Archives de catégorie : Relations internationales, conquêtes, guerre et paix / International relations, conquests, war and peace

Archaeologies of the Norman Conquest

Archaeologies of the Norman Conquest is a new research network examining the cultural, social, and political implications of the Norman Conquest through an explicit focus on archaeology and material culture. Its chief aims are to highlight the new insights and nuanced interpretations that archaeology can bring to this fundamental turning point in British history, and to articulate an inclusive research framework for the 11th and 12th centuries that brings together the scientific, humanistic, academic, professional, and public engagement arms of archaeology. It seeks to raise both academic and public awareness of the important role archaeology has to play in understanding this cultural touchstone.

This network is based around a series of three workshops, focusing on the themes of interpretative agendas, methodologies, and heritage and public impacts. Current research is beginning demonstrate that not only is the Norman Conquest visible in the archaeological record at a wide range of social levels and in many aspects of life, but also that if the right questions are asked of the data, the conclusions we can draw from the archaeology often contradict or add considerable nuance to the story of the Conquest told in the documentary record. By providing a forum for the presentation of innovative scholarship and the discussion of new questions, agendas, and research directions, the network will contribute to re-evaluating the long-standing narratives of the Conquest, its process, and its aftermath.

This project is funded by an AHRC Research Networking grant, led by the universities of York and Nottingham, with partnership from Norwich Castle Museum.

https://www.normanarchaeology.org/

Caitlin Ellis, The identity and international relations of Orkney and Dublin in the long eleventh century

Caitlin Ellis, The identity and international relations of Orkney and Dublin in the long eleventh century, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2018 (Université de Cambridge)

Continuer la lecture de Caitlin Ellis, The identity and international relations of Orkney and Dublin in the long eleventh century

Beñat Elortza, A comparative analysis of the transformation of the Scandinavian military apparatus from a European perspective, c. 1035-1202

Beñat Elortza, A comparative analysis of the transformation of the Scandinavian military apparatus from a European perspective, c. 1035-1202, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2017 (Université d’Aberdeen)

Continuer la lecture de Beñat Elortza, A comparative analysis of the transformation of the Scandinavian military apparatus from a European perspective, c. 1035-1202

Louisa Taylor, Moderation and restraint in the North : ideals of elite conduct in High Medieval England, Norway and Denmark

Louisa Taylor, Moderation and restraint in the North : ideals of elite conduct in High Medieval England, Norway and Denmark, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2016 (University College London)

Continuer la lecture de Louisa Taylor, Moderation and restraint in the North : ideals of elite conduct in High Medieval England, Norway and Denmark

The Viking Phenomenon

The Viking Phenomenon

Responsables du projet/Project leaders : Neil Price

Établissements principaux/Main institutions : Université d’Uppsala

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The Viking Age (c.750-1050 CE) has long been a touchstone of identity in the Nordic countries, not least in Sweden where the primary project focus lies. While the Vikings enjoy a popular recognition common to few other ancient cultures, their history has been reinvented, used and abused to suit the needs of successive generations, in a process that continues today.

Continuer la lecture de The Viking Phenomenon

Peacemaking and the Restraint of Violence in Medieval Europe (1100-1300): Practices, Actors and Behaviour

Centre for Advanced Study (Oslo) – Department of Archaeology, Conservation and History (University of Oslo)

Conference – 22-23 February 2018

Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi/Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (Drammensveien 78, 0271 Oslo)

In high medieval Europe, conflict took a number of different forms, from large-scale battles, such as disputes over crowns, power and lands, to more local disputes over inheritance and property. In the absence of well-developed administrative structures which could limit conflict, cultural conventions, rituals and behavioural norms evolved to moderate violence within the elite community. The exchange of hostages, ransom of defeated opponents, oath-taking and creation of new bonds of friendship, all helped to re-establish stable relations between former opponents. With peace came a change in the balance of power within a region. Relationships between adversaries were restructured and redefined as treaties were concluded and new agreements made. Peace rituals allowed the new status quo to be publicly proclaimed and understood. By studying the restraint of violence and the imposition of peace, we can examine both the long and short term implications of conflict, and improve our understanding of how violence shaped the elite community in medieval Europe.

Continuer la lecture de Peacemaking and the Restraint of Violence in Medieval Europe (1100-1300): Practices, Actors and Behaviour

Veninger Jacqueline, Archaeological landscapes of conflict in twelfth-century Gwynedd

Veninger Jacqueline, Archaeological landscapes of conflict in twelfth-century Gwynedd, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2015 (University of Exeter)

Continuer la lecture de Veninger Jacqueline, Archaeological landscapes of conflict in twelfth-century Gwynedd

From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland

Article publié dans le dossier thématique – actes de la journée d’étude du 20 novembre 2015, Les transferts culturels dans les mondes normands médiévaux I – Des mots pour le dire ?

