variation of the texts contained in scholarly manuscripts is very limited. These texts reflect the traditions of textual criticism of their time and were used as predecessors of printed editions, work tools for scholars and as replacements of hard-to-come-by printed editions. Textual variation in the texts in non- scholarly manuscripts is more varied. Some show hardly any variation, while others show some variation, having either a slightly less or a slightly more oral style. A third group of texts shows a good deal of textual variation. Some of the variation can be traced back to the intentions of the scribes or commissioners, as confirmed by comparisons with other saga texts and the compilation patterns of the manuscripts in question. Material aspects of the manuscripts were then examined; the relationship between the size of the written area and of the leaves, the number of abbreviations per line and the text density in terms of the number of written chararcters per square metre of text. This, together with the level of decoration, was then compared with the socio-economic background of the manuscripts’ scribes or commissioners, where known. The scholarly manuscripts differ markedly from the non-scholarly ones in having larger margins, fewer abbreviations and a lower text density. The non-scholarly manuscripts can in turn be divided into subgroups, although the differences are not as clear-cut as between them and the scholarly ones. Prestigious manuscripts, usually written by wealthy scribes or for wealthy commissioners, have more decoration and tend to have larger margins, rather fewer abbreviations and a somewhat lower text density. Plain and unadorned manuscripts, the ‘paperbacks’ of their day, have no decoration and tend to have smaller margins, a greater number of abbreviations and rather higher text density. The prestigious manuscripts tend to be among the older of the preserved manuscripts and the ‘paperbacks’ among the younger. A third group combines features of both groups, prestigious and ‘paperback’.

Lansing Tereza, Post-medieval production, dissemination and reception of Hrólfs saga kraka

Lansing Tereza, Post-medieval production, dissemination and reception of Hrólfs saga kraka, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (Université de Copenhague)

Kleivane Elise, Reproduksjon av norrøne tekstar i seinmellomalderen

Kleivane Elise, Reproduksjon av norrøne tekstar i seinmellomalderen. Variasjon i “Eiríks saga Viðfǫrla”, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2011, (dir. J. G. Jørgensen, K.-J. Berge, Université d’Oslo)

Résumé/abstract :

I mellomalderen «eigde» ein forfattar ikkje det han skreiv på same måte som han gjer i dag. Når nokon kopierte ein tekst, var det ikkje eit ideal at kopien skulle vere heilt identisk med førelegget. Derimot var det eit ideal at kopien skulle vere ein betre versjon.

I avhandlinga Reproduksjon av norrøne tekstar i seinmellomalderen viser Elise Kleivane korleis skrivarane endra teksten når dei kopierte han. Ho viser òg fleire døme på kva dei gjorde for å tilpasse ein tekst til ein ny samanheng. Resultata viser at dei endra på ord og på stilen, men at innhaldet for det meste blei verande det same. Men små endringar kan likevel få store konsekvensar, og blant anna føre til ideologisk vriding av ein tekst.

Avhandlinga viser korleis éin saga, Eiríks saga víðfǫrla (Sagaen om Eirik den vidfarne), både kunne vere ei spennande forteljing om framande og eksotiske strøk, eit teologisk og kosmologisk lærdomsverk, og ei moralsk oppbyggjeleg forteljing.

Denne avhandlinga er eit lite bidrag til det store biletet av korleis tekstar blir kopierte og formidla vidare, i ulike delar av historia. Resultata er relevante for studium av korleis tekstar blei handsama i mellomalderen både i Norden og andre stader, men resultata viser òg parallellar til handsaming av tekstar i dag, i sær på internett.