Di Bartolo Francesco, Abitati rupestri e citta’ fortificate nella Sicilia occidentale dai bizantini ai normanni, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (Università di Bologna)
Gleeson Caitríona M., A social archaeology of Anglo-Norman Cork, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (NUI Galway)
Brewington Seth, Social-Ecological Resilience in the Viking-Age to Early-Medieval Faroe Islands, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (City University of New York)
Leonard, Alison M. A., Nested negotiations : landscape and portable material culture in Viking-Age England, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (University of York)
Article publié dans le dossier thématique – actes de la journée d’étude du 20 novembre 2015, Les transferts culturels dans les mondes normands médiévaux I – Des mots pour le dire ?
From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland
University of Oxford, England, UK
In this short piece, I address the ways in which historians and archaeologists have approached, interpreted and described the Viking and Norman presences in England and Ireland. These are treated as very different phenomena, yet in many ways have similar origins and effects. ‘Vikings’ (a word hardly used in near-contemporary historical sources, which use ‘Northmen’, ‘Gentiles’, Foreigners’) became a feature of English and Irish historical consciousness from the 780s AD, with raids followed by more sustained semi-systematic warfare coupled to settlement and assimilation, and ultimately dynastic rivalry and competing claims on statehood. The latter are exemplified in England by the successful attempt by Svein Forkbeard of Denmark to wrest the crown and make way for his son Cnut’s accession in 1016, and in Ireland by the creation of the kingdom of Dublin and the failed attempts by external powers in the Norse world to invade Ireland in 1014 and by Magnus Barelegs of Norway in 1098/1103. Duke William of Normandy, it will need no reminder to say, invaded southern England in 1066, and over the following 20 years (expensively and often bloodily) established Norman rule over the majority of the country. An important dimension to the Norman invasion is its coincidence with the Northumbrian rebellion against Harold II and the Norwegian invasion led by Harald Hardraði, which narrowly failed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066, three days prior to the Norman fleet landing at Pevensey, Sussex. Following William’s success at Hastings, and his assumption of the crown, further unsuccessful Danish campaign was mounted against England in 1069-70. Subsequently in 1169-71, led initially by Norman settlers from West Wales, and representing the king Henry II (also Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine and Count of Anjou), an Anglo-Norman army landed (initially by Irish invitation) in south-eastern Ireland, rapidly effecting a take-over of the towns and then the Irish countryside. Continuer la lecture de From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland
Sandro Carocci, Signorie di Mezzogiorno. Società rurali, poteri aristocratici e monarchia (XII-XIII secolo), Roma (Viella) 2014.
Qual era il vero volto della signoria nel Mezzogiorno italiano? Cosa può apportare il Sud alle grandi discussioni sul feudalesimo e sui poteri aristocratici, sulla loro struttura e sulla loro evoluzione, sul loro impatto economico e sociale? Che contributo può venire dal Regno di Sicilia agli studi sulla dialettica che avveniva fra sovrani, nobiltà e società contadine? E poi, lo studio dei poteri signorili e delle società rurali può riconfigurare le classiche tematiche meridionali dell’arretratezza economica e della centralità monarchica?
Questo libro costituisce la prima analisi sistematica sulla signoria nel Mezzogiorno durante l’epoca normanno-sveva e primo-angioina. Offre nuove interpretazioni sul potere della nobiltà, sulle società rurali e sulla politica monarchica. Mostra come fra re, nobili e contadini si attuò un gioco complesso, condotto attraverso le leggi e la violenza, i rapporti feudali e gli investimenti economici, le discussioni sulla libertà e la servitù, lo sfruttamento di uomini e risorse naturali. I suoi protagonisti sono mondi contadini dal dinamismo finora insospettato, re determinati a limitare il potere aristocratico, e nobili costretti ad adattare la propria signoria alla forza delle società rurali e della politica monarchica. Ne esce un Mezzogiorno finora sconosciuto, vitale e articolato, la cui lettura permette di comprendere meglio non solo le vicende del meridione, ma quelle di molte altre regioni.
