Archives de catégorie : Peuplement et habitat / Population and settlement

Koch Madsen Christian, Pastoral Settlement. Farming and Hierarchy in Norse Vatnahverfi, South Greenland

Koch Madsen Christian, Pastoral Settlement. Farming and Hierarchy in Norse Vatnahverfi, South Greenland, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (Université de Copenhague)

Résumé/abstract :

Norse farmers settled Greenland around AD 1000. They established two settlements, where the southernmost – the Eastern Settlement – was the largest and lasted until ca. AD 1450, where after it was depopulated for unknown reasons. Through an archaeological study of one of the Eastern Settlement’s core areas – ‘Vatnahverfi’ – this dissertation analyses and discusses how the settlement was organized and changed throughout time. New precision surveys of 157 sites and 1308 individual ruins show that the dispersed settlement was organized after strongly hierarchical patterns. The Norse pastoral farming system relied on extensive land use practices organized around shielings, and apparently after unique Greenlandic patterns. A population estimate based on these settlement patterns implies an average population in Vatnahverfi of only ca. 225-550 people, and an average maximum population of ca. 1400-1940 in the whole of the Eastern Settlement. New and old 14C-dates show that the settlement expanded in two phases: the best agricultural areas were quickly occupied around AD 1000, more marginal areas about a century later. The settlement reached a maximum between AD 1100-1200, where after it quickly contracted and power was centralized on fewer manors. Already by AD 1250 the settlement was again concentrated on those areas that had initially been settled, and after AD 1350 even these areas witnessed a decline in land use. Although climatic deterioration towards the ‘Little Ice Age’ undoubtedly made it harder to be a farmer in South Greenland, this study implies that low population densities – and a very unequal access to resources and options – was perhaps the major problem facing the Norse and ultimately a key reason for the abandonment of the settlements.

[Source : http://www.nabohome.org/postgraduates/theses/ckm/]

Karlsson Catarina, Förlorat järn — Det medeltida jordbrukets behov och förbrukning av järn och stål

Karlsson Catarina, Förlorat järn — Det medeltida jordbrukets behov och förbrukning av järn och stål [Lost Iron – requirement and consumption of iron and steel in agriculture in medieval Sweden],  Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet)

Résumé/abstract :

Lost Iron – requirement and consumption of iron and steel in agriculture in medieval Sweden This study aims at an estimation of the amount of iron required for agriculture during the Middle Ages in Sweden. To calculate this we need to know which implements were used, their weights and how they were subjected to wear. Research on wear has been very scarce but it is of great importance to measure how much iron that was needed to replace what was taken away by constant wear, i.e. on shares for ploughs and ards. To achieve this a new method was devised. The method is based on previous research by Grith Lerche, with additional analyses and calculations. The method presented and used is called Wear Calculation Method and consists of five steps. Step 1: Study of medieval agricultural implements, their shape and weight. Step 2: Metallurgical analysis of selected implements, to answer questions about materials and how they were processed. Step 3: Experimental Archaeology: Manufacture of replicas of the implements analyzed in step 2. Step 4: Experimental Archaeology: ard ploughing and haymaking with replicas of ard shares and scythes for the purpose of measuring wear. Step 5: Analysis of the wear experiment, results and calculations of consumption of iron and steel in medieval agriculture. The experimental part of the thesis focuses on ard shares and scythes, since the ard and the scythe were the main implements for ploughing and haymaking during the Middle Ages in Sweden. These experiments were carried out during two seasons at Östra Järvafältet, north of Stockholm, Sweden. I have measured wear on the ard shares in grams per kilometer. But more relevant and often more compatible with data from written sources is a measure of how many grams that are worn off per hectare or any other given unit of land. The wear is approximated at 100 grams of iron and steel per ploughed hectare (10 000 m2), in conditions similar to the situation when the replicas were used. I chose to do my analyses on two different spatial levels, the farm and the county. The results prove that ard ploughing means much heavier wear on the implements compared to haymaking. Generally you needed an annual addition of slightly over 1 kg of iron to plough the fields of a normal-sized farm in Uppland. Thus we may estimate the total amount of iron required in Uppland to replace the wear caused by ploughing to 8,4 ton a year. These results show that iron and steel production were of great importance for the High Medieval economic expansion and modernization, where increased iron production and consumption as well as simultaneous expansion of arable land were vital. Between the end of the first millennium and the mid-14th century, the population of Sweden approximately doubled in size, much like the rest of Europe. Iron was a most important third factor (in combination with an increased population and the cultivation of new land) in this expanding age, ca AD 1000–1300. Production and consumption of iron and steel increased sharply during this period and it reached every person, farm, meadow and field in the country. This is a sure sign of a very developed market and system for the distribution of iron and steel.