From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland

David Griffiths

University of Oxford, England, UK


In this short piece, I address the ways in which historians and archaeologists have approached, interpreted and described the Viking and Norman presences in England and Ireland. These are treated as very different phenomena, yet in many ways have similar origins and effects. ‘Vikings’ (a word hardly used in near-contemporary historical sources, which use ‘Northmen’, ‘Gentiles’, Foreigners’) became a feature of English and Irish historical consciousness from the 780s AD, with raids followed by more sustained semi-systematic warfare coupled to settlement and assimilation, and ultimately dynastic rivalry and competing claims on statehood. The latter are exemplified in England by the successful attempt by Svein Forkbeard of Denmark to wrest the crown and make way for his son Cnut’s accession in 1016, and in Ireland by the creation of the kingdom of Dublin and the failed attempts by external powers in the Norse world to invade Ireland in 1014 and by Magnus Barelegs of Norway in 1098/1103. Duke William of Normandy, it will need no reminder to say, invaded southern England in 1066, and over the following 20 years (expensively and often bloodily) established Norman rule over the majority of the country. An important dimension to the Norman invasion is its coincidence with the Northumbrian rebellion against Harold II and the Norwegian invasion led by Harald Hardraði, which narrowly failed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066, three days prior to the Norman fleet landing at Pevensey, Sussex. Following William’s success at Hastings, and his assumption of the crown, further unsuccessful Danish campaign was mounted against England in 1069-70. Subsequently in 1169-71, led initially by Norman settlers from West Wales, and representing the king Henry II (also Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine and Count of Anjou), an Anglo-Norman army landed (initially by Irish invitation) in south-eastern Ireland, rapidly effecting a take-over of the towns and then the Irish countryside. Continuer la lecture de From Vikings to Normans in England and Ireland

« Faire la paix dans la Scandinavie médiévale. Recherche sur les formes de pacification et les rituels de paix dans le monde scandinave au Moyen Âge (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle) »

 Simon Lebouteiller a le plaisir de vous inviter à la soutenance de sa thèse :

« Faire la paix dans la Scandinavie médiévale. Recherche sur les formes de pacification et les rituels de paix dans le monde scandinave au Moyen Âge (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle) »

qui aura lieu le 21 octobre prochain à 14h00 dans l’amphithéâtre de la MRSH (Université de Caen, Campus 1), devant un jury composé de :

· M. Sverre Bagge, professeur, Université de Bergen (rapporteur)
· M. Pierre Bauduin, professeur, Université de Caen Normandie (directeur de thèse)
· Mme Geneviève Bührer-Thierry, professeure, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (examinateur)
· M. François Émion, maître de conférences, Université Paris-Sorbonne (examinateur)
· M. Jean-Marie Maillefer, professeur, Université Paris-Sorbonne (codirecteur de thèse)
· M. Jean-Marie Moeglin, professeur, Université Paris-Sorbonne ; directeur de recherche, EPHE (rapporteur)

La soutenance sera suivie d’un pot auquel vous êtes également conviés. Afin de faciliter son organisation, veuillez confirmer votre présence à l’adresse suivante :
simon.lebouteiller@unicaen.fr

capture-decran-2016-10-11-a-10-18-47

911-2011. Penser les mondes normands médiévaux

911-2011. Penser les mondes normands médiévaux

Actes du colloque de Cerisy-la-Salle (29 septembre-2 octobre 2011) publiés sous la direction de David Bates et PierreBauduin.

Collection Symposia.

Issu d’un colloque international tenu à l’occasion du 11e centenaire du traité de Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, ce volume s’intéresse aux débuts du duché de Normandie et aux différents aspects de l’expansion ou de la présence des Normands dans les îles Britanniques et en Méditerranée. Il expose les interprétations données aux conquêtes, explore la formation de réseaux et la construction d’espaces, ainsi que les notions de diaspora et d’identité « normandes ».
La pertinence de l’expression « monde(s) normand(s) » est discutée en soulignant son caractère à la fois singulier et pluriel, sa dimension européenne, sa valeur heuristique, capable de se dégager d’historiographies trop étroitement nationales et de remettre en question certains modèles explicatifs.

2016, 16 x 24, br., 572 p.

ISBN : 978-2-84133-774-3

35 €

https://www.unicaen.fr/puc/html/article9550.html?id_article=1006

Paul Hill, The Norman Commanders

Paul Hill, The Norman Commanders: Masters of Warfare 911-1135, Pen and Sword 2015.

