Archives de catégorie : Peuplement et habitat / Population and settlement

Harriet Jean Evans, Animal-Human Relations on the Household-Farm in Viking Age and Medieval Iceland

Harriet Jean Evans, Animal-Human Relations on the Household-Farm in Viking Age and Medieval Iceland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université d’York)

Continuer la lecture de Harriet Jean Evans, Animal-Human Relations on the Household-Farm in Viking Age and Medieval Iceland

Timothy Carlisle, The walrus in the walls and other strange tales : a comparative study of house-rites in the Viking-age North Atlantic Region

Timothy Carlisle, The walrus in the walls and other strange tales : a comparative study of house-rites in the Viking-age North Atlantic Region, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université d’ Aberdeen)

Continuer la lecture de Timothy Carlisle, The walrus in the walls and other strange tales : a comparative study of house-rites in the Viking-age North Atlantic Region

Rebecca J. S. Cannell, Prospecting the physicochemical past : three dimensional geochemical investigation into the use of space in Viking Age sites in southern Norway using portable XRF

Rebecca J. S. Cannell, Prospecting the physicochemical past : three dimensional geochemical investigation into the use of space in Viking Age sites in southern Norway using portable XRF, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université de Bournemouth)

Continuer la lecture de Rebecca J. S. Cannell, Prospecting the physicochemical past : three dimensional geochemical investigation into the use of space in Viking Age sites in southern Norway using portable XRF

Jane Harrison, Building mounds : Viking-Late Norse settlement in the North Atlantic, c. AD800-1200

Jane Harrison, Building mounds : Viking-Late Norse settlement in the North Atlantic, c. AD800-1200, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université d’Oxford)

Continuer la lecture de Jane Harrison, Building mounds : Viking-Late Norse settlement in the North Atlantic, c. AD800-1200

Anders Håkansson, Bebyggelsehierarkier och bylandskap : om övergången mellan vikingatid och tidig medeltid ur ett halländskt perspektiv

Anders Håkansson, Bebyggelsehierarkier och bylandskap : om övergången mellan vikingatid och tidig medeltid ur ett halländskt perspektiv, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université de Lund)

Continuer la lecture de Anders Håkansson, Bebyggelsehierarkier och bylandskap : om övergången mellan vikingatid och tidig medeltid ur ett halländskt perspektiv

Di Bartolo Francesco, Abitati rupestri e citta’ fortificate nella Sicilia occidentale dai bizantini ai normanni

Di Bartolo Francesco, Abitati rupestri e citta’ fortificate nella Sicilia occidentale dai bizantini ai normanni, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (Università di Bologna)

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Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork

Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (NUI Galway)

Continuer la lecture de Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork

Brewington Seth, Social-Ecological Resilience in the Viking-Age to Early-Medieval Faroe Islands

Brewington Seth, Social-Ecological Resilience in the Viking-Age to Early-Medieval Faroe Islands, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (City University of New York)

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Leonard, Alison M. A., Nested negotiations : landscape and portable material culture in Viking-Age England

Leonard, Alison M. A., Nested negotiations : landscape and portable material culture in Viking-Age England, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (University of York)

Continuer la lecture de Leonard, Alison M. A., Nested negotiations : landscape and portable material culture in Viking-Age England

From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland

Article publié dans le dossier thématique – actes de la journée d’étude du 20 novembre 2015, Les transferts culturels dans les mondes normands médiévaux I – Des mots pour le dire ?

From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland

David Griffiths

University of Oxford, England, UK


In this short piece, I address the ways in which historians and archaeologists have approached, interpreted and described the Viking and Norman presences in England and Ireland. These are treated as very different phenomena, yet in many ways have similar origins and effects. ‘Vikings’ (a word hardly used in near-contemporary historical sources, which use ‘Northmen’, ‘Gentiles’, Foreigners’) became a feature of English and Irish historical consciousness from the 780s AD, with raids followed by more sustained semi-systematic warfare coupled to settlement and assimilation, and ultimately dynastic rivalry and competing claims on statehood. The latter are exemplified in England by the successful attempt by Svein Forkbeard of Denmark to wrest the crown and make way for his son Cnut’s accession in 1016, and in Ireland by the creation of the kingdom of Dublin and the failed attempts by external powers in the Norse world to invade Ireland in 1014 and by Magnus Barelegs of Norway in 1098/1103. Duke William of Normandy, it will need no reminder to say, invaded southern England in 1066, and over the following 20 years (expensively and often bloodily) established Norman rule over the majority of the country. An important dimension to the Norman invasion is its coincidence with the Northumbrian rebellion against Harold II and the Norwegian invasion led by Harald Hardraði, which narrowly failed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066, three days prior to the Norman fleet landing at Pevensey, Sussex. Following William’s success at Hastings, and his assumption of the crown, further unsuccessful Danish campaign was mounted against England in 1069-70. Subsequently in 1169-71, led initially by Norman settlers from West Wales, and representing the king Henry II (also Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine and Count of Anjou), an Anglo-Norman army landed (initially by Irish invitation) in south-eastern Ireland, rapidly effecting a take-over of the towns and then the Irish countryside. Continuer la lecture de From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland

Sandro Carocci, Signorie di Mezzogiorno

Sandro Carocci, Signorie di Mezzogiorno. Società rurali, poteri aristocratici e monarchia (XII-XIII secolo), Roma (Viella) 2014.

 

Résumé/abstract :

 

Qual era il vero volto della signoria nel Mezzogiorno italiano? Cosa può apportare il Sud alle grandi discussioni sul feudalesimo e sui poteri aristocratici, sulla loro struttura e sulla loro evoluzione, sul loro impatto economico e sociale? Che contributo può venire dal Regno di Sicilia agli studi sulla dialettica che avveniva fra sovrani, nobiltà e società contadine? E poi, lo studio dei poteri signorili e delle società rurali può riconfigurare le classiche tematiche meridionali dell’arretratezza economica e della centralità monarchica?

 

Questo libro costituisce la prima analisi sistematica sulla signoria nel Mezzogiorno durante l’epoca normanno-sveva e primo-angioina. Offre nuove interpretazioni sul potere della nobiltà, sulle società rurali e sulla politica monarchica. Mostra come fra re, nobili e contadini si attuò un gioco complesso, condotto attraverso le leggi e la violenza, i rapporti feudali e gli investimenti economici, le discussioni sulla libertà e la servitù, lo sfruttamento di uomini e risorse naturali. I suoi protagonisti sono mondi contadini dal dinamismo finora insospettato, re determinati a limitare il potere aristocratico, e nobili costretti ad adattare la propria signoria alla forza delle società rurali e della politica monarchica. Ne esce un Mezzogiorno finora sconosciuto, vitale e articolato, la cui lettura permette di comprendere meglio non solo le vicende del meridione, ma quelle di molte altre regioni.

 

Lien/Link http://www.viella.it/libro/9788867283224

Francesco DI BARTOLO, Abitati rupestri e città fortificate nella Sicilia occidentale dai bizantini ai normanni

Francesco Di Bartolo, Abitati rupestri e città fortificate nella Sicilia occidentale dai bizantini ai normanni, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. G. Vespignani, Università di Bologna)

 

Résumé/abstract :

 

La ricerca effettuata, analizza in modo razionale ma contestualmente divulgativo, le dinamiche insediative che hanno caratterizzato il paesaggio della Sicilia occidentale dall’occupazione bizantina al dominio da parte dei Normanni ( 535-1194 d.C. circa ). Il volume presenta una chiara raccolta dei documenti e delle fonti letterarie che riguarda gli abitati rurali ed i borghi incastellati della Sicilia occidentale e pone l’interesse sia per la cultura materiale che per la gestione ed organizzazione del territorio. Attraverso i risultati delle attestazioni documentarie, unite alle ricerche archeologiche ( effettuate nel territorio preso in esame sia in passato che nel corso degli ultimi anni ) viene redatto un elenco dei siti archeologici e dei resti monumentali ( aggiornato fino al 2013-14 ) in funzione della tutela, conservazione e valorizzazione del paesaggio. Sulla base dei documenti rinvenuti e delle varie fonti prese in esame ( letterarie, archeologiche, monumentali, toponomastiche ) vengono effettuate alcune considerazioni sull’insediamento sparso, sull’incastellamento, sulle istituzioni e sulla formazione delle civitates. L’indagine svolta, attraverso cui sono stati individuati i documenti e le fonti, comprende anche una parziale ricostruzione topografica dei principali centri abitativi indagati. Per alcune sporadiche strutture medievali, talvolta raffigurate in fortuite stampe del XVI-XVII secolo, è stato possibile, in aggiunta, eseguire un rilievo architettonico. La descrizione degli abitati rurali e dei siti fortificati, infine, è arricchita da una serie di schede in cui vengono evidenziati i siti archeologici, i resti monumentali ed i reperti più interessanti del periodo bizantino, arabo e normanno-svevo della Sicilia occidentale.