[Source : http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/11435/]

Grabowski Radoslaw, Cereal husbandry and settlement : Expanding archaeobotanical perspectives on the southern Scandinavian Iron Age

Grabowski Radoslaw, Cereal husbandry and settlement : Expanding archaeobotanical perspectives on the southern Scandinavian Iron Age, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (dir. K. Viklund, Umeå universitet)

Résumé/abstract :

The here presented PhD project explores the phenomenon of cereal cultivation during the Iron Age (c. 500 BC – AD 1100) in southern Scandinavia. The main body of the thesis consists of four articles. These were written with the aim to identify chronological, geographical, theoretical and methodological gaps in current research, to develop, apply and evaluate approaches to how new knowledge on Iron Age cereal cultivation can be attained, and to assess the interaction between archaeobotany and other specialisms currently used in settlement archaeology. The introduction section of the thesis also contains a historical overview of archaeobotanical research on cereal cultivation in southern Scandinavia. The first article is a compilation and summary of all available previously performed  archaeobotanical investigations in southern Sweden. This data is compared and discussed in relation to similar publications in Denmark and smaller scale compilations previously published in Sweden. The main result of the study is an updated and enhanced understanding of the main developments in the investigation area and a deepened knowledge of local development chronologies and trajectories in different parts of southern Sweden. The second article is a methodological presentation of a multiproxy analysis combining plant macrofossil analysis, phosphate analysis, magnetic susceptibility analysis and measurement of soil organic matter by loss on ignition. The applicability of the method for identification and delineation of space functions on southern Scandinavian Iron Age sites is discussed and illustrated by two case studies from the Danish site of Gedved Vest. Particular focus is placed on exploration of the use of the functional analysis for assessment of taphonomic and operational contexts of carbonised plant macrofossil assemblages. The third article aims at presenting an Iron Age cereal cultivation history for east-central Jutland, an area identified at the outset of the project as under-represented in archaeobotanical studies. The article combines data from depth analyses of material from the sites of Gedved Vest and Kristinebjerg Øst (analysed with the methods and theory presented in the second article) with a compilation of previously performed archaeobotanical analyses from east-central Jutland. The main results of the study are that developments in the study area appear to follow a chronology similar to that previously observed on Funen rather than the rest of the peninsula. Rye cultivation is furthermore discussed as more dynamic and flexible than previously presented in Scandinavian archaeobotanical literature. The fourth and final article leaves archaeobotany as the main topic. It focuses instead on evaluating, theorising and expanding the multiproxy method presented in the second article by a thorough comparison of the botanical, geochemical and geophysical methods to other techniques of functional analysis currently used in archaeology. These techniques include studies of artefact distributions, assessments of spatial relations between settlement features, and studies of the structural details of dwellings and other constructions. The main result is that there is a correspondence between the functional indications provided by botanical, geochemical and geophysical methods and techniques used in mainstream archaeology. The comparison furthermore shows that a combination of the two data sets allows for more highly resolved functional interpretations than if they are used separately. The main conclusion of the PhD thesis, based on the discussions in all four articles, is that archaeobotanical questions commonly necessitate the assessment of non-botanical archaeological material. The comparison of archaeobotanical data to other segments of the archaeological record does, however, enable the use of the former as an archaeological resource for addressing non-botanical questions. The increased understanding of (mainly settlement) site dynamics resulting from this integration of methods allows archaeobotanists to address increasingly complex botanical questions. Increased and more structured integration between archaeobotany and other specialisms operating within the framework of settlement archaeology is therefore argued to be the preferred approach to performing both high quality archaeobotany and settlement archaeology.

