Archives de catégorie : Lieux d’échanges, villes et campagnes / Places of exchange, towns and countryside

Aude Painchault, Les châteaux normands dans l’oeuvre d’Orderic Vital et leurs traces archéologiques

Aude Painchault (université de Rouen), Les châteaux normands dans l’œuvre d’Orderic Vital et leurs traces archéologiques

Thèse de doctorat soutenue le mardi 13 janvier 2015 sous la direction d’Anne-Marie Flambard Héricher.

 Voir le compte rendu de la thèse

Levieux Lise, Espace réel, espace perçu à Rouen du Xe au XVe siècle : le rôle des communautés religieuses dans la fabrique de la ville médiévale

Levieux Lise,  Espace réel, espace perçu à Rouen du Xe au XVe siècle : le rôle des communautés religieuses dans la fabrique de la ville médiévale, (dir. E. Lalou, Université de Rouen).

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[source : http://www.theses.fr/s107931]

Malbos Lucie, Les relations entre les emporia et leurs hinterlands en Europe du Nord-Ouest du VIIe au Xe siècle

Malbos Lucie, Les relations entre les emporia et leurs hinterlands en Europe du Nord-Ouest du VIIe au Xe siècle, thèse soutenue en 2015, (dir. R. le Jan, Université de Paris I).

Résumé/abstract :

Les emporia, sites commerciaux abritant des activités artisanales, apparaissent aux VIIe et VIIIe siècles sur les côtes des mers nordiques, alors que le centre de gravité économique glisse du pourtour méditerranéen vers le Nord, avec un passage à des échanges plus massifs et une recomposition des pouvoirs politiques. Ces lieux de rencontre (économique, politique, culturelle) sont des centres de consommation, de production, d’échange, de stockage et de transit. Ils jouent un rôle clé dans le système fiscal, mais sont des sites distincts des lieux de pouvoir. Leurs caractéristiques communes rendent possible une comparaison entre Birka, Kaupang, Hedeby et Ribe en Scandinavie, Hamwic en Angleterre, Dorestad et Quentovic au nord du royaume des Francs, en s’appuyant sur des sources à la fois écrites et archéologiques, dans le cadre d’une approche interdisciplinaire et sans nier la spécificité de chaque site. Il s’agit de revenir en particulier sur le rôle de l’autorité royale et des élites dans le développement de ces «nœuds». Face à la tendance traditionnelle à surestimer le rôle du commerce à longue-distance dans l’essor des emporia et à ne les considérer que pour eux-mêmes, la récente revalorisation des liens entre ces sites et leurs hinterlands (économiques et politiques) peut permettre d’esquisser des ensembles de relations sociales et un jeu variable d’échelles (entre insertion locale et intégration aux réseaux d’échanges à longue-distance), tout en s’interrogeant sur les liens entre les différents emporia. Centralité, marginalité, discontinuité, contact sont autant de notions essentielles pour appréhender les relations entre les emporia et leurs hinterlands. Dans ce réseau d’échanges croisés complémentaires qui se dessine au premier Moyen Âge autour de l’ensemble Manche – Mer du Nord – Baltique, espace de contact depuis la Préhistoire , les emporia, bien ancrés dans leur région, assument un rôle d’intermédiaires à diverses échelles.

 

The emporia are trading-stations with manufacturing activities: they appear in the 7th and 8th centuries on the North seas’ shores (North Sea, Baltic and Channel), when the economic axis moved from the Mediterranean Sea towards the North, the exchanges become more important and the political powers are remodeled. On the periphery of kingdoms constituting and in the centre of exchange networks, they are meeting places, with economic, political and cultural aspects and where Anglo-Saxon, Frankish, Frisian, Scandinavian and Slav traders mingle with each other. They are also consumption centres and producing sites where exchanges, storage and transit can take place. Thanks to their common characteristics we can try to compare the four Scandinavian sites (Birka, Kaupang, Hedeby, Ribe), Hamwic in southern England, Quentovic in the North of the Frankish kingdom and Dorestad in Frisia, in a context of political, economic and social changes during the 7th-9th centuries. To this end, this study rests on both written (charters, laws, annals, hagiographies…) and archaeological sources, in an interdisciplinary approach which will use archaeology, geography, anthropology. To study the relationships between the emporia and their hinterlands (both economic and political) we will wonder how they interact, as regards supply issues, coinage, importations and craft productions circulation. We will also examine the relationships between the emporia and various authorities, and elaborate on the fiscal, administrative, juridical and even religious functions of these trading ports. We aim to try to outline social networks, on different scales (between local insertion and integration in the long-distance trade networks), while examining the links between the different emporia, within exchange networks setting up on a northwestern Europe scale and perhaps even in a broader perspective.