Francesco Di Bartolo, Abitati rupestri e città fortificate nella Sicilia occidentale dai bizantini ai normanni, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. G. Vespignani, Università di Bologna)
La ricerca effettuata, analizza in modo razionale ma contestualmente divulgativo, le dinamiche insediative che hanno caratterizzato il paesaggio della Sicilia occidentale dall’occupazione bizantina al dominio da parte dei Normanni ( 535-1194 d.C. circa ). Il volume presenta una chiara raccolta dei documenti e delle fonti letterarie che riguarda gli abitati rurali ed i borghi incastellati della Sicilia occidentale e pone l’interesse sia per la cultura materiale che per la gestione ed organizzazione del territorio. Attraverso i risultati delle attestazioni documentarie, unite alle ricerche archeologiche ( effettuate nel territorio preso in esame sia in passato che nel corso degli ultimi anni ) viene redatto un elenco dei siti archeologici e dei resti monumentali ( aggiornato fino al 2013-14 ) in funzione della tutela, conservazione e valorizzazione del paesaggio. Sulla base dei documenti rinvenuti e delle varie fonti prese in esame ( letterarie, archeologiche, monumentali, toponomastiche ) vengono effettuate alcune considerazioni sull’insediamento sparso, sull’incastellamento, sulle istituzioni e sulla formazione delle civitates. L’indagine svolta, attraverso cui sono stati individuati i documenti e le fonti, comprende anche una parziale ricostruzione topografica dei principali centri abitativi indagati. Per alcune sporadiche strutture medievali, talvolta raffigurate in fortuite stampe del XVI-XVII secolo, è stato possibile, in aggiunta, eseguire un rilievo architettonico. La descrizione degli abitati rurali e dei siti fortificati, infine, è arricchita da una serie di schede in cui vengono evidenziati i siti archeologici, i resti monumentali ed i reperti più interessanti del periodo bizantino, arabo e normanno-svevo della Sicilia occidentale.
[Source : http://amsdottorato.unibo.it/6785/ ]
Établissements principaux/Main institutions : Historical Archaeology
Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Lund University
Projet en cours/Project in progress
The purpose of the project The Key to Uppåkra is to create an integrated database containing spatial and chronological information from the archaeological investigations at Uppåkra in Scania, connected to a visual collection of the artefacts for further research and public visualization of the extensive sources. Firstly, it will secure the quality of and access to the archaeological documentation from the site. In the project, eighteen years of very diverse archaeological investigations are synchronised into a coherent digital frame, by using Intrasis and GIS, translating digital data into visual format. Secondly, parallel to the temporal-spatial ordering, 28 000 artefacts will be photographed and made accessible on the Internet by the use of K-Samsök and Europeana, two commonly used facilities in museums. This opens up possibilities for research on societal change during the politically formative period for early Scandinavian states, based on a site with extremely long settlement continuity. The database will be internationally accessible to scholars, as well as the public, through open access. The mobilization for a database will be the launchpad for sustainable knowledge, with national and international impact. Uppåkra will be important for scholars occupied with questions on pre-urban societies and how they were established and transformed into towns, in their ecological, social and cultural context. As such, the Uppåkra database will have a global scope.
Établissements principaux/Main institutions : University of Oxford
Projet en cours/Project in progress
Established to explore the Medieval landscapes around Birsay and the Bay of Skaill in Orkney, this project conducts survey and excavation targeting settlement history. Excavations have focused on Norse-period settlements in the Mound of Snusgar area (site of a famous Norse-period hoard), a few minutes walk from the Skara Brae Neolithic site. Although the aim is to explore the Medieval landscape, the project has a wider landscape reconstruction remit which covers earlier periods as well. There are both training and research opportunities. There is normally a fee for student participation to cover costs and training. Fieldwork normally happens in August each year, and there are many opportunities to explore the famous sites on Orkney mainland.