[Source : http://amsdottorato.unibo.it/6785/ ]

The Key to Uppåkra: digitizing a unique archeological cultural heritage

Responsables du projet/Project leaders : Torbjörn Ahlström (torbjorn.ahlstrom@ark.lu.se), Mats Roslund (mats.roslund@ark.lu.se)

Établissements principaux/Main institutions : Historical Archaeology

Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Lund University

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The purpose of the project The Key to Uppåkra is to create an integrated database containing spatial and chronological information from the archaeological investigations at Uppåkra in Scania, connected to a visual collection of the artefacts for further research and public visualization of the extensive sources. Firstly, it will secure the quality of and access to the archaeological documentation from the site. In the project, eighteen years of very diverse archaeological investigations are synchronised into a coherent digital frame, by using Intrasis and GIS, translating digital data into visual format. Secondly, parallel to the temporal-spatial ordering, 28 000 artefacts will be photographed and made accessible on the Internet by the use of K-Samsök and Europeana, two commonly used facilities in museums. This opens up possibilities for research on societal change during the politically formative period for early Scandinavian states, based on a site with extremely long settlement continuity. The database will be internationally accessible to scholars, as well as the public, through open access. The mobilization for a database will be the launchpad for sustainable knowledge, with national and international impact. Uppåkra will be important for scholars occupied with questions on pre-urban societies and how they were established and transformed into towns, in their ecological, social and cultural context. As such, the Uppåkra database will have a global scope.

[Lien/Link : http://www.ark.lu.se/en/forskning/forskningsprojekt/projekt/822/]

Birsay-Skaill Landscape Archaeology Project, Orkney, Scotland, UK

Responsables du projet/Project leaders : David Griffiths (david.griffiths@conted.ox.ac.uk), Ms Jane Harrison (jane.harrison@conted.ox.ac.uk)

Établissements principaux/Main institutions : University of Oxford

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

Established to explore the Medieval landscapes around Birsay and the Bay of Skaill in Orkney, this project conducts survey and excavation targeting settlement history. Excavations have focused on Norse-period settlements in the Mound of Snusgar area (site of a famous Norse-period hoard), a few minutes walk from the Skara Brae Neolithic site. Although the aim is to explore the Medieval landscape, the project has a wider landscape reconstruction remit which covers earlier periods as well. There are both training and research opportunities. There is normally a fee for student participation to cover costs and training. Fieldwork normally happens in August each year, and there are many opportunities to explore the famous sites on Orkney mainland.

[Lien/Link : https://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/birsay-skaill/index.php]

Koch Madsen Christian, Pastoral Settlement. Farming and Hierarchy in Norse Vatnahverfi, South Greenland

Koch Madsen Christian, Pastoral Settlement. Farming and Hierarchy in Norse Vatnahverfi, South Greenland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (Université de Copenhague)

Résumé/abstract :

Norse farmers settled Greenland around AD 1000. They established two settlements, where the southernmost – the Eastern Settlement – was the largest and lasted until ca. AD 1450, where after it was depopulated for unknown reasons. Through an archaeological study of one of the Eastern Settlement’s core areas – ‘Vatnahverfi’ – this dissertation analyses and discusses how the settlement was organized and changed throughout time. New precision surveys of 157 sites and 1308 individual ruins show that the dispersed settlement was organized after strongly hierarchical patterns. The Norse pastoral farming system relied on extensive land use practices organized around shielings, and apparently after unique Greenlandic patterns. A population estimate based on these settlement patterns implies an average population in Vatnahverfi of only ca. 225-550 people, and an average maximum population of ca. 1400-1940 in the whole of the Eastern Settlement. New and old 14C-dates show that the settlement expanded in two phases: the best agricultural areas were quickly occupied around AD 1000, more marginal areas about a century later. The settlement reached a maximum between AD 1100-1200, where after it quickly contracted and power was centralized on fewer manors. Already by AD 1250 the settlement was again concentrated on those areas that had initially been settled, and after AD 1350 even these areas witnessed a decline in land use. Although climatic deterioration towards the ‘Little Ice Age’ undoubtedly made it harder to be a farmer in South Greenland, this study implies that low population densities – and a very unequal access to resources and options – was perhaps the major problem facing the Norse and ultimately a key reason for the abandonment of the settlements.

[Source : http://www.nabohome.org/postgraduates/theses/ckm/]