Résumé/abstract :

Robert Guiscard, William the Conqueror, Roger I of Sicily and Bohemond Prince of Antioch are just four of the exceptional Norman commanders who not only led their armies to victory in battle but also, through military force, created their own kingdoms in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Their single-minded and aggressive leadership, and the organization, discipline and fighting qualities of their armies, marked them out from their Viking forebears and from many of the armed forces that stood against them. Their brilliant careers, and those of Robert Curthose, William Rufus, Richard I of Capua and Henry I of England, are the subject of Paul Hill’s latest study of medieval warfare.

In a narrative packed with detail and insight, and with a wide-ranging understanding of the fighting methods and military ethos of the period, he traces the course of their conquests, focusing on them as individual commanders and on their achievements on the battlefield. The military context of their campaigns, and the conditions of warfare in France and England, in southern Italy and Sicily, and in the Near East, are vividly described, as are their decisive operations and sieges – among them Hastings, Brémule, Tinchebrai, Civitate, Misilmeri, Dyrrhachium and the Siege of Antioch.

There is no doubt that the Normans’ success in war depended upon the leadership qualities and military capabilities of the commanders as well as the special strengths of the armies they led. Paul Hill’s accessible and authoritative account offers a fascinating portrait of these masters of warfare.

 

Lien/Link http://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/The-Norman-Commanders-Hardback/p/10745

Georgios THEOTOKIS, The campaigns of the Norman dukes of southern Italy against Byzantium

Georgios  Theotokis,  The campaigns of the Norman dukes of southern Italy against Byzantium, in the years between 1071 and 1108 AD., Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2010, (dir. M. Strickland, University of Glasgow).

 

Résumé/abstract :

 

The topic of my thesis is “The campaigns of the Norman dukes of southern Italy to Byzantium, in the years between 1071 and 1108 A.D.” As the title suggests, I am examining all the main campaigns conducted by the Normans against Byzantine provinces, in the period from the fall of Bari, the Byzantine capital of Apulia and the seat of the Byzantine governor (catepano) of Italy in 1071, to the Treaty of Devol that marked the end of Bohemond of Taranto’s Illyrian campaign in 1108. My thesis, however, aims to focus specifically on the military aspects of these confrontations, an area which for this period has been surprisingly neglected in the existing secondary literature. My intention is to give answers to a series of questions, of which only some of them are presented here: what was the Norman method of raising their armies and what was the connection of this particular system to that in Normandy and France in the same period (similarities, differences, if any)? Have the Normans been willing to adapt to the Mediterranean reality of warfare, meaning the adaptation of siege engines and the creation of a transport and fighting fleet? What was the composition of their armies, not only in numbers but also in the analogy of cavalry, infantry and supplementary units? While in the field of battle, what were the fighting tactics used by the Normans against the Byzantines and were they superior to their eastern opponents? However, as my study is in essence comparative, I will further compare the Norman and Byzantine military institutions, analyse the clash of these two different military cultures and distinguish any signs of adaptations in their practice of warfare. Also, I will attempt to set this enquiry in the light of new approaches to medieval military history visible in recent historiography by asking if any side had been familiar to the ideas of Vegetian strategy, and if so, whether we characterise any of these strategies as Vegetian?

[Source :  http://theses.gla.ac.uk/1884/ ]

 

PDF : http://theses.gla.ac.uk/1884/1/2010theotokisphd.pdf

Stambul/Constantinople-Kucukcekmece – the Destination Port of the Way from the Varangians to the Greeks, a Centre of “Byzantinization” of the Rus’ Community

Responsables du projet/Project leaders : Błażej M. Stanisławski (st-wski@wp.pl), Sengül Aydingün (sengulaydingun@kocaeli.edu.tr), Hakan Öniz (hakan.oniz@gmail.com)

Établissements principaux/Main institutions : Wrocław University, Kocaeli University, Selçuk University

Projet en cours/Project in progress

Description :

The Way from the Varangians to the Greeks linked Eastern Europe and the Baltic Sea zone with Constantinople. Through the route Byzantine goods and ideas reached the North. The ideas which, amongst others, created foundations of medieval European civilization in our part of the continent. The artery functioned as the result of relations between the Rus’/Scandinavians and Byzantines started in the 9th and continued in the 10th and 11th century. Their testimony are treaties from 911 and 944 mentioned in the Nestor’s Chronicle (Tale of Bygone Years). Under the agreements the Rus’ gained the right to stay in the neighbourhood of Constantinople.

The aim is: to locate the place of stay of the Rus’ at the gates of the capital of the Empire based on material and written sources (Greek and Latin); reconstruction of the cultural environment – based on archaeological data and historical texts- in which directly lived newcomers from Eastern Europe in Miklagård and determination of the impact of this environment on their culture.