[source : http://www.theses.fr/s89551]

Projet «Antiquités de la terre Novgorod: une base de données électronique de découvertes archéologiques»

Le projet «Antiquités de la terre Novgorod: une base de données électronique de découvertes archéologiques» vise à la création et au développement d’un outil de ressources sur les informations obtenues lors de fouilles archéologiques des monuments antiques et médiévaux de terre Novgorod. La base de données contient des images numériques des découvertes et l’information la plus complète sur tous les sujets, et plus particulièrement sur les fouilles de Staraya Russa (XIe-XVIe siècle) dont on trouvera les rapports de fouilles. Elle offre un accès distant pour les chercheurs.

Source et accès : http://www.novsu.ru/archeology

Chameroy Jérémie, Guihard Pierre-Marie (dir.), Circulations monétaires et réseaux d’échanges en Normandie

Chameroy Jérémie, Guihard Pierre-Marie (dir.), Circulations monétaires et réseaux d’échanges en Normandie et dans le Nord-Ouest européen (Antiquité-Moyen Âge), Turnhout, Brepols (Tables rondes du CRAHM, vol. 8), 2012, 294 p. ISBN: 978-2-84133-420-9

Compte rendu par/Review by : Nils Bock

Francia-Recensio

Date : 20 Mar 2014

Studien zum Münzverkehr müssen sich mit Fragen von Mengen, Bewegungen und der Zeit einer bestimmten Metallwährung auseinandersetzen: drei Parameter von hoher Komplexität. Hier bieten Datenbanksysteme die Möglichkeit, Daten zu erfassen, zu sammeln und darzustellen. Die in zwei Beiträgen präsente Datenbank »Nummus« in ihren Anwendungsmöglichkeiten vorzustellen, war vermutlich ein Grund, die dem vorliegenden Sammelband zugrundeliegende Table ronde am Centre Michel de Boüard (CRAHAM) der Universität Caen Basse-Normandie abzuhalten. Im Band versammelt sind Beiträge zur Normandie, den Britischen Inseln und Skandinavien, unter denen sich drei Artikel der vorrömischen Epoche, vier der römischen Antike und fünf dem Mittelalter widmen.

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Hicks Leonie V., Brenner Elma (dir.), Society and culture in medieval Rouen, 911-1300

Hicks Leonie V., Brenner Elma (dir.), Society and culture in medieval Rouen, 911-1300, Turnhout, Brepols (Studies in the Early Middle Ages, vol. 39), 2013, 400 p. ISBN: 978-2-503-53665-1

Compte rendu par/Review by : Karen Schousboe

Medieval Histories

Date : Feb 2014

To a large extent the city of Rouen represents an unknown quantity. Originally it was founded by an ancient tribe, the Veliocasses, and used to control the lower Seine Valley and the estuary. They called it Ratumacos. Later it was renamed by the Romans as Rotomagus. It still holds the foundations of an amphitheatre and Roman baths. In the 5th century it became the seat of a bishopric and later – in Merovingian Gall – it functioned as capital of Neustria. However, Vikings repeatedly sacked the city in the late 9th century; in the aftermath they finally took over and turned it into their main capital in what later became the Duchy of Normandy. Finally it reached its apogee in the 11th to 13th century, during which period the inner city and its suburbs exploded while its political and economic significance was unparalleled (it even out-distanced Paris).

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Compte rendu par/Review by : Benjamin Pohl

Reviews in History

Date : 13 Mar 2014

This volume of collected essays explores the social and cultural history of the city of Rouen between the ‘foundation’ of Normandy under Rollo in 911 and the end of the 13th century. As David Bates points out in the book’s preface, Rouen so far has not received the attention which scholars have readily paid to other great cities throughout the Anglo-Norman World – including several other cities in Normandy, such as Caen, Bayeux and Lisieux. Undoubtedly, therefore, the present volume represents a welcome addition to the already existing range of compendiums devoted to important places and institutions in medieval Europe, as it caters to a long-standing desideratum within contemporary Anglo-Norman scholarship.

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Compte rendu par/Review by : David S. Spear

The Medieval Review

Date : 27 Oct 2014

Rouen was, and remains, the largest city in Normandy. Until about 1200 it was larger than Paris. What weakened Rouen was, first, the foundation of Caen, and second, the rise of Paris. Caen had been founded by William the Conqueror as a new outpost of his ducal power in central Normandy (Rouen, by contrast, was too far east in the duchy). Caen never surpassed Rouen in terms of population, but it had a large ducal castle and two very prestigious ducal abbeys (St.-Etienne for men, and La Trinité for women). In the later Middle Ages Normandy’s first university was in Caen, not Rouen. The rise of Paris vis-à-vis Rouen came about when King John lost the province of Normandy to the King of France in 1204. After that date, Philip Augustus lavished numerous resources on urban renewal in Paris, and seems to have actively thwarted further growth in Rouen. Later in the Middle Ages, Rouen experienced periods of effervescence, but was condemned to be always in the shadow of Paris.