[Source : http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A709582&dswid=6684]

Deshayes Gilles, Le cellier médiéval en Normandie orientale : contribution à l’étude des utilisations, implantations et architectures des caves et celliers dans la Normandie orientale du second Moyen Âge, principalement dans les établissements monastiques

Deshayes Gilles, Le cellier médiéval en Normandie orientale : contribution à l’étude des utilisations, implantations et architectures des caves et celliers dans la Normandie orientale du second Moyen Âge, principalement dans les établissements monastiques, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015, (dir. A.-M. Flambard Héricher, Université de Rouen)

Résumé/abstract :

Au cours du second Moyen Age, de nombreux celliers ont été construits, agrandis ou transformés en Normandie orientale. Le cellier est un espace économique polyvalent, fréquenté régulièrement, destiné à stocker, conserver et protéger des biens matériels (surtout des fûts de vin). Introduite par une analyse de la sémantique médiévale du cellier et de la cave, la recherche a été axée sur leurs utilisations, implantations et architectures, au travers de la documentation écrite, iconographique et archéologique. Les relevés et études monographiques ont surtout renseigné des résidences seigneuriales, plus particulièrement les abbayes. À l’échelle d’une région les angles d’approche du sujet fournissent une vision d’ensemble des celliers maçonnés, souvent voûtés, et au sein des activités qui leur sont associées, des chantiers de construction aux utilisations du quotidien. La diversité des sites et des paysages engendre celles des usages des celliers, de leur dimensions et de leurs modes de gestion (vignobles, résidences, quartiers urbains). Pratiques, contenus et contenants ont pu évoluer au cours de la période, témoins de la lente et partielle disparition des celliers peu encaissés au profit de caves profondes et parfois souterraines. L’usage et le paysage dictent l’implantation opportuniste ou contrainte du cellier, proche d’espaces associés. Les plans, élévations, voûtes, ouvertures, matériaux et techniques de construction caractérisent les vestiges et constituent des éléments de datation. Pendant deux siècles, les celliers quadrangulaires furent secondés par les « caves à cellules », abondantes dans la moitié sud-est de la région et dans une grande variété de sites ruraux.

During the second period of the Middle Ages, many cellars in Eastern Normandy were built, enlarged or transformed. The cellar is an economic space of various uses, regularly visited, used to store, keep and shelter goods (mostly barrels for wine). Based upon an analysis of the semantics concerning cellars, vaults and basements in the medieval times, the research deals with the cellar’s use, situations and architectures found in written, iconographic and archeological documents. Exhaustive plotting and studies mainly concern seigniorial residences, especially abbeys. At a regional scale, the different points expounded give a global view on stonework cellars, often vaulted, and amidst their usual activities ranging from the building sites to everyday life use. The variety of sites and landscapes generate diverse uses, sizes and types of administration (vineyard, residence, urban areas). According to the evolution of habits, containers and contents, some cellars that weren’t very deep slowly disapeared and were replaced by deeper, and sometimes underground cellars. The use and the environment determined the obvious or most convenient location of the cellar, close to other spaces associated to it. Plans, elevations, vaults, means of access, materials and techniques of building are characteristic of each ruin and enable its datation. For two centuries, the square cellars were replaced by « partitioned cellars », quite numerous in half of the South-East area and in a great variety of rural sites.

[Source : http://www.theses.fr/2015ROUEL001]

Des « Varègues » sur écorce de bouleau ?