Koch Madsen Christian, Pastoral Settlement. Farming and Hierarchy in Norse Vatnahverfi, South Greenland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (Université de Copenhague)
Norse farmers settled Greenland around AD 1000. They established two settlements, where the southernmost – the Eastern Settlement – was the largest and lasted until ca. AD 1450, where after it was depopulated for unknown reasons. Through an archaeological study of one of the Eastern Settlement’s core areas – ‘Vatnahverfi’ – this dissertation analyses and discusses how the settlement was organized and changed throughout time. New precision surveys of 157 sites and 1308 individual ruins show that the dispersed settlement was organized after strongly hierarchical patterns. The Norse pastoral farming system relied on extensive land use practices organized around shielings, and apparently after unique Greenlandic patterns. A population estimate based on these settlement patterns implies an average population in Vatnahverfi of only ca. 225-550 people, and an average maximum population of ca. 1400-1940 in the whole of the Eastern Settlement. New and old 14C-dates show that the settlement expanded in two phases: the best agricultural areas were quickly occupied around AD 1000, more marginal areas about a century later. The settlement reached a maximum between AD 1100-1200, where after it quickly contracted and power was centralized on fewer manors. Already by AD 1250 the settlement was again concentrated on those areas that had initially been settled, and after AD 1350 even these areas witnessed a decline in land use. Although climatic deterioration towards the ‘Little Ice Age’ undoubtedly made it harder to be a farmer in South Greenland, this study implies that low population densities – and a very unequal access to resources and options – was perhaps the major problem facing the Norse and ultimately a key reason for the abandonment of the settlements.
Karlsson Catarina, Förlorat järn — Det medeltida jordbrukets behov och förbrukning av järn och stål [Lost Iron – requirement and consumption of iron and steel in agriculture in medieval Sweden], Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet)
Lost Iron – requirement and consumption of iron and steel in agriculture in medieval Sweden This study aims at an estimation of the amount of iron required for agriculture during the Middle Ages in Sweden. To calculate this we need to know which implements were used, their weights and how they were subjected to wear. Research on wear has been very scarce but it is of great importance to measure how much iron that was needed to replace what was taken away by constant wear, i.e. on shares for ploughs and ards. To achieve this a new method was devised. The method is based on previous research by Grith Lerche, with additional analyses and calculations. The method presented and used is called Wear Calculation Method and consists of five steps. Step 1: Study of medieval agricultural implements, their shape and weight. Step 2: Metallurgical analysis of selected implements, to answer questions about materials and how they were processed. Step 3: Experimental Archaeology: Manufacture of replicas of the implements analyzed in step 2. Step 4: Experimental Archaeology: ard ploughing and haymaking with replicas of ard shares and scythes for the purpose of measuring wear. Step 5: Analysis of the wear experiment, results and calculations of consumption of iron and steel in medieval agriculture. The experimental part of the thesis focuses on ard shares and scythes, since the ard and the scythe were the main implements for ploughing and haymaking during the Middle Ages in Sweden. These experiments were carried out during two seasons at Östra Järvafältet, north of Stockholm, Sweden. I have measured wear on the ard shares in grams per kilometer. But more relevant and often more compatible with data from written sources is a measure of how many grams that are worn off per hectare or any other given unit of land. The wear is approximated at 100 grams of iron and steel per ploughed hectare (10 000 m2), in conditions similar to the situation when the replicas were used. I chose to do my analyses on two different spatial levels, the farm and the county. The results prove that ard ploughing means much heavier wear on the implements compared to haymaking. Generally you needed an annual addition of slightly over 1 kg of iron to plough the fields of a normal-sized farm in Uppland. Thus we may estimate the total amount of iron required in Uppland to replace the wear caused by ploughing to 8,4 ton a year. These results show that iron and steel production were of great importance for the High Medieval economic expansion and modernization, where increased iron production and consumption as well as simultaneous expansion of arable land were vital. Between the end of the first millennium and the mid-14th century, the population of Sweden approximately doubled in size, much like the rest of Europe. Iron was a most important third factor (in combination with an increased population and the cultivation of new land) in this expanding age, ca AD 1000–1300. Production and consumption of iron and steel increased sharply during this period and it reached every person, farm, meadow and field in the country. This is a sure sign of a very developed market and system for the distribution of iron and steel.