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Bates David, Liddiard Robert (dir.), East Anglia and its North Sea world in the Middle Ages

Bates David, Liddiard Robert (dir.), East Anglia and its North Sea world in the Middle Ages, Woodbridge, Boydell Press, 2013, XIV-349 p. ISBN: 9781843838463

Compte rendu par/Review by : Richard C. Hoffmann

The Medieval Review

Date : 17 Apr 2014

The common intent of this collection’s seventeen essays may seem straightforward enough: how did the medieval regional community of East Anglia, the easternmost projection of England, engage with its maritime frontiers? Or is it all that clear? A potentially fecund ambiguity surfaces when the preface announces that « this book sets out to discuss medieval East Anglia » (xiii), while co-editor Robert Liddiard’s introduction claims that « this collection… takes the North Sea during the Middle Ages as its central theme… » (3) So, land or sea? Just two paragraphs in Liddiard’s fifteen pages do actually discuss the sea; all else is devoted to medieval human connections across it. This is, to be sure, a fair representation of the book itself, where « the North Sea world » is no marine environment but a barren stage where only human actors and artifacts move.

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Bauduin Pierre, Musin Alexander (dir.), Vers l’Orient et vers l’Occident

Bauduin Pierre, Musin Alexander (dir.), Vers l’Orient et vers l’Occident. Regards croisés sur les dynamiques et les transferts culturels des Vikings à la Rous ancienne, Caen, Publications du CRAHAM, 2014, 500 p. ISBN: 9782841334995

Compte rendu par/Review by : Yann Coz

La Cliothèque

Date : 22 Nov 2014

Fruit d’un programme de collaboration entre universitaires français et russes, cet ouvrage vise à faire le point sur les recherches menées ces dernières décennies et sur les nouvelles interprétations du passé normand en Normandie et en Rous ancienne, avec en complément des aperçus sur les îles britanniques et sur le monde scandinave. Sans rentrer dans le détail des contributions (rédigées en français et anglais), majoritairement archéologiques, on mettra l’accent ici sur quelques lignes de force et sur la remise en cause de certitudes bien ancrées sur le mouvement de colonisation qui affecte diverses régions d’Europe entre le VIIIe et la première moitié du XIe siècle.

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Whitehouse Katherine, A study of the impact of Viking settlement on South Yorkshire

Whitehouse Katherine, The ‘Viking Gap’: a study of the impact of Viking settlement on the area now known as South Yorkshire, (University of Nottingham)

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Résumé/abstract :

My research is a multidisciplinary study into the impact of the Viking settlement on the areas around and between the city and towns of Sheffield, Barnsley, Doncaster and Rotherham. This area, previously part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, is now called South Yorkshire and many studies focus on its industrial history. In using historical, linguistic and archaeological sources I aim to bring out a rounded history of the area in the Viking Age. The area sits between several areas of Viking settlement (York and the Five Boroughs) and in completing my research I hope to fill in the ‘Viking Gap’ in our knowledge.

[Source : http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/research/groups/csva/research/doctoral-research.aspx]

Fontaine Janel M., Slave raiding and the slave trade in Britain and Ireland and the Slavic lands

Fontaine Janel M., Slave raiding and the slave trade in Britain and Ireland and the Slavic lands, 7th-11th centuries, (dir. A. Rio, King’s College London)

En cours depuis 2014/In preparation since 2014

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/slave-raiding-and-slave-trade-britain-and-ireland-and-slavic-lands-7th]

Feltham Benjamin, The North Sea world in the 8th to 11th centuries

Feltham Benjamin, The North Sea world in the 8th to 11th centuries, (dir. Mark Whittow, University of Oxford)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

My research concerns the North Sea and its societies from the ninth to twelfth centuries, aiming in particular to consider the extent to which engagement with the North Sea shaped those societies and tied their fortunes together. Central to the thesis is the question of whether the North Sea can, or should, be viewed as a distinctive historical unit, akin to the Mediterranean. Methodologically I am interested in dealing with some of the problems and possibilities of regional history, and especially with the legacy of Fernand Braudel; some of which issues have been brought back into the frame of current debate by work such as Horden and Purcell’s The Corrupting Sea, which partly inspired my approach. The study is broken up into manageable regional chunks, to be examined with specific themes in mind: the Humber Estuary, the Elbe Estuary, Orkney and both the Danish and Norwegian sides of the Skaggerak. The evidence being used is primarily archaeological and topographical, with a view to developing a strong sense of place as much as of local ecological circumstances and socio-economic forms and changes.