Alexander Musin, Institut pour l’Histoire de la Culture Matérielle, Académie des Sciences de Russie, Saint-Pétersbourg

La campagne de fouilles réalisée à Novgorod la Grande (Russie) en 2015 a apporté quatre documents sur écorce de bouleau des XIIIe-XIVe siècles dont l’un mentionne le mot « varègue ». Le Récit des Temps Passés, la première Chronique russe, identifie généralement sous ce terme, des Scandinaves et, surtout pour les XIe-XIIe siècles, des Suédois. Le document trouvé dans les couches du XIIIe siècle a reçu le numéro 1064 dans la collection de cette série documentaire issue des fouilles de Novgorod, qui comptait, à la fin de la campagne de 2015, 1067 documents sur écorce de bouleau. Il a été rédigé en vieux slavon comme tous les textes de ce genre. À la suite d’une liste de dettes mal conservée figure une liste de sept noms avec parfois des surnoms à l’accusatif, parmi lesquels OSIPE VAREGE, c’est-à-dire « Joseph Varègue ».

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Premiers résultats de la fouille programmée d’un nouvel édifice de prestige au château de Caen

Bénédicte Guillot (Centre Michel de Boüard – Craham ; Inrap)

En 1998, la ville de Caen a lancé un programme de conservation et de mise en valeur du château de Caen. Une opération d’archéologie préventive a eu lieu en 2005 à l’emplacement des actuelles « salles du rempart ». Une fouille programmée a été lancée en 2011 afin d’étudier un grand bâtiment mis en évidence en 2005 et se développant au sud des limites de fouille. Elle s’est poursuivie en 2012 et 2013 et s’est terminée en 2014 (fig. 1). La réalisation du rapport final de cette opération est en cours mais une première synthèse peut déjà être proposée.

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Aude Painchault, Les châteaux normands dans l’œuvre d’Orderic Vital et leurs traces archéologiques

Aude Painchault, Les châteaux normands dans l’œuvre d’Orderic Vital et leurs traces archéologiques

Compte rendu de la soutenance de thèse par Micaël Allainguillaume,  Adrien Dubois et Jean-Baptiste Vincent

Le mardi 13 janvier 2015, à l’Université de Rouen, Aude Painchault a soutenu sa thèse de doctorat intitulée « Les châteaux normands dans l’œuvre d’Orderic Vital et leurs traces archéologiques », devant un jury composé de Gérard Giuliato, professeur d’histoire et d’archéologie médiévale, université de Lorraine, président du jury ; David Bates, professeur d’histoire médiévale, East Anglia University, rapporteur ; Philippe Racinet, professeur d’histoire et d’archéologie médiévale, université de Picardie, Jules Verne, rapporteur ; Véronique Gazeau, professeur d’histoire médiévale, université de Caen Basse-Normandie et Anne-Marie Flambard Héricher, professeur émérite d’histoire et d’archéologie médiévale, université de Rouen, directrice de la thèse.

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Leroux Nicolas, L’anthropisation médiévale des rives de la Seine entre Rouen et le Havre et ses conséquences économiques

Leroux Nicolas, L’anthropisation médiévale des rives de la Seine entre Rouen et le Havre et ses conséquences économiques, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2012 (dir. A.-M. Flambard Héricher, Université de Rouen)

Résumé/abstract :

Étymologiquement, l’anthropisation est l’effet de l’action humaine sur les milieux naturels. On voit l’ambiguïté de cette définition : l’homme serait-il exclu d’un milieu qui ne serait naturel qu’en son absence ? Cependant, pour donner un sens opérationnel à la notion d’anthropisation, il faut remarquer que ce concept s’est imposé à partir du moment où un bilan s’est avéré nécessaire, l’aspect négatif des actions humaines apparaît en filigrane, puis en surimpression sur leur aspect positif, envisagé jusque-là exclusivement en toute bonne conscience civilisatrice. Alors, circonscrite, l’anthropisation est la conséquence des actions humaines conduisant à un appauvrissement, une dégradation, voire une destruction des écosystèmes parfois à la création d’autres plus ou moins artificiels. L’impact humain sur l’environnement conduit à quelques remarques économiques sur la basse vallée de la Seine du VIIe au XVIe siècle. Lutter contre les divagations du fleuve, exploiter les matières premières, les ressources souterraines de cette vallée, profiter des richesses de la Seine et essayer d’établir des passages permettant les échanges entre les deux rives opposées tentent de répondre à l’intérêt que l’Homme a porté au milieu naturel entre les invasions normandes et le début du XVIe siècle. Plusieurs groupes humains s’intéressèrent à cette artère séquanienne ; les grands seigneurs (barons, comtes et rois) et les ecclésiastiques voulaient laisser leur empreinte dans cette grande vallée fluviale entre Rouen et le Havre. L’Histoire, celle que l’on écrit avec un grand H, laisse des traces dans la terre, nous propulsant quelquefois plusieurs siècles en arrière. L’Histoire ne peut s’effacer, parce qu’elle appartient à notre héritage et conditionnant notre présent et tout le futur, insaisissable.