The basis of the project is the hypothesis that the Byzantine settlement complex situated at Kucukcekmece Lake near Istanbul was the destination port of the route, perhaps identical with the zone appointed to the Rus’ as their place of residence at the gates of Constantinople mentioned in the treaties. This concept was formulated by S. Aydingün – the director of the excavations in Kucukcekmece and H. Öniz – the member of the excavation team. It is confirmed by artefacts of Rus’/Scandinavian origins discovered there, identified by the author of the project.

Interdisciplinary Project, Turkey and brings together the experience of Polish medieval studies. It includes specialists in archaeology (Viking culture, Byzantine studies, land and underwater excavations), classical philology, history and architecture. Its basis are studies of material sources obtained as a result of archaeological work in Kucukcekmece (using the classical and the latest methods of field prospection and documentation) as well as historical research of written sources (Greek and Latin) associated with this centre and problems in question.

The project will contribute to the perception of the cultural environment in which the first direct contact of communities from our part of the continent and the Byzantine civilization occurred and we will be able to recognize the Byzantine impact on the newcomers from the North.

It will create a new source foundation and fields to discussion within studies carried out in recent years, which aim to: (1) to illustrate the socio-economic background, against which the process of formation of first states in the Early Middle Ages occurred, with particular emphasis on the role played by the Norse; and (2) to study problems associated with the beginnings of the medieval European civilization started by Lech Leciejewicz (Nowa postać świata, Wrocław 2000). It will also contribute to resurrect the tradition of Wrocław Byzantine studies, initiated by George Ostrogorski and Mediterranean archaeology of the Middle Ages, created by Lech Leciejewicz.

[Lien/Link : http://www.arch.pan.wroc.pl/index.php?lang=pl&dzial=artykuly&k=stambulkonstantynopolkucukcekmece_port_docelowy_szlaku_od_waregow_do_grekow]

Nordic Research Network Glasgow 2016

Nordic Research Network Glasgow 2016 — Bridges Between: Norse and Insular Worlds 500-1500

Glasgow, 4 May 2016

PAPER PROPOSAL DEADLINE 15 JANUARY 2016

This interdisciplinary day conference presented by The Nordic Research Network at the University of Glasgow welcomes contributions from postgraduates and early-career researchers to explore the topic of “Bridges Between: Norse and Insular Worlds in the period c. 500 – 1500 A.D.”

The theme of the conference is “Bridges”, and we welcome papers (<20min) which explore the relationships which emphasise connections, interactions, and interfaces within the wider Norse world. This conference hopes to break new ground in discussing how these « bridges » developed over a thousand year period, going beyond the traditional historical boundaries. We also seek contributions which aim to build interdisciplinary bridges between research traditions and academic institutions.

If you are interested in participating, please submit a 200 word abstract and a <50 word bio to glasgow@nordicresearchnetwork.co.uk by January 15th 2016.

Potential topics may include (but are not limited to):

– Norse Archaeology in the Insular region or Insular influences in the Norse-speaking world.

– Linguistic and Onomastic interactions and changes.

– The Scandinavian origins of the Anglo-Saxons.

– The historical influence of the Scandinavians in Britain during the later medieval period.

– Interactions between the Norse and the natural environment.

– Contacts between the Norse and indigenous peoples throughout the North Atlantic.

– Bridging archaeometric analysis with a theoretical framework.

[Link : http://www.nordicresearchnetwork.co.uk/call-for-papers.html]

Stein Samantha, Understanding Torksey, Lincolnshire : a Geoarchaeological and Landscape Approach to a Viking Overwintering Camp

Stein Samantha, Understanding Torksey, Lincolnshire : a Geoarchaeological and Landscape Approach to a Viking Overwintering Camp, Thèse de doctorat soutenue en 2014, (Université de Sheffield)

Résumé/abstract :

Viking overwintering camps of late 9th century England have been excluded from most recent dialogues regarding Viking Age England. Although overwintering camps are directly mentioned in historical records such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, these sites have remained archaeologically elusive. The recent identification of the Viking overwintering camp at Torksey, now under investigation by the Torksey Project, has provided a key opportunity to fill the gap in the current literature about the relation between environment, landscape, and Viking winter camps. This thesis uses geoarchaeological techniques, including palynology, sediment analysis, and optically stimulated luminescence to determine that the location was defined by a waterlogged landscape with aeolian sediments. The landscape evaluation has identified sites within the surrounding area that would have been integral in shaping the physical and political form and long-term effects of the winter camp, including a royal estate, a burhdyke associated with Torksey, an intermittently active canal at the Foss Dyke, and historical documents linking the site with the Mercian royal family. The methods employed during this have produced results that definitively demonstrate that the character of the environment was largely responsible for the Viking’s choice of site for their overwintering at Torksey, and how the early medieval population would have interacted with the environment in the Lower Trent Valley.

[Source : http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/9616/]