[Source : http://www.ohgn.org/profile/benjamin-feltha/705]

Bankier Anne, Norse settlements and contacts in north Argyll

Bankier Anne, Norse settlements and contacts in north Argyll, (dir. C. Batey, University of Glasgow)

En cours depuis 2007/In preparation since 2007

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[Source : http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/theses/thesis/in-progress/norse-settlements-and-contacts-north-argyll]

Crafting Networks in Viking Towns

Crafting Networks in Viking Towns

Responsables du projet/Project leaders :

Steve Ashby (steve.ashby@york.ac.uk), Søren M. Sindbæk (soren.sindbaek@york.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of York

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

This project brings together leading UK and Scandinavian archaeological specialists to undertake a comparative survey of crafted products and workshop assemblages from Viking-period towns in Northern Europe in order to clarify the role of long-distance interactions in early medieval urbanism. Striking similarities of material culture show that these places, though sometimes separated by hundreds of kilometres, were often as tightly related as neighbouring villages. Yet we have but a vague understanding of this communication. Did early medieval urban communities form a densely connected ‘global village’, or did they interact through selective, personal links to a few distant sites?

[Lien/Link : http://www.york.ac.uk/archaeology/research/current-projects/cnvt/]

The Mosfell Archaeological Project (MAP)

The Mosfell Archaeological Project (MAP)

Responsable du projet/Project leader :

Jesse Byock (byock@humnet.ucla.edu)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of California Los Angeles

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The Mosfell Archaeological Project is an interdisciplinary research project employing the tools of history, archaeology, anthropology, forensics, environmental sciences, and saga studies. The work will construct a picture of human habitation and environmental change in the region of Mosfell in southwestern Iceland. The Mosfell Valley (Mosfellsdalur), the surrounding highlands, and the lowland coastal areas are a Avalley system, that is, as an interlocking series of natural and man-made pieces, that beginning in the ninth-century settlement or landnám period developed into a functioning Viking Age, Icelandic community. Focusing on this valley system, our task is to unearth the prehistory and early history of the Mosfell region. We seek the data to provide an in-depth understanding of how this countryside or sveit evolved from its earliest origins.

The Mosfell Archaeological Project has implications for the larger study of Viking Age and later medieval Iceland, as well as perhaps for the north Atlantic world. Mosfellssveit encapsulates the major ecologies of Iceland: coastal, riverine, and highland. Culturally, the region is equally representative. In some ways it was a self-contained social and economic unit. In other ways, it was connected to the rest of Iceland, not least, through a network of roads, including an east-west route to the nearby meeting of the yearly Althing. With its coastal port at Leiruvogur, the region was in commercial and cultural contact with the larger Scandinavian and European worlds, possibly as far east as Constantinople.

The research, in reconstructing the early social history of the Mosfell Valley region, will integrate information on the changing periods of occupation. We will excavate individual sites, both secular and religious, and consider their placement in relationship to one another. We will examine the apportionment of open spaces and the utilization of common lands in the highlands and on the coast. Written, archaeological, and other scientific information will be integrated into this study as we construct a picture of early life.

The different specialists on our team will explore among other subjects the development of roads and paths, the importance of the ships landings at Leiruvogur, the changes over time in subsistence strategies, the state of health and disease in the Viking Age and later population, developments in building technics, and the usage of smaller activity areas, such as the sel, or summer dairy stations. Crucial tasks are finding the locations of early farm sites, the remains of turf buildings, roads, burials, agricultural enclosures, and port facilities before they are destroyed by modern construction or lost to human memory.

[Lien/Link : http://www.viking.ucla.edu/mosfell_project/]

Nef Annliese, A companion to medieval Palermo: the history of a Mediterranean city from 600 to 1500

Nef Annliese, A companion to medieval Palermo: the history of a Mediterranean city from 600 to 1500, Leiden, Brill, 2013, 576 p. ISBN: 978-90-04-22392-9

Compte rendu par/Review by : Paul Oldfield

H-Net

Date : Mar 2014

In recent decades research on the medieval city has increasingly produced ever more holistic analyses informed by methodologies from across multiple disciplines. As an endeavour it has proved both enriching and hugely demanding. There are, arguably, few medieval cities more open to such inter-disciplinary and synthetic examination than the Sicilian city of Palermo; and there are, equally, few cities which offer up more challenges in doing so. Between 600 and 1500, Palermo felt the full effects of its location in a frontier zone where the worlds of Greek Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Latin Christianity all intersected. The city moved in and out of the orbit of different political hegemonies, its constantly fluctuating urban topography (street-plans, quarters, architecture) testament to that process. The city also experienced significant demographic shifts, economic up-turns and down-turns, and socio-cultural transformation as the linguistic, ethnic and religious make-up of the city was seemingly in a constant flux.

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