[Source : http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/11435/]
Grabowski Radoslaw, Cereal husbandry and settlement : Expanding archaeobotanical perspectives on the southern Scandinavian Iron Age, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. K. Viklund, Umeå universitet)
The here presented PhD project explores the phenomenon of cereal cultivation during the Iron Age (c. 500 BC – AD 1100) in southern Scandinavia. The main body of the thesis consists of four articles. These were written with the aim to identify chronological, geographical, theoretical and methodological gaps in current research, to develop, apply and evaluate approaches to how new knowledge on Iron Age cereal cultivation can be attained, and to assess the interaction between archaeobotany and other specialisms currently used in settlement archaeology. The introduction section of the thesis also contains a historical overview of archaeobotanical research on cereal cultivation in southern Scandinavia. The first article is a compilation and summary of all available previously performed archaeobotanical investigations in southern Sweden. This data is compared and discussed in relation to similar publications in Denmark and smaller scale compilations previously published in Sweden. The main result of the study is an updated and enhanced understanding of the main developments in the investigation area and a deepened knowledge of local development chronologies and trajectories in different parts of southern Sweden. The second article is a methodological presentation of a multiproxy analysis combining plant macrofossil analysis, phosphate analysis, magnetic susceptibility analysis and measurement of soil organic matter by loss on ignition. The applicability of the method for identification and delineation of space functions on southern Scandinavian Iron Age sites is discussed and illustrated by two case studies from the Danish site of Gedved Vest. Particular focus is placed on exploration of the use of the functional analysis for assessment of taphonomic and operational contexts of carbonised plant macrofossil assemblages. The third article aims at presenting an Iron Age cereal cultivation history for east-central Jutland, an area identified at the outset of the project as under-represented in archaeobotanical studies. The article combines data from depth analyses of material from the sites of Gedved Vest and Kristinebjerg Øst (analysed with the methods and theory presented in the second article) with a compilation of previously performed archaeobotanical analyses from east-central Jutland. The main results of the study are that developments in the study area appear to follow a chronology similar to that previously observed on Funen rather than the rest of the peninsula. Rye cultivation is furthermore discussed as more dynamic and flexible than previously presented in Scandinavian archaeobotanical literature. The fourth and final article leaves archaeobotany as the main topic. It focuses instead on evaluating, theorising and expanding the multiproxy method presented in the second article by a thorough comparison of the botanical, geochemical and geophysical methods to other techniques of functional analysis currently used in archaeology. These techniques include studies of artefact distributions, assessments of spatial relations between settlement features, and studies of the structural details of dwellings and other constructions. The main result is that there is a correspondence between the functional indications provided by botanical, geochemical and geophysical methods and techniques used in mainstream archaeology. The comparison furthermore shows that a combination of the two data sets allows for more highly resolved functional interpretations than if they are used separately. The main conclusion of the PhD thesis, based on the discussions in all four articles, is that archaeobotanical questions commonly necessitate the assessment of non-botanical archaeological material. The comparison of archaeobotanical data to other segments of the archaeological record does, however, enable the use of the former as an archaeological resource for addressing non-botanical questions. The increased understanding of (mainly settlement) site dynamics resulting from this integration of methods allows archaeobotanists to address increasingly complex botanical questions. Increased and more structured integration between archaeobotany and other specialisms operating within the framework of settlement archaeology is therefore argued to be the preferred approach to performing both high quality archaeobotany and settlement archaeology.