Source : http://grhis.univ-rouen.fr/grhis/?page_id=1325

Lepeuple Bruno, Les châteaux du Vexin du Xe siècle au milieu du XIIe siècle. Deux conceptions du contrôle territorial, la Normandie face à la France

Lepeuple Bruno, Les châteaux du Vexin du Xe siècle au milieu du XIIe siècle. Deux conceptions du contrôle territorial, la Normandie face à la France (dir. A.-M. Flambard Héricher, Université de Rouen)

En cours depuis 2005/In preparation since 2005

Aucun résumé retrouvé/No abstract available

[source : http://www.theses.fr/s43789]

Projet «Antiquités de la terre Novgorod: une base de données électronique de découvertes archéologiques»

Le projet «Antiquités de la terre Novgorod: une base de données électronique de découvertes archéologiques» vise à la création et au développement d’un outil de ressources sur les informations obtenues lors de fouilles archéologiques des monuments antiques et médiévaux de terre Novgorod. La base de données contient des images numériques des découvertes et l’information la plus complète sur tous les sujets, et plus particulièrement sur les fouilles de Staraya Russa (XIe-XVIe siècle) dont on trouvera les rapports de fouilles. Elle offre un accès distant pour les chercheurs.

Source et accès : http://www.novsu.ru/archeology

The Isle of Man Viking Ancestry study

The Isle of Man Viking Ancestry study

Responsables du projet/Project leaders :

Mark Jobling (maj4@le.ac.uk), Simon James (stj3@le.ac.uk)

Établissement principal/Main institution :

University of Leicester

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

This University of Leicester-funded study is being carried out by Hayley Dunn under the joint supervision of Professor Mark Jobling (Department of Genetics) and Dr Simon James (School of Archaeology) as part of research leading to a PhD degree. The aim of project is to look at the proportion of Viking ancestry among the inhabitants of the Isle of Man.

In this project we will exploit the power of the link we have previously shown between surnames and Y-chromosomal DNA (both of which are passed from father to son). We will use historical lists of surnames present on the Isle of Man in medieval times to recruit modern donor samples to mimic the population of the past. We will analyse Y chromosomes because these are linked with surnames, and then estimate proportions of Norwegian ancestry in these samples.

[Lien/Link : http://www2.le.ac.uk/projects/impact-of-diasporas/projects-1/IsleofMan]

Hicks Leonie V., Brenner Elma (dir.), Society and culture in medieval Rouen, 911-1300

Hicks Leonie V., Brenner Elma (dir.), Society and culture in medieval Rouen, 911-1300, Turnhout, Brepols (Studies in the Early Middle Ages, vol. 39), 2013, 400 p. ISBN: 978-2-503-53665-1

Compte rendu par/Review by : Karen Schousboe

Medieval Histories

Date : Feb 2014

To a large extent the city of Rouen represents an unknown quantity. Originally it was founded by an ancient tribe, the Veliocasses, and used to control the lower Seine Valley and the estuary. They called it Ratumacos. Later it was renamed by the Romans as Rotomagus. It still holds the foundations of an amphitheatre and Roman baths. In the 5th century it became the seat of a bishopric and later – in Merovingian Gall – it functioned as capital of Neustria. However, Vikings repeatedly sacked the city in the late 9th century; in the aftermath they finally took over and turned it into their main capital in what later became the Duchy of Normandy. Finally it reached its apogee in the 11th to 13th century, during which period the inner city and its suburbs exploded while its political and economic significance was unparalleled (it even out-distanced Paris).