Deshayes Gilles, Le cellier médiéval en Normandie orientale : contribution à l’étude des utilisations, implantations et architectures des caves et celliers dans la Normandie orientale du second Moyen Âge, principalement dans les établissements monastiques, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. A.-M. Flambard Héricher, Université de Rouen)
Au cours du second Moyen Age, de nombreux celliers ont été construits, agrandis ou transformés en Normandie orientale. Le cellier est un espace économique polyvalent, fréquenté régulièrement, destiné à stocker, conserver et protéger des biens matériels (surtout des fûts de vin). Introduite par une analyse de la sémantique médiévale du cellier et de la cave, la recherche a été axée sur leurs utilisations, implantations et architectures, au travers de la documentation écrite, iconographique et archéologique. Les relevés et études monographiques ont surtout renseigné des résidences seigneuriales, plus particulièrement les abbayes. À l’échelle d’une région les angles d’approche du sujet fournissent une vision d’ensemble des celliers maçonnés, souvent voûtés, et au sein des activités qui leur sont associées, des chantiers de construction aux utilisations du quotidien. La diversité des sites et des paysages engendre celles des usages des celliers, de leur dimensions et de leurs modes de gestion (vignobles, résidences, quartiers urbains). Pratiques, contenus et contenants ont pu évoluer au cours de la période, témoins de la lente et partielle disparition des celliers peu encaissés au profit de caves profondes et parfois souterraines. L’usage et le paysage dictent l’implantation opportuniste ou contrainte du cellier, proche d’espaces associés. Les plans, élévations, voûtes, ouvertures, matériaux et techniques de construction caractérisent les vestiges et constituent des éléments de datation. Pendant deux siècles, les celliers quadrangulaires furent secondés par les « caves à cellules », abondantes dans la moitié sud-est de la région et dans une grande variété de sites ruraux.
During the second period of the Middle Ages, many cellars in Eastern Normandy were built, enlarged or transformed. The cellar is an economic space of various uses, regularly visited, used to store, keep and shelter goods (mostly barrels for wine). Based upon an analysis of the semantics concerning cellars, vaults and basements in the medieval times, the research deals with the cellar’s use, situations and architectures found in written, iconographic and archeological documents. Exhaustive plotting and studies mainly concern seigniorial residences, especially abbeys. At a regional scale, the different points expounded give a global view on stonework cellars, often vaulted, and amidst their usual activities ranging from the building sites to everyday life use. The variety of sites and landscapes generate diverse uses, sizes and types of administration (vineyard, residence, urban areas). According to the evolution of habits, containers and contents, some cellars that weren’t very deep slowly disapeared and were replaced by deeper, and sometimes underground cellars. The use and the environment determined the obvious or most convenient location of the cellar, close to other spaces associated to it. Plans, elevations, vaults, means of access, materials and techniques of building are characteristic of each ruin and enable its datation. For two centuries, the square cellars were replaced by « partitioned cellars », quite numerous in half of the South-East area and in a great variety of rural sites.
[Source : http://www.theses.fr/2015ROUEL001]
Alexander Musin, Institut pour l’Histoire de la Culture Matérielle, Académie des Sciences de Russie, Saint-Pétersbourg
La campagne de fouilles réalisée à Novgorod la Grande (Russie) en 2015 a apporté quatre documents sur écorce de bouleau des XIIIe-XIVe siècles dont l’un mentionne le mot « varègue ». Le Récit des Temps Passés, la première Chronique russe, identifie généralement sous ce terme, des Scandinaves et, surtout pour les XIe-XIIe siècles, des Suédois. Le document trouvé dans les couches du XIIIe siècle a reçu le numéro 1064 dans la collection de cette série documentaire issue des fouilles de Novgorod, qui comptait, à la fin de la campagne de 2015, 1067 documents sur écorce de bouleau. Il a été rédigé en vieux slavon comme tous les textes de ce genre. À la suite d’une liste de dettes mal conservée figure une liste de sept noms avec parfois des surnoms à l’accusatif, parmi lesquels OSIPE VAREGE, c’est-à-dire « Joseph Varègue ».
Bénédicte Guillot (Centre Michel de Boüard – Craham ; Inrap)
En 1998, la ville de Caen a lancé un programme de conservation et de mise en valeur du château de Caen. Une opération d’archéologie préventive a eu lieu en 2005 à l’emplacement des actuelles « salles du rempart ». Une fouille programmée a été lancée en 2011 afin d’étudier un grand bâtiment mis en évidence en 2005 et se développant au sud des limites de fouille. Elle s’est poursuivie en 2012 et 2013 et s’est terminée en 2014 (fig. 1). La réalisation du rapport final de cette opération est en cours mais une première synthèse peut déjà être proposée.