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Compte rendu par/Review by : Benjamin Pohl

Reviews in History

Date : 13 Mar 2014

This volume of collected essays explores the social and cultural history of the city of Rouen between the ‘foundation’ of Normandy under Rollo in 911 and the end of the 13th century. As David Bates points out in the book’s preface, Rouen so far has not received the attention which scholars have readily paid to other great cities throughout the Anglo-Norman World – including several other cities in Normandy, such as Caen, Bayeux and Lisieux. Undoubtedly, therefore, the present volume represents a welcome addition to the already existing range of compendiums devoted to important places and institutions in medieval Europe, as it caters to a long-standing desideratum within contemporary Anglo-Norman scholarship.

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Compte rendu par/Review by : David S. Spear

The Medieval Review

Date : 27 Oct 2014

Rouen was, and remains, the largest city in Normandy. Until about 1200 it was larger than Paris. What weakened Rouen was, first, the foundation of Caen, and second, the rise of Paris. Caen had been founded by William the Conqueror as a new outpost of his ducal power in central Normandy (Rouen, by contrast, was too far east in the duchy). Caen never surpassed Rouen in terms of population, but it had a large ducal castle and two very prestigious ducal abbeys (St.-Etienne for men, and La Trinité for women). In the later Middle Ages Normandy’s first university was in Caen, not Rouen. The rise of Paris vis-à-vis Rouen came about when King John lost the province of Normandy to the King of France in 1204. After that date, Philip Augustus lavished numerous resources on urban renewal in Paris, and seems to have actively thwarted further growth in Rouen. Later in the Middle Ages, Rouen experienced periods of effervescence, but was condemned to be always in the shadow of Paris.

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Bates David, Liddiard Robert (dir.), East Anglia and its North Sea world in the Middle Ages

Bates David, Liddiard Robert (dir.), East Anglia and its North Sea world in the Middle Ages, Woodbridge, Boydell Press, 2013, XIV-349 p. ISBN: 9781843838463

Compte rendu par/Review by : Richard C. Hoffmann

The Medieval Review

Date : 17 Apr 2014

The common intent of this collection’s seventeen essays may seem straightforward enough: how did the medieval regional community of East Anglia, the easternmost projection of England, engage with its maritime frontiers? Or is it all that clear? A potentially fecund ambiguity surfaces when the preface announces that « this book sets out to discuss medieval East Anglia » (xiii), while co-editor Robert Liddiard’s introduction claims that « this collection… takes the North Sea during the Middle Ages as its central theme… » (3) So, land or sea? Just two paragraphs in Liddiard’s fifteen pages do actually discuss the sea; all else is devoted to medieval human connections across it. This is, to be sure, a fair representation of the book itself, where « the North Sea world » is no marine environment but a barren stage where only human actors and artifacts move.

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Gregory Rebecca, The minor and field-names of Thurgarton Wapentake, Nottinghamshire

Gregory Rebecca, The minor and field-names of Thurgarton Wapentake, Nottinghamshire, (dir. P. Cavill, J. Baker, University of Nottingham)

En cours depuis 2013/In preparation since 2013

Résumé/abstract :

My project involves collection and anaysis of minor names in Thurgarton Wapentake. I hope to be able to analyse these names in order to glean information about a number of different areas of interest including: the dialect of Nottinghamshire and naming elements specific to the region; the languages spoken in the area, with an emphasis on Scandinavian-infuenced vocabulary and pronunciation; land-use; and the process of enclosure and its effect on naming. My initial sources of data have been the Tithe and Enclosure Awards from the late 18th and early 19th centuries. However, I will also be making use of maps and documents from both earlier and later periods.

[Source : http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/research/groups/csva/research/doctoral-research.aspx]

Rye Eleanor, Dialect in the Viking-Age Scandinavian diaspora

Rye Eleanor, Dialect in the Viking-Age Scandinavian diaspora: the evidence of medieval minor names, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (University of Nottingham)

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